Flashcards in science midterm Deck (101):
Name and describe the four spheres in the earth system
atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds the earth. geosphere is the physical features of the earth, rock material
hydrosphere is all the water in the earth
biosphere is the living things on the planet
Give an example of how each sphere could interact with another one.
Hurricane- occur in atmosphere and carries both water and vapor, erodes land, can kill organisms
Say the atmosphere was polluted, it would rain acid rain and pollute the water which the animals drink
How is the mass of a rock measured/ how is the volume of a rock measured?
mass- measured using a triple beam balance and the units are grams (g) or kilograms
volume- length x width x height for regular shaped objects & water displacement using graduated cylinder(ml)
What is the formula for calculating density?
d=m/v and is measured in g/ml or g/cm3
Find the density for an object with a mass of 25 grams and a volume of 5 cm3.
25g/5cm3 = 5g/cm3
List and describe the steps in the scientific method.
Conduct background research
What is a hypothesis?
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
Hypothesis- is a prediction about the outcome of an experiment or solution. Scientists conduct experiments to test a hypothesis.
Theory - is the current best explanation of why something is happening, used to explain what happens and predict the future
control-the standard for comparison in an experiment; not varied
Name and describe the three (3) different types of map projections. Be sure to know what area each projection distorts.
Mercator projection-distorts poles
*like a cylinder around earth
*shows entire world
Gnomonic projection-distorts areas away from center
*sheet of paper laid on earth
Polyconic projection-lat/long lines are curved
*cone of paper around earth
Why do you need latitude and longitude to find a location?
Without latitude and longitude, you would not know the coordinates of the location you wish to reach and to find a single point you need to have an intersection of two lines
What do contour lines on a topographic map indicate?
Lines that connect points of equal elevation, show elevation and shape of the land (usually brown)
What is a contour interval?
difference in elevation between 2 consecutive contour lines (usually 10 or 20 feet)
How do you determine slope from a topographic map?
change in elevation/distance
What would the topography of an area be like if the contour lines were close together? if they were far apart?
Close together- steep
Far apart- gradual slope (flatter)
What is gps? Give an example of how it is used.
Global Positioning System (24 satellites, master control station, user)
*can be used to find position, elevation, and time (speed and distance)
*it is not affected by bad weather
*can be used on land, at sea, or in the air
What is the "Rule of Vs"?
the river flows out of a very sharp curve in the contour line
When contour lines cross a river they make a V shape pointing upstream
How do you construct a profile from a topographic map?
Use paper edge to mark location and elevation of contour lines; plot locations on a graph to show a side view of map:
1) place a paper strip along the xy line printed on map a. label the x and y location on the paper strip
2) mark the points where the contour lines cross the paper strip and record the elevation of each point on the paper strip
3)tape this strip below graph a in the space provided
4) graph the points you marked on the paper strip. graph each point by placing a dot on the paper strip that corresponds to the elevation from map a
5) draw a line connecting the points on the graph connecting these points forms a map profile
When was our universe formed? Earth?
Earth-4.6 billion years ago
Universe-15 to 20 billion years ago
What is the shape of our earth and what caused it to be that shape?
the spinning motion (rotation)of the young earth caused it to form into a sphere that bulges in the center. such a shape is called an oblate spheroid (caused when earth was still semi-molten)
Would an object be heavier at sea level than it is at the top of Mount Everest? Why?
Heavier at sea level because the farther away an object is from earths center, the lighter it is. The closer an object is to the center of the earth, the stronger the pull of gravity
Name the four layers of the earths interior and identify whether it is solid or liquid.
mantle-solid with liquid properties
What is the difference between earth's rotation and revolution? Name evidence for each.
Rotation-the spinning of earth around its axis causes day and night (Coriolis effect)
Revolution-causes years and it is the orbit of earth around the sun
Describe the Coriolis effect
Wind and water will follow curved paths due to earths rotation
In the far northern hemisphere, winds are deflected to their right relative to earths surface. in the Southern Hemisphere, winds are deflected to their left
What are aphelion and perihelion?
When do they occur?
What effect do they have on the seasons?
Perihelion - occurs in the winter when the planet is closest to the sun in its orbit (Jan)
Aphelion - occurs in the summer when the planet is farthest from the sun in its orbit (July)
No effect on seasons
Describe the following features on the moon: maria, regolith, highland
Maria-extensive dark areas on the moon that represent great basins and level plains
Regolith-a grayish brown mixture of small rock pieces and fire. particles that cover the moon.
Highlands-the light areas of the moon
What caused the craters on the moon? Why are they still visible?
The impact of meteorites caused craters. They are still visible because
Why do we always see the same side of the moon
because the moon rotates once on its axis in exactly the same time that it revolves once around the earth
Why does the moon go through phases? What are the eight phases or the moon in order?
Phases are cUsed because of the moons revolution around earth
Describe a lunar and solar eclipse
-earth's shadow on the moon
-full moon phase
-moon appears red/copper color
-lasts about 2 hours
-moon's shadow on earth
-new moon phase
-lasts about 7 1/2 minutes
-occurs about every 300 years for any given location (total solar eclipse)
Define: astronomical unit, light year
astronomical unit-the average distance between earth and the sun
light year- the distance that light travels in one year
What reaction creates the sun's energy?
nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms
Distinguish between the geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar system
What did the following astronomers contribute to our understanding of the universe? Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo, Kepler, Newton
Copernicus - heliocentric model of solar system
retrograde explained by varying rates of orbits
Brahe - built an observatory and recorded positions of stars and planets for 20 years
Galileo - used telescope to observe space discovered 4 of the moons around Jupiter and discovered phases of venus, observed moons surface
Kepler - published the laws of planetary motion
Newton - universal law of gravitation
Planetary motion law #1- all planets travel in _____ orbits
Planetary motion law #2- speed of a planet is fastest at the _____ and slowest at the _______
Planetary motion law #3- if the period of revolution of a planet is known then the __________ can be calculated
List the planets in order outward from the sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
What are the general characteristics of the inner and outer planets?
inner- rocky crusts, dense mantle layers, and very dense cores
outer- gaseous, (hydrogen gas) less dense, have ring systems
Which planet has the largest volcano?
Which planet has the lowest density?
Which planet is slowest in orbit?
Which planet radiates energy into space?
Which planet has rings?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Which planet has the most craters?
Which planet has the greenhouse effect?
Distinguish between a meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite.
meteoroid- rock/ice traveling in space
meteor- rock/ice burning up in the atmosphere
meteorite- rock that survives trip through atmosphere to strike earth
How do comets orbit the sun?
What creates the tail of a comet?
The radiation caused some of the gas and dust to "back away" from the nucleus
What are the three types of spectra?
continuous, emission, absorption
What spectra is used to determine the composition of a star?
What instrument is used to see the spectra?
Why do constellations change with the seasons?
revolution and rotation
How can polaris be located in the night sky?
directly overhead (north)
Stars are composed of mainly _________ and _________
hydrogen and helium
What kind of star is our sun?
What stage will our sun become next?
What is the life cycle of a star?
Then either white dwarf of super giant
if it is a white dwarf then it becomes a nova
if it becomes a super giant then it becomes a supernova then neutron star then black hole
What determines the path a star will take?
What is a galaxy?
a system containing millions or even billions of stars
What are the three types of galaxies?
What type of galaxy is ours?
What is our galaxy called?
The Milky Way
Explain the Big Bang
All matter was condensed into a dense sphere
The sphere suddenly and quickly expanded outward
the super hot and dense universe continued to expand more slowly
temperatures gradually decreased
atoms began to form and material collected into clouds of gas
these clouds became galaxies
eventually stars aged and planets formed
What are the five (5) characteristics that define a mineral?
solid at room temperature
definite chemical composition
atoms arranged in an orderly pattern
List the top four (4) most abundant elements in the Earth's crust.
silicates carbonates, oxides, and sulfides
*oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron
List the six (6) different crystal shapes
cubic, orthrhombic, tetragonal, hexagonal, triclinic, monoclinic
What is Moh's scale?
hardness scale goes from 1-10
It is the scale of a minerals resistance to scratching. Hardest is diamond softens is talc
What is the hardest mineral?
What is the softest mineral?
What tools can be used to do a hardness test?
fingernail, penny, nail, glass
What are the most abundant minerals?
What is color?
the color of the mineral (sulfur is yellow)
What is luster?
way a mineral reflects light (metallic or nonmetallic)
What is streak?
color of a minerals powder
(Hematite -red streak)
What is fracture?
mineral breaks on uneven surface (quartz)
What is cleavage?
mineral breaks on flat surface (mica)
What is specific gravity?
weight compared to water=
What is double refraction?
Iceland Spar creates a double image
What is hardness?
resistance to scratching
What is the acid test?
Calcite will fizz in acid
What is taste?
halite tastes salty
List the four (4) major mineral groups/families. Give mineral examples for each group. How do we use those minerals in our every day lives?
silicates-quartz (glass manufacturing)(quartz and feldspar)
Carbonates- calcite (cement)(calcite and dolomite)
Oxides- hematite (an iron ore)(oxygen and metal)
Sulfides- pyrite (sulfur and a metal)
Is coal a mineral?
No. It's organic and minerals must be inorganic
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?
Mineral- a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a distinct chemical composition and crystalline structure
Rock- a naturally formed group of minerals bound together; can consist largely of one mineral or several different minerals in varying quantities
What are the three (3) major categories of rock? Give an example of each.
Igneous-granite and basalt
Sedimentary- limestone and shale
metamorphic- marble and gneiss
How do igneous rocks form?
Igneous rocks form from cooling and hardening of lava or magma
What is the difference between felsic rock and mafic rock? What type of rock is obsidian?
Felsic rock is light in color and has a high percentage of silica. Mafic rock is dark in color and low silica, Obsidian is felsic although it is dark.
What is the difference between intrusive rock and extrusive rock? Give and example of each.
Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly below the surface and have large grains (granite). Extrusive igneous rocks cool quickly near the surface and have small grains (basalt).
What rocks react to acid?
Limestone and marble
The three (3) groups of sedimentary rocks are _________, _________, and _________> How does each group form? Give and example for each group.
Clastic- other rock fragments (conglomerate and sandstone and shale)
Chemical- dissolved minerals (limestone and rock salt)
Organic- living things (coal and coquina)
What types of rocks form from shale?
clastic sedimentary- slate
What type of rock forms from granite?
intrusive felsic igneous rock - gneiss
What type of rock forms from congolmerate?
What type of rock is schist?
What type of rock is rhyolite?
extrusive, felsic igneous rock
What type of rock is rock gypsum?
What type of rock is coquina?
What type of rock is limestone?
chemical sedimentary. Marble forms from limestone
The factors in an experiment that always remain the same
Define independent variable
Variable that is purposefully changed by experimenter