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Flashcards in science midterm Deck (101):
1

Name and describe the four spheres in the earth system

atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds the earth. geosphere is the physical features of the earth, rock material
hydrosphere is all the water in the earth
biosphere is the living things on the planet

2

Give an example of how each sphere could interact with another one.

Hurricane- occur in atmosphere and carries both water and vapor, erodes land, can kill organisms
Say the atmosphere was polluted, it would rain acid rain and pollute the water which the animals drink

3

How is the mass of a rock measured/ how is the volume of a rock measured?

mass- measured using a triple beam balance and the units are grams (g) or kilograms
volume- length x width x height for regular shaped objects & water displacement using graduated cylinder(ml)

4

What is the formula for calculating density?

d=m/v and is measured in g/ml or g/cm3

5

Find the density for an object with a mass of 25 grams and a volume of 5 cm3.

25g/5cm3 = 5g/cm3

6

List and describe the steps in the scientific method.

Identify problem
Conduct background research
Develop hypothesis
Design experiment
Collect data
Analyze results
Draw conclusions

7

What is a hypothesis?
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

Hypothesis- is a prediction about the outcome of an experiment or solution. Scientists conduct experiments to test a hypothesis.

Theory - is the current best explanation of why something is happening, used to explain what happens and predict the future

8

Define control

control-the standard for comparison in an experiment; not varied

9

Name and describe the three (3) different types of map projections. Be sure to know what area each projection distorts.

Mercator projection-distorts poles
*like a cylinder around earth
*shows entire world
Gnomonic projection-distorts areas away from center
*sheet of paper laid on earth
Polyconic projection-lat/long lines are curved
*cone of paper around earth

10

Why do you need latitude and longitude to find a location?

Without latitude and longitude, you would not know the coordinates of the location you wish to reach and to find a single point you need to have an intersection of two lines

11

What do contour lines on a topographic map indicate?

Lines that connect points of equal elevation, show elevation and shape of the land (usually brown)

12

What is a contour interval?

difference in elevation between 2 consecutive contour lines (usually 10 or 20 feet)

13

How do you determine slope from a topographic map?

change in elevation/distance

14

What would the topography of an area be like if the contour lines were close together? if they were far apart?

Close together- steep
Far apart- gradual slope (flatter)

15

What is gps? Give an example of how it is used.

Global Positioning System (24 satellites, master control station, user)
*can be used to find position, elevation, and time (speed and distance)
*it is not affected by bad weather
*can be used on land, at sea, or in the air

16

What is the "Rule of Vs"?

the river flows out of a very sharp curve in the contour line
When contour lines cross a river they make a V shape pointing upstream

17

How do you construct a profile from a topographic map?

Use paper edge to mark location and elevation of contour lines; plot locations on a graph to show a side view of map:
1) place a paper strip along the xy line printed on map a. label the x and y location on the paper strip
2) mark the points where the contour lines cross the paper strip and record the elevation of each point on the paper strip
3)tape this strip below graph a in the space provided
4) graph the points you marked on the paper strip. graph each point by placing a dot on the paper strip that corresponds to the elevation from map a
5) draw a line connecting the points on the graph connecting these points forms a map profile

18

When was our universe formed? Earth?

Earth-4.6 billion years ago
Universe-15 to 20 billion years ago

19

What is the shape of our earth and what caused it to be that shape?

the spinning motion (rotation)of the young earth caused it to form into a sphere that bulges in the center. such a shape is called an oblate spheroid (caused when earth was still semi-molten)

20

Would an object be heavier at sea level than it is at the top of Mount Everest? Why?

Heavier at sea level because the farther away an object is from earths center, the lighter it is. The closer an object is to the center of the earth, the stronger the pull of gravity

21

Name the four layers of the earths interior and identify whether it is solid or liquid.

inner core-solid
outer core-liquid
mantle-solid with liquid properties
crust-solid

22

What is the difference between earth's rotation and revolution? Name evidence for each.

Rotation-the spinning of earth around its axis causes day and night (Coriolis effect)
Revolution-causes years and it is the orbit of earth around the sun
(Parallax)

23

Describe the Coriolis effect

Wind and water will follow curved paths due to earths rotation
In the far northern hemisphere, winds are deflected to their right relative to earths surface. in the Southern Hemisphere, winds are deflected to their left

24

What are aphelion and perihelion?
When do they occur?
What effect do they have on the seasons?

Perihelion - occurs in the winter when the planet is closest to the sun in its orbit (Jan)
Aphelion - occurs in the summer when the planet is farthest from the sun in its orbit (July)
No effect on seasons

25

Describe the following features on the moon: maria, regolith, highland

Maria-extensive dark areas on the moon that represent great basins and level plains

Regolith-a grayish brown mixture of small rock pieces and fire. particles that cover the moon.

Highlands-the light areas of the moon

26

What caused the craters on the moon? Why are they still visible?

The impact of meteorites caused craters. They are still visible because

27

Why do we always see the same side of the moon

because the moon rotates once on its axis in exactly the same time that it revolves once around the earth

28

Why does the moon go through phases? What are the eight phases or the moon in order?

Phases are cUsed because of the moons revolution around earth
new moon
waxing crescent
first quarter
waning gibbous
full moon
waning gibbous
last quarter
waning crescent

29

Describe a lunar and solar eclipse

lunar eclipse-
-earth's shadow on the moon
-full moon phase
-moon appears red/copper color
-lasts about 2 hours
solar eclipse-
-moon's shadow on earth
-new moon phase
-lasts about 7 1/2 minutes
-occurs about every 300 years for any given location (total solar eclipse)

30

Define: astronomical unit, light year

astronomical unit-the average distance between earth and the sun
light year- the distance that light travels in one year

31

What reaction creates the sun's energy?

nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms

32

Distinguish between the geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar system

geocentric-earth centered
heliocentric-sun centered

33

What did the following astronomers contribute to our understanding of the universe? Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo, Kepler, Newton

Copernicus - heliocentric model of solar system
retrograde explained by varying rates of orbits
Brahe - built an observatory and recorded positions of stars and planets for 20 years
Galileo - used telescope to observe space discovered 4 of the moons around Jupiter and discovered phases of venus, observed moons surface
Kepler - published the laws of planetary motion
Newton - universal law of gravitation

34

Planetary motion law #1- all planets travel in _____ orbits

elliptical

35

Planetary motion law #2- speed of a planet is fastest at the _____ and slowest at the _______

equator, poles

36

Planetary motion law #3- if the period of revolution of a planet is known then the __________ can be calculated

harmonic law

37

List the planets in order outward from the sun

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

38

What are the general characteristics of the inner and outer planets?

inner- rocky crusts, dense mantle layers, and very dense cores
outer- gaseous, (hydrogen gas) less dense, have ring systems

39

Which planet has the largest volcano?

Mars

40

Which planet has the lowest density?

Saturn

41

Which planet is slowest in orbit?

Pluto

42

Which planet radiates energy into space?

Earth

43

Which planet has rings?

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

44

Which planet has the most craters?

Mercury

45

Which planet has the greenhouse effect?

Venus

46

Distinguish between a meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite.

meteoroid- rock/ice traveling in space
meteor- rock/ice burning up in the atmosphere
meteorite- rock that survives trip through atmosphere to strike earth

47

How do comets orbit the sun?

enlongated

48

What creates the tail of a comet?

The radiation caused some of the gas and dust to "back away" from the nucleus

49

What are the three types of spectra?

continuous, emission, absorption

50

What spectra is used to determine the composition of a star?

emission

51

What instrument is used to see the spectra?

spectroscope

52

Why do constellations change with the seasons?

revolution and rotation

53

How can polaris be located in the night sky?

directly overhead (north)

54

Stars are composed of mainly _________ and _________

hydrogen and helium

55

What kind of star is our sun?

Red giant

56

What stage will our sun become next?

supergiant

57

What is the life cycle of a star?

nebula
protostar
main sequence
red giant
Then either white dwarf of super giant
if it is a white dwarf then it becomes a nova
if it becomes a super giant then it becomes a supernova then neutron star then black hole

58

What determines the path a star will take?

the mass

59

What is a galaxy?

a system containing millions or even billions of stars

60

What are the three types of galaxies?

spiral
elliptical
irregular

61

What type of galaxy is ours?

spiral

62

What is our galaxy called?

The Milky Way

63

Explain the Big Bang

All matter was condensed into a dense sphere
The sphere suddenly and quickly expanded outward
the super hot and dense universe continued to expand more slowly
temperatures gradually decreased
atoms began to form and material collected into clouds of gas
these clouds became galaxies
eventually stars aged and planets formed

64

What are the five (5) characteristics that define a mineral?

inorganic
solid at room temperature
occurs naturally
definite chemical composition
atoms arranged in an orderly pattern

65

List the top four (4) most abundant elements in the Earth's crust.

silicates carbonates, oxides, and sulfides

*oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron

66

List the six (6) different crystal shapes

cubic, orthrhombic, tetragonal, hexagonal, triclinic, monoclinic

67

What is Moh's scale?

hardness scale goes from 1-10

It is the scale of a minerals resistance to scratching. Hardest is diamond softens is talc

68

What is the hardest mineral?

diamond

69

What is the softest mineral?

Talc

70

What tools can be used to do a hardness test?

fingernail, penny, nail, glass

71

What are the most abundant minerals?

Quartz

72

What is color?

the color of the mineral (sulfur is yellow)

73

What is luster?

way a mineral reflects light (metallic or nonmetallic)

74

What is streak?

color of a minerals powder
(Hematite -red streak)

75

What is fracture?

mineral breaks on uneven surface (quartz)

76

What is cleavage?

mineral breaks on flat surface (mica)

77

What is specific gravity?

weight compared to water=

78

What is double refraction?

Iceland Spar creates a double image

79

What is hardness?

resistance to scratching

80

What is the acid test?

Calcite will fizz in acid

81

What is taste?

halite tastes salty

82

List the four (4) major mineral groups/families. Give mineral examples for each group. How do we use those minerals in our every day lives?

silicates-quartz (glass manufacturing)(quartz and feldspar)
Carbonates- calcite (cement)(calcite and dolomite)
Oxides- hematite (an iron ore)(oxygen and metal)
Sulfides- pyrite (sulfur and a metal)

83

Is coal a mineral?

No. It's organic and minerals must be inorganic

84

What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

Mineral- a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a distinct chemical composition and crystalline structure
Rock- a naturally formed group of minerals bound together; can consist largely of one mineral or several different minerals in varying quantities

85

What are the three (3) major categories of rock? Give an example of each.

Igneous-granite and basalt
Sedimentary- limestone and shale
metamorphic- marble and gneiss

86

How do igneous rocks form?

Igneous rocks form from cooling and hardening of lava or magma

87

What is the difference between felsic rock and mafic rock? What type of rock is obsidian?

Felsic rock is light in color and has a high percentage of silica. Mafic rock is dark in color and low silica, Obsidian is felsic although it is dark.

88

What is the difference between intrusive rock and extrusive rock? Give and example of each.

Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly below the surface and have large grains (granite). Extrusive igneous rocks cool quickly near the surface and have small grains (basalt).

89

What rocks react to acid?

Limestone and marble

90

The three (3) groups of sedimentary rocks are _________, _________, and _________> How does each group form? Give and example for each group.

Clastic- other rock fragments (conglomerate and sandstone and shale)
Chemical- dissolved minerals (limestone and rock salt)
Organic- living things (coal and coquina)

91

What types of rocks form from shale?

clastic sedimentary- slate

92

What type of rock forms from granite?

intrusive felsic igneous rock - gneiss

93

What type of rock forms from congolmerate?

clastic sedimentary

94

What type of rock is schist?

Metamorphic rock

95

What type of rock is rhyolite?

extrusive, felsic igneous rock

96

What type of rock is rock gypsum?

Chemical sedimentary

97

What type of rock is coquina?

organic sedimentary

98

What type of rock is limestone?

chemical sedimentary. Marble forms from limestone

99

Define constant

The factors in an experiment that always remain the same

100

Define independent variable

Variable that is purposefully changed by experimenter

101

Define dependent variable

Variable that responds to changes in the independent variable, it is the measured variable