Flashcards in history midterm Deck (147):
Who was Abraham?
Abraham was the father of Isaac. Considered the father of all the Hebrews and father of Monotheism
Why was Abraham significant?
Abraham was told by God to take his people to Canaan which was the Promised Land.
Who was Moses?
Moses lead the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt by parting the Red Sea and allowing them to cross into the promised land.
He also received the 10 commandments from God
Which region of the world is Israel located?
Israel is in the Middle East.
What is the name of the Jewish Holy Book?
The Jewish Holy Book is the Torah.
What is the most holy city in Israel?
What was the Exodus?
the Exodus is when Moses lead the Hebrews out of Egypt and out of slavery. Today it is celebrated as Passover.
What is the Diaspora?
The scattering of the Jews that were not exiled to Babylon (then again when Rome conquered Jerusalem)
Which Babylonian king created the first written set of laws?
Give an example of one of Hammurabi's laws.
"An eye for an eye"
What were the Phonecians known for?
What type of writing did they use in Egypt?
What type of writing did they use in Sumer?
What type of writing was used in Phoenecia?
The Phonecian alphabet
Where is modern-day Persia located?
What Persian religion involved the gods Ahura Mazda and Ahriman?
What were Persian governors called?
Karma-Belief that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences. What goes around comes around.
What is darma?
Darma is your path of life or your place in the caste system.
What is Brahma?
Brahma is the supreme god in Hindu religion??
What is the caste system in Hunduism and Buddism.
It is your place in the wheel of life which determines how many times you will have to be reincarnated before you achieve moksha (hindus) or nirvana (buddhism).
What are the two main Hindu holy books?
The two main Hindu holy books are the Vedas and the Upanishads.
What is the samsara?
The cycle of reincarnation.
Who created Buddhism?
What are the two main Buddhist sacred texts?
The two main Buddhist sacred texts are the sermon at Sarnath and Tripitaka (the teachings of Buddha )
Buddhists believe that suffering is caused by what?
Suffering is caused by desire
Who was Asoka and what was his role in the spread of Buddhism?
He was a monarch who converted to Buddhism because he was deeply affected by loss of life and suffering due to war.. He helped to spread Buddhism by constructing huge pillars and inscribing Buddhist teachings throughout his empire. He also sent out Buddhist missionaries throughout India.
Where did Buddhism spread to?
Buddhism spread throughout India and to China and other parts of Asia.
Some classical China's developments were...
1. flood control, irrigation systems
2. build roads - Silk Road
3. the Great Wall
4. produced cast iron using blast furnaces
5. coined money. ?????
What does Confucian philosophy stress?
Confucian philosophy stresses the key to proper behavior was to behave in accordance with the Dao. Concept of Duty and Idea of Humanity.
What are the major beliefs of Daoism?
Daoism does not anguish over the underlying meaning of the cosmos. It attempts to set forth proper forms of behavior for human beings on earth. To interpret the will of heaven is not action but inaction. The best way to act in harmony with universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature take it's course.
What do the yin and yang represent?
The two primary forces in the universe- good and evil, light and dark, male and female. symbolically represented by the sun and moon.
What is Legalism?
Argued that people were evil by nature and would the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments.
Who built the Great Wall of China?
The Qin Empire lead by Qin Shi Huangdi.
Describe Greek terrain.
The terrain in Greece was rocky, mountainous, surrounded by water on 3 sides.
A polis is a Greek city-state.
The law governing the concept of karma that regulates human behavior depending on a persons status in society. (Hinduism)
The actions of an individual during their lifetime which determine their rebirth in the next life. (Hinduism)
Define caste system
A set of rigid social classifications that determined occupation, one's status in society and one's hope for ultimate salvation. there were 5 major castes in ancient India - Brahmins were the top. (Hinduism)
Nirvana is the extinction of self hood and a final reunion with r
The Great World Soul; like a dreamless sleep or a "blowing out" like a candle (Siddhartha's concept - Buddhist)
Who was Siddhartha Gautama?
Siddhartha was the historical founder of Buddhism. At 29 he discovered the pain of illness and the sorrow of death so he dedicated his life to determining the cause and seeking a cure for suffering. While meditating under a tree, he achieved enlightenment as to the meaning of life (his conclusions became the philosophy of buddhism)
a massive stepped tower upon which the temple of the chief god or goddess of a city was built
best remembered for his law code; 282 laws that regulated almost every aspect of everyday life. He was leader of mesopotamia from 1792-1750. The principle of retaliation was fundamental to this system "an eye for an eye"
wedge-shaped system of writing on clay tablets using a reed stylus. Sumerians developed cuneiform around 3000 bc
belief in,or worship of, more than one god. (having many gods)
nomadic people; excelled at art of war; came from north and moved south into india. Began an agricultural life, invented the plow and irrigation, developed a writing system.
in an Ancient Greek city-state (polis) a ruler who came to power in an unconstitutional way and ruled without being subject to the law.
(Confucianism) importance of virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience and care for one's parents and elderly family members
a system of administration based upon division of labor, hierarchy of authority designed to dispose of a lot of work in a routine manner
literally "to imitate the greeks" the era after the death of Alexander the Great when greek culture spread into the near east and blended with the culture of that region.
civil service exam
an exam administered to candidates interested in positions in bureaucracy in ancient china under gaozu (handyanasty) selecting officials based on talent became standard practice
a class of hereditary nobility; the elite families; in ancientchina. they made war, served as officials and were the primary landowners.
rule by a few
Mandate of Heaven
chinese rulers claimed a right to rule china as granted by heaven, there can only be one legitimate leader,right to rule is based on the virtue of the leader and his good performance as a steward for heaven. right to rule can be passed from father to son
supreme power held by a single person
greek city-state included both urban area and surrounding countryside; small political unit where all major political and social activities were carried out in a central location
legalists argued that human beings were by nature evil and would follow the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments. They believed that only fir action by the state could bring about social order.
the belief that the key to proper behavior was the behave in accordance with the dao (way) confucius believed all human beings had their own dao and it was their duty to follow it. similar to dharma in ancient india. two key elements: concept of duty- subordinate own interests to the broader needs of the community and family. concept of "human heartedness"- a sense of compassion and empathy for others. symbolizes tolerance.
founded by lao tzu (old master) believers don't anguish over the underlying meaning of the cosmos rather it sets for proper forms of behavior for humans here on earth. the true way to interpret the will of heaven is not action but inaction (wu wei) the best way to act in harmony with the universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature take its course
chinese philosopher aka (lao tzu)
Father of Taoism
first emperor of qin. considered ruthless, created first unified chinese state, ordered construction of roads throughout the country standardized currency and written language, brought together defensive battlements into the Great Wall of china. one of the most influential figures in chinese history.
author of the history of the persian wars.
-first real history in western civilization
-first use of word "history"
-he depended on oral histories and traveled exensively
a much better historian
-considered greatest historian of ancient world.general in peloponnesian war, exiled after. wrote history of peloponnesean war
-saw war as activities of human beings. thought human nature was constant. felt it was useful to study history because political situations reoccur (history repeats itself)
left no writings but we know him through pupils plato and aristotle
-believed goal of education was to improve the individual
developed "socratic method" of teaching- utilizes a question/answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason. he thought all real knowledge is within each person; only critical examination was needed to call it forth. questioned authority and it got him in trouble. sentenced to death
student of Socrates; considered greatest philosopher in western civilization
-wrote a lot
-fascinated with question of reality
-he thought a world of eternal, unchanging ideas or forms always existed
to know these forms was to know truth.
only a trained mind could apprehend the idea forms- which is the goal of philosophy.
what we see with our senses are reflections of real forms
reality is the form itself
wrote the republic in which he constructed an ideal state where population was divided into groups (3) 1. upper class, ruling elite, philosopher-kings (wisdom) 2. (courage) warriors who protected society 3. (desire) the masses, artisan, producers of society, tradespeople, farmers.
established the academy where aristotle studied for 20 years
plato's student; tutored Alexander the Great
wrote politics- where he organized general categories for governments. identified 3 good forms of government. monarchy, aristocracy and favored constitutional government
his interest lay in analyzing and classifying things based on research and investigation
Who said "If a man puts out the eye of a free man, they shall put out his eye."
Who were the "children of Israel"?
Who called himself "King of All, Great King, Mighty King, King of Babylon, King of Land of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Rims, the Son of Cambyses the Great King, and King of Anshan"?
Who said "What was said to them by me, night and day it was done."?
Who said "There is more joy in doing one's own duty badly than in doing another mans duty well."?
Who said "Pleasure is brief as a flash of lightening or like an autumn shower, only for a moment...Why should I then covet the pleasures you speak of......?"
Who said "Do not do unto others what you would not wish done to yourself."?
Who said "if a son strikes his father, they shall cut off his forehand."?
Who said "Silence is the source of great strength"?
Who said " The master said, by nature, men are nearly alike; by practice they get to be wide apart."?
Who constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people..."?
Who referred to the "wrath of Achilles"?
Who said "we must regard every citizen as belonging to the state."
Who said "Anticipate the difficult by managing the easy."
Who said "When I let go of what I am I become what I might be."
Who said "The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."
Who said "Shall I tell you what knowledge is. It is both what one knows and does not know."
Who said "True mastery can be gained by letting things go their own way. It can't be gained by interfering."
Lao Tzu Daoist
Who said "Clever talk and a domineering manner have little to do with a man at his best."
Who said "Seeing into darkness is clarity. Knowing how to yield is strength."
Lao Tzu Daoist
Who said "Heaven does nothing. Its non doing is its serenity. Earth does nothing: it's non doing is its rest."
Chuang Tzu a Daoist
Who said "Look at the means which a man employs, consider his motives: observe his pleasures. A man cannot simply conceal himself."
Who said "To take note of things in silence, to retain curiosity despite much study, never to weary of teaching others: no one surpasses me in these three things."
Who said "While parents live, serve them according to the rites. When they die, bury them according to the rites and make offerings to them according to the rites."
Who said "Clouds in the sky come together. Clouds in the sky separate. Life is like that. Who can stop us from celebrating."
What continent did the earliest humans come from?
What did hunter gatherers need in order to survive?
Animals and plants
Did the early man create the wheel and plow in the Old or New Stone Age?
New Stone Age
What marked the beginning of the New Stone Age?
How do archaeologists date ancient fossils and artifacts?
They use carbon dating
What mysterious archaeological site is a tourist attraction in England and is made up of large rocks in a circle?
What are the main rivers of Egypt, Sumer, China and India?
Egypt - Nile
Sumer -Tigris and Euphrates
China - Huang ye and Yellow Rivers
India - Ganges and Indus Rivers
What are two nicknames for Mesopotamia?
Land between two rivers, cradle of civilization, Fertile Crescent???
What were Harrapans or ancient Indians known for in terms of achievements?
A city grid system, sculpture (fired clay tiles), plumbing and trading system??
Who were the Indians invaded by?
What social system did these invaders establish to control the "dasas" or dark skinned people?
The caste system
Define monotheism and polytheism.
Monotheism-belief/worship of one god
Polytheism - belief/worship of many gods
Who were the first monotheists in the world?
In which region of the world is Israel located?
Israel is in the Middle East
What is the Jewish holy book?
The Torah is the Jewish holy book.
What is the most holy city in Israel?
Jerusalem is the holiest city in Israel
What Spartan colony helped the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War and was located in Italy?
Describe Greek religion.
Polytheistic; 12 gods; gods lived on Mt Olympus
Why were Greek myths created?
Myths were created to explain the changing seasons and mysteries of nature
Identify these gods/goddesses: Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Athena
Zeus-chief deity and father of the gods
Hera-Zeus' wife, goddess of marriage and birth, queen of gods
Apollo-god of sun and poetry
Artemis-apollos twin sister, goddess of wilderness, hunt, fertility
Aphrodite- goddess of love
Athena-goddess of wisdom and crafts
Who led Athens during the Golden Age of Greece?
What is the name of the structure that housed the statue of Athena and is housed on the Acropolis ?
What was Athens most well known for?
Who was Aeschylus ?
Aeschylus was the first Greek tragedy writer.
Who was Homer?
Homer was author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, a Greek poet
Who was Sophocles ?
Greek tragedy writer, he wrote Oedipus the King
Who was Herodotus ?
Herodotus was first Greek historian, wrote History of the Persian Wars
Who was Thucydides ?
Thucydides was considered the greatest Greek historian, general in peloponnesian war, wrote History of the Peloponnesian War
Who was Phidias?
Greek sculptor of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon and Zeus at Olympia
Who was Hippocrates ?
Father of medicine/medical ethics
Who was Euclid?
Mathematician who wrote The Elements, father of geometry
Who was Pythagoras ?
He was a mathematician famous for the theorem a2+b2=c2 (Pythagorean theorem )
Who was Plato?
Plato was a student of Socrates, considered to be the greatest philosopher, fascinated with reality and Forms, wrote Republic
Who was Aristotle?
Aristotle was student of Plato, philosopher, went to plato's Academy, wrote Politics
Who was Socrates?
Socrates was the first philosopher, thought the unexamined life was meaningless, came up with a question answer teaching method now called the Socratic method
Who was Draco?
Draco was the first legislator of Athens, considered a very harsh lawgiver. Favored death penalty for any crime
Who was Solon?
Athenian lawmaker, appointed sole archon in Athens, laid foundation for democracy.
What was Sparta most well known for?
War (their military prowess)
What happened in Greece between Sparta and Athens during the Persian wars?
They united briefly
What started the Persian wars?
Darius of Persia was seeking revenge for the burning of his city
Who allied together to fight the Persians
Sparta and Athens
What caused the Peloponnesian War?
Fear of Athens growing power and rivalry with Sparta
Who won the Peloponnesian war and why?
Sparta won after a plague struck Athens killing many including Pericles
Who invaded Greece after the Peloponnesian war?
Who was Pericles?
He led Athens during the Golden Age of Greece
What does Hellenistic mean?
Imitate the Greeks , period of time after the death of Alexander the Great
Where was Alexander the Great from?
Who was Alexander the Greats father?
Philip II of Macedonia
What was Alexander's ultimate goal in life?
To conquer as many countries as possible?
To unite Greeks and Persians?
What steps did Alexander take to unify Greece and Persia?
How Far East did Alexander make it until he died
How did Alexander the Great die?
Excessive alcohol consumption
Where is the prime meridian?
Down the center of the globe longitudinally
Where is the equator?
Across the middle of the earth latitudinally
What are legend, compass rose, title and scale on a map?
The legend is the key, the compass rose is the NSEW directions, title is what the map is of/called, scale is the map size in relation to the place in real life