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Flashcards in 378-382 Deck (77):
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Who was Petrarch?

called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism

1

Who threatened Florence's library?

Giangaleazzo Visconti

2

Who wrote New Cicero?

Leonardo Bruni

3

Who taught in Florence from 1396 to 1400?

Manuel Chrysoloras

4

Who commissioned a translation of Plato's dialogues by Marsilio Ficino?

Cosimo de' Medici

5

What did Marsilio Ficino dedicate his life to?

the translation of PLato and the exposition of the Platonic philosophy known as Neoplatonism

6

What was the manuscript that Marsilio Ficino translated into Latin?

Corpus Hermeticum

7

Who was Ficino's pupil?

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

8

What did Pico produce?

Oration on the Dignity of Man

9

What was Dante's masterpiece?

The Divine Comedy

10

What does "Inferno" represent symbolically?

despair

11

What does "Purgatory" represent?

hope

12

In Paradise, who is Dante guided by?

Saint Bernard

13

What does Saint Bernard symbolize?

mystical contemplation

14

What does paradise reflect?

perfection or salvation

15

Who was one of the extraordinary vernacular writers of the age?

Christine de Pizan

16

Who was Christine de Pizan's father?

Charles V

17

When did her husband die?

when she was 25

18

How long were the married?

10 years

19

What was one book she wrote?

The Book of the City of Ladies

20

What was the significance ofJohannes Gutenberg's bible?

it was the first real book produced from movable type

21

What were two characteristics of the italian renaissance?

individualism and secularism

22

Where were individualism and secularism most noticible?

in the intellectual and artistic realms of italian culture

23

What was the most important literary movement associated with the renaissance?

humanism

24

What was renaissance humanism?

it was an intellectual movement based on the study of the classics (literary works of Greece and Rome) humanists studied the liberal arts which were all based on the study of Ancient Greek and roman authors (these subjects are what we call the humanities)

25

Who was called the father of Italian renaissance humanism?

Petrarch

26

Who was the first intellectual to characterize the Middle Ages as a period of darkness?

petrarch

27

Petrarch's interest in the classics led him on a search for what?

forgotten latin manuscripts

28

Petrarch's search for latin manuscripts set in motion what?

it set in motion a ransacking of monastic libraries throughout Europe

29

Petrarch's emphasis on pure Classical Latin made what fashionable?

it made it fashionable for humanists to use cicero as a model for prose and Virgil as a model for poetry

30

Who was the milanese tyrant who threatened the liberty of the city of Florence

Giangaleazzo Visconti

31

Who was the classical roman statesmen and intellectual who became the model for humanists

Cicero

32

Who was a florentine patriot, humanist, chancellor of the city, and wrote a biography of cicero?

Leonardo Bruni

33

What was the title of Bruni's biography of Cicero?

New Cicero

34

Who served as the inspiration for the renaissance ideal that one must live an active life for ones state and everything including riches must be considered good if it increases ones power of action?

Cicero

35

What did civic humanism reflect?

civic humanism reflected the values of the urban society of the Italian renaissance it intensified involvement of humanist intellectuals in the government

36

WHo was one of the first italian humanists to gain thorough knowledge of greek?

Leonardo Bruni

37

Who was Bruni a pupil of?

the byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysolaras

38

The second half of the 15th century saw a dramatic upsurge of interest in the works of who?

Plato

39

Who was the de facto ruler of Florence who commissioned a translation of Plato's dialogues ?

Cosimo de Medici

40

Who did he commission to translate Plato's works?

Marsilio Ficino

41

Who dedicated his life to the translation of Plato and the platonic phillosophy known as nioplatonism

Marsilio Ficino

42

What two ideas in neoplatonism based on

it was based on the neoplatonic hierarchy of substances
theory of spiritual love

43

What is neoplatonic hierarchy of substances mean?

great chain of being from lowest form of physical matter (plants) to the purest spirit (God) and humans occupy the middle position
humans were the link the material world and the spiritual world

44

What was the highest duty of humans according to the Platonic hierarchy of substances?

their duty was the apprehend higher things and ascend toward union with God that was the true end of human existence

45

What did Ficino's theory of spiritual (or Platonic) love maintain?

it maintained that just as all people are bound together in their common humanity by love so too are all parts of the universe are held together by bonds of sympathetic love

46

What was another product of the Florentine intellectual environment?

renaissance Hermeticism

47

What else did Ficino translate?

he translated a greek manuscript into Latin entitled Corpus Hermeticum

48

What two kinds of writings did Corpus Hermeticum contain?

One type stressed the occult sciences (astrology, alchemy, and magic) the other focused on theological and philosophical beliefs and speculations

49

Who was the most prominent Magi in italy?

Ficino and his friend and pupil Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

50

What is Pico's most famous writing?

the oration on the dignity of man

51

What did the Oration say?

it offered a ringing statement of unlimited human potential

52

What did Pico consider magic to be?

he accepted it as the science of the divine

53

How did the humanist movement have an effect on education?

renaissance humanists believed that human beings could be dramatically changed by education, they wrote treaties on education and open schools based on their ideas (liberal studies)

54

What did humanists believe that liberal studies were the key to?

they thought it was a key to true freedom enabling individuals to reach their full potential

55

What were considered liberal studies 9liberal arts)

according to humanists they included history, moral philosophy, and rhetoric, and letters (grammar and logic) poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music

56

According to humanists, what was the purpose of a liberal education?

the purpose of a liberal education was to produce individuals who followed a path of virtue and wisdom and possessed the rhetorical by which they could persuade others to take it they also stressd physical education

57

What were some physical education skills pupils were taught?

javelin throwing, archery, dancing, running, wrestling, hunting, and swimming

58

What was the purpose of humanist schools?

their purpose was to educate and elite the ruling classes of their communities

59

What does vernacular mean?

the language spoken in ones own region

60

Works of whom helped make vernacular language more popular

dante and Christine de Pizan

61

Who came from an old florentine noble family that had fallen on hard times?

dante

62

What was dante's masterpiece (written in Italian vernacular)

the divine comedy

63

What is the divine comedy about?

its the story of the sole's progression to salvation, its a lengthily poem divided into three sections

64

What do the three major sections of the divine comedy correspond to and what are they called?

they correspond to the realms of the afterworld,
hell purgatory, heaven/paradise
hell= inferno
purgatory= purgatory
heaven= paradise

65

What is Dante's inferno about?

in inferno, Dante is led on an imaginary journey through hell, by his guide, who is the classical author, Virgil
Symbolically, inferno reflects despair

66

WHat does the second stage, purgatory, reflect?

hope

67

What does Paradises represent?

it reflects perfection or salvation

68

What is Christine de Pizan best known for?

her french prose works written in defense of women called
the book of the city of ladies

69

What was one of the most important technological innovations of civilization during the period of the renaissance

the development of printing

70

WHo developed printing from moveable metal type?

it was a gradual process that culminated when Johannes Gutenberg completed the process

71

What is the first real book produced from moveable type?

Gutenberg's bible

72

What was especially well known as a printing center?

Venice

73

What was the most popular subject matter for books?

books religious in character

74

What was second in importance in subject matter in books?

latin and greek classics, medieval grammar, legal handbooks, works in philosophy, and a growing number of popular romances

75

What was one of the largest industries in Europe during the renaissance?

printing

76

Name 5 benefits of printing

encouraged the development of scholarly research
facilitated cooperation among scholars
encouraged the desire to obtain knowledge
helped produce standardized texts
stimulated the rise of expanding lay reading public