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Flashcards in history midterm Deck (147):
1

Who was Abraham?

Abraham was the father of Isaac. Considered the father of all the Hebrews and father of Monotheism

2

Why was Abraham significant?

Abraham was told by God to take his people to Canaan which was the Promised Land.

3

Who was Moses?

Moses lead the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt by parting the Red Sea and allowing them to cross into the promised land.
He also received the 10 commandments from God

4

Which region of the world is Israel located?

Israel is in the Middle East.

5

What is the name of the Jewish Holy Book?

The Jewish Holy Book is the Torah.

6

What is the most holy city in Israel?

Jerusalem

7

What was the Exodus?

the Exodus is when Moses lead the Hebrews out of Egypt and out of slavery. Today it is celebrated as Passover.

8

What is the Diaspora?

The scattering of the Jews that were not exiled to Babylon (then again when Rome conquered Jerusalem)

9

Which Babylonian king created the first written set of laws?

Hammurabi

10

Give an example of one of Hammurabi's laws.

"An eye for an eye"

11

What were the Phonecians known for?

Trade

12

What type of writing did they use in Egypt?

Hieroglyphics

13

What type of writing did they use in Sumer?

Cuneiform

14

What type of writing was used in Phoenecia?

The Phonecian alphabet

15

Where is modern-day Persia located?

Iran

16

What Persian religion involved the gods Ahura Mazda and Ahriman?

Zoratrianism

17

What were Persian governors called?

Satraps

18

Define karma.

Karma-Belief that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences. What goes around comes around.

19

What is darma?

Darma is your path of life or your place in the caste system.

20

What is Brahma?

Brahma is the supreme god in Hindu religion??

21

What is the caste system in Hunduism and Buddism.

It is your place in the wheel of life which determines how many times you will have to be reincarnated before you achieve moksha (hindus) or nirvana (buddhism).

22

What are the two main Hindu holy books?

The two main Hindu holy books are the Vedas and the Upanishads.

23

What is the samsara?

The cycle of reincarnation.

24

Who created Buddhism?

Siddhartha Gautma

25

What are the two main Buddhist sacred texts?

The two main Buddhist sacred texts are the sermon at Sarnath and Tripitaka (the teachings of Buddha )

26

Buddhists believe that suffering is caused by what?

Suffering is caused by desire

27

Who was Asoka and what was his role in the spread of Buddhism?

He was a monarch who converted to Buddhism because he was deeply affected by loss of life and suffering due to war.. He helped to spread Buddhism by constructing huge pillars and inscribing Buddhist teachings throughout his empire. He also sent out Buddhist missionaries throughout India.

28

Where did Buddhism spread to?

Buddhism spread throughout India and to China and other parts of Asia.

29

Some classical China's developments were...

1. flood control, irrigation systems
2. build roads - Silk Road
3. the Great Wall
4. produced cast iron using blast furnaces
5. coined money. ?????

30

What does Confucian philosophy stress?

Confucian philosophy stresses the key to proper behavior was to behave in accordance with the Dao. Concept of Duty and Idea of Humanity.

31

What are the major beliefs of Daoism?

Daoism does not anguish over the underlying meaning of the cosmos. It attempts to set forth proper forms of behavior for human beings on earth. To interpret the will of heaven is not action but inaction. The best way to act in harmony with universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature take it's course.

32

What do the yin and yang represent?

The two primary forces in the universe- good and evil, light and dark, male and female. symbolically represented by the sun and moon.

33

What is Legalism?

Argued that people were evil by nature and would the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments.

34

Who built the Great Wall of China?

The Qin Empire lead by Qin Shi Huangdi.

35

Describe Greek terrain.

The terrain in Greece was rocky, mountainous, surrounded by water on 3 sides.

36

Define polis.

A polis is a Greek city-state.

37

Define dharma

The law governing the concept of karma that regulates human behavior depending on a persons status in society. (Hinduism)

38

Define karma

The actions of an individual during their lifetime which determine their rebirth in the next life. (Hinduism)

39

Define caste system

A set of rigid social classifications that determined occupation, one's status in society and one's hope for ultimate salvation. there were 5 major castes in ancient India - Brahmins were the top. (Hinduism)

40

Define nirvana

Nirvana is the extinction of self hood and a final reunion with r
The Great World Soul; like a dreamless sleep or a "blowing out" like a candle (Siddhartha's concept - Buddhist)

41

Who was Siddhartha Gautama?

Siddhartha was the historical founder of Buddhism. At 29 he discovered the pain of illness and the sorrow of death so he dedicated his life to determining the cause and seeking a cure for suffering. While meditating under a tree, he achieved enlightenment as to the meaning of life (his conclusions became the philosophy of buddhism)

42

Define ziggurat

a massive stepped tower upon which the temple of the chief god or goddess of a city was built

43

Hammurabi

best remembered for his law code; 282 laws that regulated almost every aspect of everyday life. He was leader of mesopotamia from 1792-1750. The principle of retaliation was fundamental to this system "an eye for an eye"

44

cuneiform

wedge-shaped system of writing on clay tablets using a reed stylus. Sumerians developed cuneiform around 3000 bc

45

polytheism

belief in,or worship of, more than one god. (having many gods)

46

aryans

nomadic people; excelled at art of war; came from north and moved south into india. Began an agricultural life, invented the plow and irrigation, developed a writing system.

47

tyranny

in an Ancient Greek city-state (polis) a ruler who came to power in an unconstitutional way and ruled without being subject to the law.

48

filial piety

(Confucianism) importance of virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience and care for one's parents and elderly family members

49

bureaucracy

a system of administration based upon division of labor, hierarchy of authority designed to dispose of a lot of work in a routine manner

50

hellenistic

literally "to imitate the greeks" the era after the death of Alexander the Great when greek culture spread into the near east and blended with the culture of that region.

51

civil service exam

an exam administered to candidates interested in positions in bureaucracy in ancient china under gaozu (handyanasty) selecting officials based on talent became standard practice

52

aristocracy

a class of hereditary nobility; the elite families; in ancientchina. they made war, served as officials and were the primary landowners.

53

oligarchy

rule by a few

54

Mandate of Heaven

chinese rulers claimed a right to rule china as granted by heaven, there can only be one legitimate leader,right to rule is based on the virtue of the leader and his good performance as a steward for heaven. right to rule can be passed from father to son

55

monarchy

supreme power held by a single person

56

polis

greek city-state included both urban area and surrounding countryside; small political unit where all major political and social activities were carried out in a central location

57

legaism

legalists argued that human beings were by nature evil and would follow the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments. They believed that only fir action by the state could bring about social order.

58

Confucianism

the belief that the key to proper behavior was the behave in accordance with the dao (way) confucius believed all human beings had their own dao and it was their duty to follow it. similar to dharma in ancient india. two key elements: concept of duty- subordinate own interests to the broader needs of the community and family. concept of "human heartedness"- a sense of compassion and empathy for others. symbolizes tolerance.

59

Daoism

founded by lao tzu (old master) believers don't anguish over the underlying meaning of the cosmos rather it sets for proper forms of behavior for humans here on earth. the true way to interpret the will of heaven is not action but inaction (wu wei) the best way to act in harmony with the universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature take its course

60

Laozi

chinese philosopher aka (lao tzu)
Father of Taoism

61

Qin Shihuangdi

first emperor of qin. considered ruthless, created first unified chinese state, ordered construction of roads throughout the country standardized currency and written language, brought together defensive battlements into the Great Wall of china. one of the most influential figures in chinese history.

62

Herroditus

author of the history of the persian wars.
-first real history in western civilization
-first use of word "history"
-he depended on oral histories and traveled exensively

63

Thucydides

a much better historian
-considered greatest historian of ancient world.general in peloponnesian war, exiled after. wrote history of peloponnesean war
-saw war as activities of human beings. thought human nature was constant. felt it was useful to study history because political situations reoccur (history repeats itself)

64

Socrates

left no writings but we know him through pupils plato and aristotle
-believed goal of education was to improve the individual
developed "socratic method" of teaching- utilizes a question/answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason. he thought all real knowledge is within each person; only critical examination was needed to call it forth. questioned authority and it got him in trouble. sentenced to death

65

Plato

student of Socrates; considered greatest philosopher in western civilization
-wrote a lot
-fascinated with question of reality
-he thought a world of eternal, unchanging ideas or forms always existed
to know these forms was to know truth.
only a trained mind could apprehend the idea forms- which is the goal of philosophy.
what we see with our senses are reflections of real forms
reality is the form itself
wrote the republic in which he constructed an ideal state where population was divided into groups (3) 1. upper class, ruling elite, philosopher-kings (wisdom) 2. (courage) warriors who protected society 3. (desire) the masses, artisan, producers of society, tradespeople, farmers.
established the academy where aristotle studied for 20 years

66

Aristotle

plato's student; tutored Alexander the Great
wrote politics- where he organized general categories for governments. identified 3 good forms of government. monarchy, aristocracy and favored constitutional government
his interest lay in analyzing and classifying things based on research and investigation

67

Who said "If a man puts out the eye of a free man, they shall put out his eye."

Hammurabi

68

Who were the "children of Israel"?

The Hebrews

69

Who called himself "King of All, Great King, Mighty King, King of Babylon, King of Land of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Rims, the Son of Cambyses the Great King, and King of Anshan"?

Cyrus

70

Who said "What was said to them by me, night and day it was done."?

Darius

71

Who said "There is more joy in doing one's own duty badly than in doing another mans duty well."?

Krishna

72

Who said "Pleasure is brief as a flash of lightening or like an autumn shower, only for a moment...Why should I then covet the pleasures you speak of......?"

Siddhartha

73

Who said "Do not do unto others what you would not wish done to yourself."?

Confucius

74

Who said "if a son strikes his father, they shall cut off his forehand."?

Hammurabi

75

Who said "Silence is the source of great strength"?

Lao Tzu

76

Who said " The master said, by nature, men are nearly alike; by practice they get to be wide apart."?

Confucius

77

Who constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people..."?

Pericles

78

Who referred to the "wrath of Achilles"?

Homer

79

Who said "we must regard every citizen as belonging to the state."

Aristotle

80

Who said "Anticipate the difficult by managing the easy."

Lao Tzu

81

Who said "When I let go of what I am I become what I might be."

Lao Tzu

82

Who said "The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."

Laozi

83

Who said "Shall I tell you what knowledge is. It is both what one knows and does not know."

Confucius

84

Who said "True mastery can be gained by letting things go their own way. It can't be gained by interfering."

Lao Tzu Daoist

85

Who said "Clever talk and a domineering manner have little to do with a man at his best."

Confucius

86

Who said "Seeing into darkness is clarity. Knowing how to yield is strength."

Lao Tzu Daoist

87

Who said "Heaven does nothing. Its non doing is its serenity. Earth does nothing: it's non doing is its rest."

Chuang Tzu a Daoist

88

Who said "Look at the means which a man employs, consider his motives: observe his pleasures. A man cannot simply conceal himself."

Confucius

89

Who said "To take note of things in silence, to retain curiosity despite much study, never to weary of teaching others: no one surpasses me in these three things."

Confucius???

90

Who said "While parents live, serve them according to the rites. When they die, bury them according to the rites and make offerings to them according to the rites."

Confucius

91

Who said "Clouds in the sky come together. Clouds in the sky separate. Life is like that. Who can stop us from celebrating."

Daoism???

92

What continent did the earliest humans come from?

Africa

93

What did hunter gatherers need in order to survive?

Animals and plants

94

Did the early man create the wheel and plow in the Old or New Stone Age?

New Stone Age

95

What marked the beginning of the New Stone Age?

Agricultural revolution

96

How do archaeologists date ancient fossils and artifacts?

They use carbon dating

97

What mysterious archaeological site is a tourist attraction in England and is made up of large rocks in a circle?

Stonehenge

98

What are the main rivers of Egypt, Sumer, China and India?

Egypt - Nile
Sumer -Tigris and Euphrates
China - Huang ye and Yellow Rivers
India - Ganges and Indus Rivers

99

What are two nicknames for Mesopotamia?

Land between two rivers, cradle of civilization, Fertile Crescent???

100

What were Harrapans or ancient Indians known for in terms of achievements?

A city grid system, sculpture (fired clay tiles), plumbing and trading system??

101

Who were the Indians invaded by?

Aryans

102

What social system did these invaders establish to control the "dasas" or dark skinned people?

The caste system

103

Define monotheism and polytheism.

Monotheism-belief/worship of one god
Polytheism - belief/worship of many gods

104

Who were the first monotheists in the world?

The Hebrews

105

In which region of the world is Israel located?

Israel is in the Middle East

106

What is the Jewish holy book?

The Torah is the Jewish holy book.

107

What is the most holy city in Israel?

Jerusalem is the holiest city in Israel

108

What Spartan colony helped the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War and was located in Italy?

Sicily?
Syracuse?

109

Describe Greek religion.

Polytheistic; 12 gods; gods lived on Mt Olympus

110

Why were Greek myths created?

Myths were created to explain the changing seasons and mysteries of nature

111

Identify these gods/goddesses: Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Athena

Zeus-chief deity and father of the gods
Hera-Zeus' wife, goddess of marriage and birth, queen of gods
Apollo-god of sun and poetry
Artemis-apollos twin sister, goddess of wilderness, hunt, fertility
Aphrodite- goddess of love
Athena-goddess of wisdom and crafts

112

Who led Athens during the Golden Age of Greece?

Pericles

113

What is the name of the structure that housed the statue of Athena and is housed on the Acropolis ?

The Parthenon

114

What was Athens most well known for?

Democracy??

115

Who was Aeschylus ?

Aeschylus was the first Greek tragedy writer.

116

Who was Homer?

Homer was author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, a Greek poet

117

Who was Sophocles ?

Greek tragedy writer, he wrote Oedipus the King

118

Who was Herodotus ?

Herodotus was first Greek historian, wrote History of the Persian Wars

119

Who was Thucydides ?

Thucydides was considered the greatest Greek historian, general in peloponnesian war, wrote History of the Peloponnesian War

120

Who was Phidias?

Greek sculptor of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon and Zeus at Olympia

121

Who was Hippocrates ?

Father of medicine/medical ethics

122

Who was Euclid?

Mathematician who wrote The Elements, father of geometry

123

Who was Pythagoras ?

He was a mathematician famous for the theorem a2+b2=c2 (Pythagorean theorem )

124

Who was Plato?

Plato was a student of Socrates, considered to be the greatest philosopher, fascinated with reality and Forms, wrote Republic

125

Who was Aristotle?

Aristotle was student of Plato, philosopher, went to plato's Academy, wrote Politics

126

Who was Socrates?

Socrates was the first philosopher, thought the unexamined life was meaningless, came up with a question answer teaching method now called the Socratic method

127

Who was Draco?

Draco was the first legislator of Athens, considered a very harsh lawgiver. Favored death penalty for any crime

128

Who was Solon?

Athenian lawmaker, appointed sole archon in Athens, laid foundation for democracy.

129

What was Sparta most well known for?

War (their military prowess)

130

What happened in Greece between Sparta and Athens during the Persian wars?

They united briefly

131

What started the Persian wars?

Darius of Persia was seeking revenge for the burning of his city

132

Who allied together to fight the Persians

Sparta and Athens

133

What caused the Peloponnesian War?

Fear of Athens growing power and rivalry with Sparta

134

Who won the Peloponnesian war and why?

Sparta won after a plague struck Athens killing many including Pericles

135

Who invaded Greece after the Peloponnesian war?

Macedonia

136

Who was Pericles?

He led Athens during the Golden Age of Greece

137

What does Hellenistic mean?

Imitate the Greeks , period of time after the death of Alexander the Great

138

Where was Alexander the Great from?

Macedonia?

139

Who was Alexander the Greats father?

Philip II of Macedonia

140

What was Alexander's ultimate goal in life?

To conquer as many countries as possible?
To unite Greeks and Persians?
Rule everything?

141

What steps did Alexander take to unify Greece and Persia?

Started wars?

142

How Far East did Alexander make it until he died

Babylon

143

How did Alexander the Great die?

Excessive alcohol consumption

144

Where is the prime meridian?

Down the center of the globe longitudinally

145

Where is the equator?

Across the middle of the earth latitudinally

146

What are legend, compass rose, title and scale on a map?

The legend is the key, the compass rose is the NSEW directions, title is what the map is of/called, scale is the map size in relation to the place in real life

147

Name the seven continents

North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, Antarctica