Flashcards in Rome-140-145 Deck (48):
What did the five so-called good emperors create?
a period of peace and prosperity that lasted for almost a hundred years
What did the five "good emperors" do??
treated the ruling class with respect
cooperated with the senate
ended arbitrary executions
maintained peace throughout the empire
supported domestic policies generally beneficial to the empire
What were the five "good emperors" known for?
tolerance and diplomacy
How did the first four good emperors reduce the chances of succession problems?
by adopting capable men as their successors
What happened under the five good emperors?
the powers of the emperor continued to be extended at the expense of the senate
Who took over the running of the government?
imperial officials appointed and directed by the emperor
What else did the good emperors do?
extended the scope of imperial administration to include areas previously untouched by the imperial government
implemented the establishment of an alimentary program that provided state funds to assist poor parents in raising and educating their children
Why were the good emperors widely praised by their subjects?
their extensive building programs
Trajan and Hadrain
were especially active in constructing public works-aqueducts, bridges, roads, and harbor facilities, throughout the provinces and in Rome. Trajan built a new forum in Rome to provide a setting for his celebrated victory column.
Hadrians pantheon is one of the grandest ancient buildings surviving in Rome.
What is Dacia?
How did Trajan break with Augustus's policy of defensive imperialism?
by extending Roman rule into Dacia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai peninsula, his conquests represent the high-water mark of Roman expansion. His successors recognized that the empire was overextended and pursued a policy of retrenchment.
Who withdrew Roman forces from much of Mesopotamia?
Hadrian retained Dacia and Arabia, but....
he went on the defensive in his frontier policy by reinforcing the fortifications along a line connecting the Rhine and Danube Rivers and building a defensive wall eighty miles long across northern Britain to keep the Scots out of Roman Britain
What happened by the end of the second century?
he vulnerability of the empire had become apparent
What else happened by the end of the second century?
frontiers were stabilized
Roman forces were established in permanent bases behind the frontiers
But when one frontier was attacked, troops had to be drawn from other frontiers, leaving them vulnerable to attack. The empire lacked a real strategic reserve, and in the next century its weakness would be ever more apparent
When was the Roman Empire one of the greatest states the world had seen?
at its height in the second century
It covered about three and a half million square miles and had a population, like that of Han China, that has been estimated at more than 50 million.
While the emperors and the imperial administration provided a degree of unity, considerable leeway was given to local customs, and the privileges of Roman citizenship were extended to many people throughout the empire. In 212, the emperor Caracalla completed the process by giving Roman citizenship to every free inhabitant of the empire, while Greek was used in the east. Although Roman culture spread to all parts of the empire, there were limits to romanization since local languages persisted and many of the empires residents spoke neither Latin nor Greek
What did the administration and cultural life of the Roman Empire depend greatly on?
Cities and town
A provincial governor's staff was not large so...
local city officials were expected to act as Roman agents in carrying out many government functions, especially those related to taxes. Most towns and cities were not large by modern standards. The largest was Rome, but there were also some large cities in the east: Alexandria in Egypt numbered over 300,000 inhabitants, Ephesus in Asia Minor had 200,000, and Antioch in Syria had around 150,000. In the west, cities were usually small, with only a few thousand inhabitants. Cities were important in the spread of Roman culture, law, and the Latin language. They were also uniform in physical appearance, with similar temples, markets, amphitheaters, and other public buildings
How were Magistrates and town councils chosen?
from the ranks of the wealthy upper classes directed municipal administration. These municipal offices were unsalaried but were nevertheless desired by wealthy citizens because they received prestige and power at the local level as well as Roman citizenship. Roman municipal policy effectively tied the upper classes to Roman rule and ensured that these classes would retain control over the rest off the population
What was reflected in significant changes in the governing classes of the empire?
the process of romanization in the provinces
What happened in the 1st century?
there was a noticeable decline in the number of senators from Italian families.
What happened by the end of the second century?
Italian senators made up less than 50% of the total. Increasingly, the Roman senate was being recruited from wealthy provincial equestrian families. The provinces also provided many of the legionaries for the Roman army and, beginning with Trajan, supplied many of the emperors.
What empire was a period of considerable prosperity?
The Early Empire
What did Internal peace result in?
unprecedented levels of trade.
Merchants from all over the empire came to the chief Italian ports of Puteoli on the Bay of Naples and Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. Trade extended beyond the Roman boundaries and included even silk goods from China. But the patterns of trade were somewhat unbalanced. The importation of large quantities of grain to feed the populace of Rome and an incredible quantity of luxury items for the wealthy upper classes in the west led to a steady drainage of gold and silver coins from Italy and the west to the eastern part of the empire
What helped stimulate manufacturing?
What did the cities of the east still produce?
the items made in Hellenistic times. The first two centuries of the empire also witnessed the high point of industrial development in Italy. Some industries became concentrated in certain areas, such as bronze work in Capua and pottery in Arretium in Eturia. Other industries, such as brick making, were pursued in rural ares as by-products of large landed estate. Much industrial production remained small in scale and was done by individual artisans, usually freed-men or slaves. In the course of the first century, Italian centers of industry began to experience increasing competition from the provinces.
What was the chief occupation of most people and the underlying basis of Roman prosperity?
What are large landed estates called?
latifundia and they still dominated agriculture, especially in southern and central Italy, small peasant farms persisted, particularly in Eturia and the Po valley. Although large estates concentrating on sheep and cattle raising used slaves, the lands of some Latifundia were worked by free tenant farmers who paid rent in labor, produce, or sometimes cash
What were the development of towns and cities based in?
large degree upon the agricultural surpluses of the countryside.
In ancient times, the margin of surplus produced by each farmer was relatively small. Therefore, the upper classes and urban populations had to be supported by the labor of a large number of agricultural producers who never found it easy to produce much more than they needed for themselves. In lean years, when there were no surpluses, the townspeople often took what they wanted, leaving little for the peasants.
What was strongly influenced by Greek models?
What happened in the last century of the republic?
the Romans began to produce anew poetry in which Latin poets were able to use various Greek forms to express their own feelings about people, social, and political life, and love
Ex. The work of Catullis the "best lyric poet" Rome produced and one of the greatest in world literature.
became a master at adapting and refining Greek forms of poetry to express his emotions.
He wrote a variety of poems on political figures, social customs, the use of language, the death of his brother, and the travails of love.
Catullus became infatuated with Clodia, the promiscuous sister of a tribune and wife of a provincial governor, and addressed a number of poems to her (he called her Lesbia) describing his passionate love and hatred for her
Catullus had a noticeable impact on who?
later Latin poets
The development of Roman prose was greatly aided by the practice of what?
Why did the Romans have great respect for oratory??
because the ability to persuade people in public debate meant success in politics.
Who brought oratory to perfection in a literary fashion?
Cicero, the best exemplar of the literary and intellectual interests of the senatorial elite of the late Republic and the greatest prose writer of that period. For Cicero, oratory was not simply skillful speaking. An orator was a statesman, a man who achieved his highest goal by pursuing an active life in public affairs.
When was the high point of Latin literature reached?
The age of Augustus
What was the Augustan age called because of their literary accomplishments?
the golden age of Latin literature
Who was the most distinguished poet of the augustan age?
Virgil, the son of a small landholder in northern Italy, he welcomed the rule of Augustus and wrote his greatest work in his honor. Virgil's masterpiece was The Aeneid, an epic poem clearly meant to rival the work of Homer. The connection between Troy and Rome is made in the poem when Aeneas, a hero of Troy, survives the destruction of Troy and eventually settles in Latium; hence, Roman civilization is linked to Greek history. The character of Aeneas had fulfilled his mission to establish the Romans in Italy and thereby start Rome on its divine mission to rule the world.
What was Rome's gift, according to Virgil?
Who was another prominent Augustan poet?
a friend of Virgil.
He was a very sophisticated writer whose overriding concern was to point out to his contemporaries the "follies and vices of his age" In his Satires, a medley of poems on a variety of subjects, Horace is revealed as a detached observer of human weakness. He directed his attacks against movements, not living people, and took on such subjects as sexual immoralirty, greed, and job dissatisfaction.
Horace mostly laughs at the weakness of humankind.
Who was the last of the great poets of the golden age?
He belonged to a youthful, privileged social group in Rome that liked to ridicule old Roman values. In keeping with the spirit of this group, Ovid wrote a series of frivolous love poems know as the Amores. Intended to entertain and shock, they achieved their goal. Another of Ovid's works was the Art of love. This was essentially a takeoff on didactic poems. Whereas authors of earlier didactic poems had written guides to farming, hunting, or some other subject, Ovid's work was a handbook on the seduction of young women.
Who wrote the most famous Latin prose work of the golden age?
Livy's masterpiece was the History of Rome, which covered the period from the foundation of the city to 9 B.C.E. Only 35 of the original 142 books have survived, although we do possess brief summaries of the whole work from other authors. Livy perceived history in terms or moral lessons. For Livy, human character was the determining factor in history. Livy's history celebrated Rome's greatness. He included scene upon scene that not only revealed the character of the chief figures but also demonstrated the virtues that had made Rome great. Of course, he had serious weakness as a historian. He was not always concerned about the factual accuracy of his myriad stories and was not overly critical of his sources. But he did tell a good story, and his work became the standard history of Rome for a long time
What was the century and a half after Augustus called?
The Silver age
Who was Seneca?
Educated in Rome, Seneca became strongly attached to the philosophy of Stoicism. In letters written to a young friend, he expressed the basic tenets of Stoicism.
What were the basic tenets of Stoicism?
living according to nature
accepting events dispassionately as part of the divine plan, and a universal love for all humanity