Islam. 202-207 Flashcards Preview

freshmen year > Islam. 202-207 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Islam. 202-207 Deck (34):
0

Who was the Byzantine emperor who desperately called for assistance from other Christian states in Europe to protect his empire against the invading Seljuk Turks?

Alexius I

1

Who were the Sunni Muslims under the leadership of?

Saladin

2

Who were the Mongols?

a pastoral people who swept out of the Gobi Desert to seize control over much of the known world

3

Who had made advances in northern China?

Genghis Khan

4

Who was Hulegu the brother of?

Khubilai Khan

5

Who were the Mamluks?

a Turkish military class originally composed of slaves

6

Where was the new center of Islamic civilization?

Cairo

7

Where were the ottoman Turks located?

Anatolian peninsula

8

What did Sultan Mehmet do?

seized Constantinople and brought an end to the decrepit Byzantine Empire

9

What were some great commercial citites?

Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf
Aden at the southern tip of the arabian peninsula
Damascus in modern Syria
Marrakech in Morocco

10

What were the most common threats to urban life?

fire flood and disease

11

Who were the most impressive urban buildings for?

the caliph or the local governor and the great mosque

12

What were houses constructed of?

stone or brick around a timber frame

13

What were the poor people's houses composed of?

clay or unfired brick

14

Where did the Bedouins live?

in tents that could be dismantled and moved according to their needs

15

What did Muslim's eat?

mutton, lamb, poultry, fish,

16

What could Muslim's not eat?

pork

17

What were delicacies?

fruit, spices, and various sweets

18

What were the poor forced to survive on?

boiled millet or peas with an occasional lump of meat or fat

19

What type of society was the Arab society?

egalitarian

20

What contributed to the Arab societies egalitarianism?

Both the principles or Islam, which held that all were equal in the eyes if Allah and the importance of trade to the prosperity of the state

21

What did the upper class consist of?

ruling families
senior officials
tribal elites
and the wealthiest merchants

22

What was most of the farmland owned by?

independent peasantsi

23

Where did the slaves come from?

sub-Saharan Africa or from non-Islamic populations elsewhere in Asia

24

What philosophic works were translated into Arabic?

Greek Syrian and Persian

25

Who's works were translated into Arabic and stored in the "House of Wisdom"

Aristotle, Plato, and other Greek philosophers

26

Where is the "house of Wisdom"

baghdad

27

Who is Ibn Rushd?

Muslim philosopher

28

Who is Ibn Rushd known in the west as?

Averroes

29

Where did the first paper mill in Europe appear?

Pyrenees Mountains in Spain

30

What was their world map based on?

the tradition of the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy

31

Who developed medicine as a distinctive field of scientific inquirity?

ancient Greek physician Galen

32

What did Ibn Sina (Avicenna in the west) compile?

a medical encyclopedia that emphasized the contagious nature of certain diseases and showed how they could spread by contaminated water supplies

33

After Avicenna's work was translated into Latin, what happened?

it became a basic medical textbook for medieval European university students