Flashcards in Rome-150-155 Deck (73):
Where did gladiatorial shows take place?
What was the most famous amphitheater?
What was the Flavian amphitheater called?
HOw many people did the Colosseum seat?
When were gladiatorial games held?
from dawn to dusk
What was the central focus of these games?
contests to the death between trained fighters
Who were most gladiators?
slaves or condemned criminals, although some free men lured by the hope of popularity and patronage by wealthy fans participated voluntarily
Where were they trained for combat?
special gladiatorial schools
What were some other form of entertainment in gladiatorial games?
criminals of all ages and both sexes were sent into the arena without weapons to face certain death from wild animals who would tear them to pieces
What kind of animal contests were staged?
wild beasts against each other such as bears against buffalo
staged hunts with men shooting safely from behind iron bars
gladiators in the arena with bulls, tigers, and lions
How many beasts were killed in one day of games when the emperor titus inaugurated the colosseum?
Who had taken a number of steps to revive the Roman state religion, which had declined during the turmoil of the late Republic?
What did the official state religion focus on?
worship of a pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses
Who was Juno?
patron goddess of women
Who was Minerva?
goddess of artisans
Who was Mars?
the god of war
WHo was Jupiter Optimus Maximus?
patron deity of Rome
What happened after augustus?
any dead emperors deified by the Roman senate were added to the official imperial cult
WHo was responsible for ensuring proper fulfillment of relgious obligations?
What were the Jewish people granted in Hellenistic times?
considerable independence by their Seleucid rulers
What was Judaea?
embraced the lands of the old Hebrew kingdom of Judah
had been made a province and placed under the direction of a Roman procurator
What did the Sadducees favor?
cooperation with the Romans
Who wanted Judaea to be free from Roman control, but did not advocate violent means to achieve this goal?
What did the Essenes do?
constituted a Jewish sect that lived in a religious community near the Dead Sea
What are the Dead Sea scrolls?
a collection of documents first discovered in 1947
WHo would save Israel from oppression?
Who were the Zealots?
militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule
When did Jesus of Nazareth begin his public preaching?
in the midst of the confusion and conflict in Judaea
Where did Jesus grow up?
What was Galilee?
an important center of the militant Zealots
What was important according to Jesus?
what was important was not strict adherence to the letter of the law and attention to rules and prohibitions, but the transformation of the inner person
What was God's command?
to love God and one another
Where did Jesus present the ethical concepts that would form the basis for the value system of medieval western civilization?
In the Sermon on the Mount
What were the ethical concepts?
humility, charity, and brotherly love
Who ordered Jesus' crucification?
What was Jesus hailed as?
the "anointed one"
What was the anointed one in greek?
Who founded the Christian church?
Peter, one of Jesus' disciples
WHat did Paul of Tarsus do?
reached out to non-Jews and transformed Christianity from a Jewish sect into a world religion
Who was called the "second founder of Christianity"
Who did Paul believe that the message of Jesus should be preached to?
not only to Jews but to Gentiles as well
Who were Gentiles?
What was Paul responsible for?
founding Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean
Who provided a universal foundation for the spread of Jesus' ideas?
What did Paul teach?
that Jesus was a savior-god, the son of God, who had come to earth to save all humans, who were basically sinners as a result of Adam's original sin of disobedience against God
What had Jesus done by his death?
Jesus had atoned for the sins of all humans and made possible a new beginning for all men and women, with the potential for individual salvation
If you accepted Jesus as your savior what would happen to you?
you would be saved
Who wrote a series of letters or epistles outlining Christian beliefs for different Christian communities?
What might some of Jesus' disciples have done?
preserved some of the master in writing and would have passed on personal memories that became the basis of the written gospels- the "good ones" concerning Jesus- which were written down between 50 and 150 and which attempted to give a record of Jesus' life and teachings and formed the core of the NEw Testament
Where was the first center of Christianity?
Where did many early christians come from?
the ranks of Hellenized Jews and the Greek-speaking populations of the east
In the second and third centuries, an increasing number of followers came from where?
What aided to the growth of christianity?
the structure of the Roman Empire
What did christian missionaries, including some of Jesus' original twelve disciples or apostles
used Roman roads to travel throughout the empire spreading the "good news"
Where weren't the Romans tolerant of other religions?
when they threatened public order of public morals
How did many Romans view Christians?
harmful to the order of the Roman state
Why could the government view them as potentially dangerous to the state?
since christians held their meetings in secret and seemed to be connected to christian groups in other areas
When did ROman persecution of CHristians begin?
during the reign of Nero
WHo began to assume more control over church communities?
What was the Christian church hierarchical structure?
the bishops and clergy were salaried officers separate from the laity or regular church members
What was made possible by Jesus' death and resurrection?
the promise of salvation
What did Christianity seem to do?
imbue life with a meaning and purpose beyond the simple material things of everyday reality
WHy did Christianity have universal appeal?
it was not restricted to men nor did it require a painful or expensive initiation rite as many other religions did
What was Christianity's form of initiation?
What is baptism?
a purification by water through which one entered into a personal relationship with Jesus
How did christianity fulfill the human need to belong?
christians formed communities bound to one another in which people could express their love by helping each other and offering assistance to the poor, sick, widows, and orphans
Who was the promise of eternal life for?
What did christianity emphasize?
a sense of spiritual equality for all people
What did CHristianity offer women?
Christianity offered them new roles and new forms of companionship with other women
What did the women who died for their faiths, death give rise to?
a literature known as the Apocryphal gospels, in which women were honored for creating new role models as virgins and widows dedicated to their faith, who defied fathers and their traditional gender roles to pursue their new lives
Who was the first christian emperor?
What did Constantine issue?
the famous Edict of Milan