Weathering and Soil Flashcards Preview

freshmen year > Weathering and Soil > Flashcards

Flashcards in Weathering and Soil Deck (28):
1

What is weathering?

the break up of rock due to exposure to process at or near the earth's surface

2

What are the two types of weathering?

mechanicAL and chemical

3

How do mechanical and chemical weathering differ?

mechanical-breaks without any change in composition
Chemical-minerals are changed into new mineral

4

What are the 4 ways that mechanical weathering occurs?

Ice and water-frost wedging
Abrasion-the wearing away of rock material by grinding action
Plants and animals- roots and claws digging
upward expansion- exfoliation

5

What are the 3 ways that chemical weathering occurs?

water- hydrolysis
oxygen-oxidation
acid-acid rain

6

What kind of soil formed in the place where it was found. It matches the bedrock underneath it

Residual

7

What soil was moved to a new area by erosion. it does not match the bedrock beneath it

transported

8

What is a soil profile?

a cross section of the soil from the surface down

9

In what order to the horizons form?

D
C
B
A

10

What is the A Horizion?

Top soil
Gray to black
Contains humus-decaying organisms

11

What is the B Horizon?

Subsoil
Red brown
clay and other minerals leach (wash) down from above

12

What is the C Horizon?

Partly weathered bredrock

13

What is D Bedrock?

Parent material

14

What factors determine how fast weathering will occur?

Surface area
composition
climate

15

What three factors determine how fast weathering will occur?

Surface area
composition
climate

16

What three factors determine the composition of soil?

Climate
plants and animals
parent material

17

What forms in areas of little or no rainfall, generally sandy

desert soil

18

What kind of soil forms in areas with enough rain to support grass; fertile for farming

grassland

19

What type of soil forms in very wet, warm regions. Soil profiles are deep

tropical

20

What type of soil forms in cold climates. Slow weathering results in shallow profiles

arctic

21

What type of soil forms in areas with enough rainfall to support heavy tree growth

forest

22

What is found in Sterling areas?

Clay

23

For farms to be productive they must practice what to reduce soil erosion?

crop rotation

24

Planting trees along the edge of a field to reduce wind erosion creates a what?

windbreak

25

What is when farmers plow their fields perpendicular to the slope?

contour farming

26

Flattening a slop into ________ is used in cultivating rice

terraces

27

When farmers plant 2 different crops in one field to cover up bare soil, it is called _________

strip cropping

28

When all plowing, fertilizing, planting, and weeding is done at one time, a farmer is practicing the ________ method

no till