Flashcards in Islam. 202-207 Deck (34):
Who was the Byzantine emperor who desperately called for assistance from other Christian states in Europe to protect his empire against the invading Seljuk Turks?
Who were the Sunni Muslims under the leadership of?
Who were the Mongols?
a pastoral people who swept out of the Gobi Desert to seize control over much of the known world
Who had made advances in northern China?
Who was Hulegu the brother of?
Who were the Mamluks?
a Turkish military class originally composed of slaves
Where was the new center of Islamic civilization?
Where were the ottoman Turks located?
What did Sultan Mehmet do?
seized Constantinople and brought an end to the decrepit Byzantine Empire
What were some great commercial citites?
Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf
Aden at the southern tip of the arabian peninsula
Damascus in modern Syria
Marrakech in Morocco
What were the most common threats to urban life?
fire flood and disease
Who were the most impressive urban buildings for?
the caliph or the local governor and the great mosque
What were houses constructed of?
stone or brick around a timber frame
What were the poor people's houses composed of?
clay or unfired brick
Where did the Bedouins live?
in tents that could be dismantled and moved according to their needs
What did Muslim's eat?
mutton, lamb, poultry, fish,
What could Muslim's not eat?
What were delicacies?
fruit, spices, and various sweets
What were the poor forced to survive on?
boiled millet or peas with an occasional lump of meat or fat
What type of society was the Arab society?
What contributed to the Arab societies egalitarianism?
Both the principles or Islam, which held that all were equal in the eyes if Allah and the importance of trade to the prosperity of the state
What did the upper class consist of?
and the wealthiest merchants
What was most of the farmland owned by?
Where did the slaves come from?
sub-Saharan Africa or from non-Islamic populations elsewhere in Asia
What philosophic works were translated into Arabic?
Greek Syrian and Persian
Who's works were translated into Arabic and stored in the "House of Wisdom"
Aristotle, Plato, and other Greek philosophers
Where is the "house of Wisdom"
Who is Ibn Rushd?
Who is Ibn Rushd known in the west as?
Where did the first paper mill in Europe appear?
Pyrenees Mountains in Spain
What was their world map based on?
the tradition of the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy
Who developed medicine as a distinctive field of scientific inquirity?
ancient Greek physician Galen
What did Ibn Sina (Avicenna in the west) compile?
a medical encyclopedia that emphasized the contagious nature of certain diseases and showed how they could spread by contaminated water supplies