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Flashcards in Rome-135-140 Deck (72):
1

What happened after the defeat of Carthage?

Rome became involved in the world of Hellenistic politics as an advocate of the freedom of the Greek states

2

Who were the Romans in conflict with?

Both Macedonians and the kingdom of the Seleucids

3

What brought Greek states their freedom?

Roman military victories and diplomatic negotiations rearranged the territorial boundaries

4

Rome tried to be a power broker in the affairs of the Greeks without doing what?

assuming direct control of their lands

5

What happened when these efforts failed?

Romans changed their policy

6

in 148 B.C.C what was made a Roman province?

Macedonia

7

Who rose in revolt?

Greek states

8

What city was the leader of the revolt, and was destroyed in 146 to teach the Greeks a lesson?

Corinth

9

Greece was placed under the control of who?

The roman governor of Macedonia

10

What happened in 133?

The king of Pergamum deeded his kingdom to Rome, giving Rome its first province in Asia

11

What were the stages in building Rome's empire?

the conquest of Italy
the conflict with Carthage and expansion into the western Mediterranean
involvement with and domination of the Hellenistic kingdoms

12

What happened as they expanded?

the more threats to their security appeared on the horizon, involving them in yet more conflicts

13

How did the Romans like to portray themselves?

as only declaring war only for defensive reasons or to protect allies

14

Who favored expansion both for the glory it offered and for the economic benefits?

Roman aristocratic leaders

15

What were some new opportunities?

lucrative foreign commands
enormous spoils of war
abundant supply of slave labor

16

What indicated Roman imperialism?

the destruction of Corinth and Carthage

17

What did Rome's foreign success have enormous repercussions on?

the internal development of the Roman Republic

18

Who had become the effect governing body of the Roman state?

the senate

19

Where were the 300 men drawn primarily from?

the landed aristocracy

20

How long did they remain senators for?

life

21

What did the senate hold?

the chief magistracies

22

What did the senate exercise?

enormous power

23

What did the senate do?

directed the wars
control foreign and domestic policy
financial affairs

24

Who were the magistracies and senate controlled by?

a relatively select circle of wealthy and powerful families-both patrician and plebeian-called the nobiles

25

Where did 80 percent of the consuls come from?

twenty-six families

26

Where did 50 percent come from?

only ten families

27

What did the nobiles constitute?

a governing oligarchy that managed a system of patronage and intimidation to maintain its hold over the magistracies and senate and guide the destiny of Rome while running the state in its own interests

28

Who were the backbone of the Roman state and army?

small farmers

29

What happened to the small farmwers?

many small farmers had found themselves unable to compete with large, wealthy landowners and had lost their lands

30

What had the aristocrats developed by taking over state owned land and buying out small peasant owners?

latifundia

31

What did latifundia use?

slave labor

32

What did the rise of latifundia contribute to?

a decline in the number of small farmers

33

What declined?

the number of men available for military service

34

Where did the small farmers go?

cities, forming a large class of landless poor

35

What did some aristocrats try to remedy?

growing economic and social crisis

36

What did Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus believe?

the underlying cause of Rome''s problems was the decline of the small farmer

37

What did the Gracchus brothers do?

bypassed the senate by having the council of the plebs pass land reform bills that called for government to reclaim public land and distribute it to landless Romans.
Senators were furious

38

When was Tiberius killed?

133 B.C.E

39

Did Gaius get killled as well?

yes

40

what opened the door to more instability and further violence?

attempts to bring reforms

41

WHo began to recruit his armies in a new way?

Roman general named Marius

42

WHo did Marius recruit?

volunteers from both the urban and rural poor who possessed no property. Volunteers swore an oath of loyalty to the general not the senate

43

How were these men recruited?

they were promised land

44

What did Marius do?

left a powerful legacy.
He created a new system of military recruitment that placed much power in the hands of the individual generals

45

WHo was the next general to take advantage of the new military system?

Lucius Cornelius Sulla

46

Who gave Sulla command of a war in Asia Minor?

The senate

47

What happened when the plebs tried to transfer command of this war to Marius?

a civil war broke out

48

Who won?

Sulla won and seized Rome itself, conducting a reign of terror to wipe out all opposition.
Sulla restored power to the hands of the senate and eliminated powers of the popular assemblies.
His example of using an army to seize power would prove most attractive to ambitious men.

49

For the next fifty years, what were two important features of Roman history?

the jostling for power by a number of powerful individuals and the civil wars generated by their conflicts.

50

Who were the three powerful individuals who came to hold enormous military and political power?

Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar

51

Who was Crassus?

richest man in Rome
put down a major slave rebellion

52

Who was Pompey?

successful military command in Spain
hailed as a military hero

53

Who was Julius Caesar?

military command in Spain
joined with Crassus and Pompey to form a coalition that historians called the First Triumvirate

54

What enabled the first triumvirate to dominate the political scene?

combined wealth and power of these men was enormous

55

What did Pompey receive?

lands for his veterans and command in Spain

56

What was Crassus given?

command in Syria

57

What was Caesar granted?

special military command in Gaul.

58

hat did Caesar do during his time in Gaul?

caesar had conquered all of Gaul and gained fame, wealth, and military experience and an army of seasoned veterans who were loyal to him

59

Who voted for Caesar to lay down his command and return as a private citizen to Rome (he refused)

leading senators

60

What did Caesar choose to do?

keep his army and move into Italy by illegally crossing the Rubicon

61

What does the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" entail?

doing something after which there is no turning back

62

What guaranteed a civil war between Caesar's forces and those of Pompey and his allies?

caesar marching on Rome

63

What left caesar in complete control of the Roman government?

defeat of Pompey

64

When was Caesar officially made dictator?

47 B.C.E

65

When was Caesar made dictator for life?

44 B.C.E

66

What did Caesar do?

gave land to the poor and increased the size of the senate to 900 by filling it with many of his supporters
weakened the power of the senate
granted citizenship to people who had helped him
reformed the calendar by introducing the Egyptian solar year of 365 days
building projects
military adventures
a group of leading senators assassinated him

67

What two men divided the Roman world between them?

Octavian, Caesar's heir and grandnephew, taking the west, and Antony Caesar's ally and assistant, the east

68

Why did Octavian and Antony eventually come into conflict?

Antony allied himself with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
Octavian began a propaganda campaign accusing Antony of catering to Cleopatra

69

What battle in Greece did Octavian's forces smash the army and navy of Antony and Cleopatra?

Battle of Actium

70

Where did Antony and Cleopatra flee to, and a year later commit suicide?

Egypt

71

Who stood supreme over the Roman world when the civil wars and the Republic were ended?

Octavian

72

WHat were the three classes that Rome was divided into?

senatorial
equestrian
lower