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Flashcards in Middle Ages Deck (30):

Who did the pope anoint as emperor ?



How did feudal society develop in Europe?

They wanted protection from land holding lords so they entered into feudal agreements with them.


Why did people need the protection of land holding lords?

They needed protection because they had very little protection after the feline of Roman influence over Western Europe.


What did a feudal system consist of?

Fief, vassals, serfs and feudal obligations


How did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire?

Frankish kings used military power to expand and the alliance between Frankish kings and the church, reestablished Roman culture (Christianity) in Western Europe.


Tell six facts about the Age of Charlemagne

. Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe
. Pope crowned emperor
. Power of church in political life was reuse stablished
. Roman culture was reinterpreted
. Most of Western Europe was included in the new empire
. Churches roads and schools were built to unite the empire


Who were some Middle Age invaders?

Angles and Saxons from Europe to England
Magyars from Central Asia to Hungary
Vikings from Scandinavia to Russia
Mongol armies invaded Russia, Asia and China creating an empire
Ottoman Turks conquered Byzantine empire


What were five key events of the Crusades?

. Pope Urban's speech
. The capture of Jerusalem
. Founding of crusader states
. Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin
. Sack of Constantinople by western crusaders


What were four effects of the crusades?

. Weakened pope and nobles; strengthened monarchs
. Stimulated trade throughout Mediterranean and Middle East
. Weakened the Byzantine empire
. Left legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews and Muslims


What was the Black Death?

Bubonic plague epidemic decimated population. Most devistating disaster.


What was the impact of the Black Death?

. Decline in population
. Scarcity of labor
. Decline of church influence
. Disruption of trade
. Towns freed from feudal obligations


What were the crusades referred to as?

Holy Warskk


Who were the crusades between?

Christians and Muslims


Who were so leaders during the crusades?

Alexius I and pope Urban II


Give three facts about the Franks.

. Long lasting empire
. Catholic (divided in thirds after Clovis)
. Males were dominant


What was Germanic Law code?

Personal injuries lead to feuds so they instituted "wergeld" which was a fine to pay for the injury you caused. People's lives has different monetary values.


What do you know about anti-semitism at that time?

Christians saw Jews as murderers of Christ, Jews were accused of causing the plague by poisoning the water wells.


Who was one key person of influence during 100 years war?

Joan of Arc. Her involvment was the turning point in wr in Orleans
Henry V and dauphin Charles also


Who were flagellants?

People who willingly whipped one another as punishment for their sinful ways


What are some facts about Charlemagne?

. King of Franks then Emperor of Romans
. Appointed by pope
. Powerful, determined, decisive, intelligent ruler who was fierce warrior
. Organized the Carolingian kingdom
. Established "missi Dominici"
. Revered learning and culture- lead to monks writing rooms called "scriptoria"


What does missi dominici mean?

Messengers of The Lord king


Who was Justinian?

He became emperor of eastern Roman Empire.
Wanted to reestablish the Roman Empire
His army destroyed the Vandals and Ostrogoths
Most important contribution was Codification of roman law called corpus iuris civilis- the body of civil law


What was the magna carta?

It was a feudal document that strengthened the idea that the monarchs power was limited; not absolute. Dealt with rights and obligations of kings and vassals.


What was the Norman Conquest?

Invasion on the coast of England (battle of Hastings)by William of Normandy lead to a Norman ruling class who spoke French eventually merging with the Anglo Saxons forming new language. They took over Anglo Saxon institutions. Normans took over taxes and royal courts.


What was Constantinople?

The capital of the eastern Roman Empire .
It's location was at a crossroads for trade (center of trade)
It s location provided protection from eastern frontier
Easily fortified site on a peninsula.
It was the seat of the Byzantine empire until the ottoman conquest.


What was the influence of the Justinian codification of Roman law?

It provided the basis for law codes of Western Europe


Why was Byzantine emperor Justinian important?

Codified laws
Reconquest of Roman territories
Expanded trade


What was the role of the church?

. It was a unifying force in Western Europe
. Church served the social, political, religious needs of people
. Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements
. Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes
. Pope anointed emperor
. Loyalty to church became more important than loyalty to emperor.
. Church was moral authority


What were the roots of Russian history?

Russian culture was influenced by Byzantine civilization through its religion culture and trade.
There were trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea
Russia adopted orthodox christianity
Russian adopted the Greek alphabet with Slavic languages (Cyrillic alphabet)


Who was Constantine?

Ho moved the Roman Empire capital from Rome to Constantinople .
He converted to Christianity and made it legal
The church became a source of moral authority