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Flashcards in Rome-150-155 Deck (73):
1

Where did gladiatorial shows take place?

amphitheaters

2

What was the most famous amphitheater?

Flavian

3

What was the Flavian amphitheater called?

Colosseum

4

HOw many people did the Colosseum seat?

50,000 spectators

5

When were gladiatorial games held?

from dawn to dusk

6

What was the central focus of these games?

contests to the death between trained fighters

7

Who were most gladiators?

slaves or condemned criminals, although some free men lured by the hope of popularity and patronage by wealthy fans participated voluntarily

8

Where were they trained for combat?

special gladiatorial schools

9

What were some other form of entertainment in gladiatorial games?

criminals of all ages and both sexes were sent into the arena without weapons to face certain death from wild animals who would tear them to pieces

10

What kind of animal contests were staged?

wild beasts against each other such as bears against buffalo
staged hunts with men shooting safely from behind iron bars
gladiators in the arena with bulls, tigers, and lions

11

How many beasts were killed in one day of games when the emperor titus inaugurated the colosseum?

5 thousand

12

Who had taken a number of steps to revive the Roman state religion, which had declined during the turmoil of the late Republic?

Augustus

13

What did the official state religion focus on?

worship of a pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses

14

Who was Juno?

patron goddess of women

15

Who was Minerva?

goddess of artisans

16

Who was Mars?

the god of war

17

WHo was Jupiter Optimus Maximus?

patron deity of Rome

18

What happened after augustus?

any dead emperors deified by the Roman senate were added to the official imperial cult

19

WHo was responsible for ensuring proper fulfillment of relgious obligations?

paterfamilias

20

What were the Jewish people granted in Hellenistic times?

considerable independence by their Seleucid rulers

21

What was Judaea?

embraced the lands of the old Hebrew kingdom of Judah
had been made a province and placed under the direction of a Roman procurator

22

What did the Sadducees favor?

cooperation with the Romans

23

Who wanted Judaea to be free from Roman control, but did not advocate violent means to achieve this goal?

The Pharisees

24

What did the Essenes do?

constituted a Jewish sect that lived in a religious community near the Dead Sea

25

What are the Dead Sea scrolls?

a collection of documents first discovered in 1947

26

WHo would save Israel from oppression?

a Messiah

27

Who were the Zealots?

militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule

28

When did Jesus of Nazareth begin his public preaching?

in the midst of the confusion and conflict in Judaea

29

Where did Jesus grow up?

Galilee

30

What was Galilee?

an important center of the militant Zealots

31

What was important according to Jesus?

what was important was not strict adherence to the letter of the law and attention to rules and prohibitions, but the transformation of the inner person

32

What was God's command?

to love God and one another

33

Where did Jesus present the ethical concepts that would form the basis for the value system of medieval western civilization?

In the Sermon on the Mount

34

What were the ethical concepts?

humility, charity, and brotherly love

35

Who ordered Jesus' crucification?

Pontius pilate

36

What was Jesus hailed as?

the "anointed one"

37

What was the anointed one in greek?

Christos

38

Who founded the Christian church?

Peter, one of Jesus' disciples

39

WHat did Paul of Tarsus do?

reached out to non-Jews and transformed Christianity from a Jewish sect into a world religion

40

Who was called the "second founder of Christianity"

Paul

41

Who did Paul believe that the message of Jesus should be preached to?

not only to Jews but to Gentiles as well

42

Who were Gentiles?

non Jews

43

What was Paul responsible for?

founding Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean

44

Who provided a universal foundation for the spread of Jesus' ideas?

Paul

45

What did Paul teach?

that Jesus was a savior-god, the son of God, who had come to earth to save all humans, who were basically sinners as a result of Adam's original sin of disobedience against God

46

What had Jesus done by his death?

Jesus had atoned for the sins of all humans and made possible a new beginning for all men and women, with the potential for individual salvation

47

If you accepted Jesus as your savior what would happen to you?

you would be saved

48

Who wrote a series of letters or epistles outlining Christian beliefs for different Christian communities?

Paul

49

What might some of Jesus' disciples have done?

preserved some of the master in writing and would have passed on personal memories that became the basis of the written gospels- the "good ones" concerning Jesus- which were written down between 50 and 150 and which attempted to give a record of Jesus' life and teachings and formed the core of the NEw Testament

50

Where was the first center of Christianity?

Jerusalem

51

Where did many early christians come from?

the ranks of Hellenized Jews and the Greek-speaking populations of the east

52

In the second and third centuries, an increasing number of followers came from where?

Latin-speaking people

53

What aided to the growth of christianity?

the structure of the Roman Empire

54

What did christian missionaries, including some of Jesus' original twelve disciples or apostles

used Roman roads to travel throughout the empire spreading the "good news"

55

Where weren't the Romans tolerant of other religions?

when they threatened public order of public morals

56

How did many Romans view Christians?

harmful to the order of the Roman state

57

Why could the government view them as potentially dangerous to the state?

since christians held their meetings in secret and seemed to be connected to christian groups in other areas

58

When did ROman persecution of CHristians begin?

during the reign of Nero

59

WHo began to assume more control over church communities?

bishops

60

What was the Christian church hierarchical structure?

the bishops and clergy were salaried officers separate from the laity or regular church members

61

What was made possible by Jesus' death and resurrection?

the promise of salvation

62

What did Christianity seem to do?

imbue life with a meaning and purpose beyond the simple material things of everyday reality

63

WHy did Christianity have universal appeal?

it was not restricted to men nor did it require a painful or expensive initiation rite as many other religions did

64

What was Christianity's form of initiation?

baptism

65

What is baptism?

a purification by water through which one entered into a personal relationship with Jesus

66

How did christianity fulfill the human need to belong?

christians formed communities bound to one another in which people could express their love by helping each other and offering assistance to the poor, sick, widows, and orphans

67

Who was the promise of eternal life for?

all

68

What did christianity emphasize?

a sense of spiritual equality for all people

69

What did CHristianity offer women?

Christianity offered them new roles and new forms of companionship with other women

70

What did the women who died for their faiths, death give rise to?

a literature known as the Apocryphal gospels, in which women were honored for creating new role models as virgins and widows dedicated to their faith, who defied fathers and their traditional gender roles to pursue their new lives

71

Who was the first christian emperor?

Emperor Constantine

72

What did Constantine issue?

the famous Edict of Milan

73

What happened under Theodosius "the great"

Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire