Flashcards in History Final Deck (215):
Where and when did Homo sapiens emerge?
Homo sapiens emerged in east Africa btwn 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Where did Homo sapiens migrate from? To?
Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the America's.
How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans?
Early humans were hunter/gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals.
Name 6 characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies in the old Stone Age :
. They were nomadic
. They invented first tools
. Learned how to make and use fire
. Lived in clans
. Developed oral languages
. Created cave art
What does cave art show archaeologists?
What daily life may have been like.
How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities?
Te beginning of settled agriculture and permanent settlements was a major step in the advance of civilization.
What are 5 characteristics of the societies in the New Stone Age?
. Developed agriculture (domesticated plants)
. Domesticated animals
. Used advanced tools
. Made pottery
. Developed weaving skills
What is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic age and completed during the Bronze Age ?
Name two examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent that are studied by archaeologists.
Aleppo and Jericho
What Neolithic settlement is currently under excavation in Anatolia?
What tests do archaeologists use to analyze fossils and artifacts?
Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys?
Settlements appeared in river valleys and around the Fertile Crescent because river valleys provided rich soil and irrigation for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic people.
Where were the earliest civilizations located?
Mesopotamia - near Tigris and Euphrates river valley ( Southwest Asia)
Egyptians - Nile river valley and its delta (Africa)
Indians - Indus River valley (south Asia)
Chinese - Huang He valley (east Asia)
Where did early Hebrews settle?
Between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan river valley (part of Fertile Crescent)
Where did early Phonecians settle?
Along Mediterranean coast (also part of Fertile Crescent)
Where was Nubia located?
On the upper (southern) Nile river , Africa
What were called the "cradles of civilization"?
What are some contributions made by early civilizations?
. Heredity rulers (dynasty kings, Pharaohs)
. Rigid caste system (slavery accepted)
. Developed political patterns
. World's first states( city states, kingdoms, empires)
. Centralized government (often based on religious authority)
. Written law codes (10 commandments, code of Hammurabi)
. Developed economic patterns
. Metal tools, weapons (bronze, iron)
. Increasing agricultural surplus (better tools, plows, irrigation)
. Increasing trade along rivers and by sea (Phonecians )
. Developed worlds first cities
. Developed the practice of slavery
What are two examples of written law codes from early civilizations?
Code of Hammurabi
What were medal tools and weapons made out of in early civilizations?
bronze and iron
What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?
polytheism (practiced my most early civilizations)
monotheism (practiced by hebrews)
WHo is considered the father of Judaism?
Who led the israelites out of Egypt?
WHat city is central to Judaism?
What people were the first to become monotheists?
WHat is the book that contains written records and beliefs of the Jews?
Which "laws" state the moral and religious conduct for Jews?
the ten commandments
How did Judaism influence western civilization?
the monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism christianity and islam- religions that changed the world
What was the Diaspora?
the scattering of the Jews
What forms of writing and language existed in early civilization?
What are Pictograms?
earliest written symbols
Where did hieroglyphics orriginate?
Where did Cuneiform orriginte?
What was the main Persian religion?
How did Persian govern its empire?
*tolerance of conquered people
*development of imperial bureaucracy
What did the religion of Zorastrianism believe?
Belief in two opposing forces in the universe
Why were physical geography ad location important to the development of indian civilization?
classical indian civilization began in the Indus River valley and spread to the ganges river valley, then threw the indian sub continent. it continued with little interruption because of its geographic location
What physical barriers made invasion more difficult?
the hindu Kush
What provided migration routes into the indian sub continent?
mountain passes in the Hindu Kush
What were the two most important rivers in the indian sub continent?
Why was the caste system central to indian culture?
the indo-aryan people migrated into the area creating a structured society (caste system) blended with those of the indigenous people
WHat impact did aryans have on india
creation of caste system which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations
What were some accomplishments of mauryan empire?
political unification of much of india
and spread of buddhism
What contributions were made by the Gupta empire (golden age of classical indian culture)
*math (concept of zero)
*medical advances (set bones)
*astronomey (concept earth was round)
What are some characteristics of the hindu religon?
*belief in many forms of one god
*rebirth based on karma
*concept of karma (knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences)
What were the Vedas and Upanishads?
hindu sacred writings
Where did Hinduism spread?
along major trade routes
Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
What are two major beliefs of Buddhism?
belief in the four noble truths and belief in the eight fold path
WHere was buddhism founded?
it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in a part of india that is present day Nepal
Who sent missionaries throughout Asia to spread Buddhism, making it a major faith?
Asoka's missionaries and their writings spread buddhism from where to where?
it spread from india to China and other parts of ASia
What are two of the most noted Chinese contributions to civilization?
Confucianism and Taoism
When did Chinese culture begin?
around 1500 B.C
How was China governed?
China was governed by a succession of ruling families called dynasties
Even though Chinese rulers were considered divine, they still served under what?
theyserved under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just
What facilitated trade and contact between China ad other cultures as far away as Rome?
the Silk Road
what are some contributions of classical china
1) civil service system
WHy was the Great Wall of China built?
it was built for China's protection against invaders from the north
Where was classical china centered?
it was centered on the Huang Ye (yellow river)- was geographically isolated
WHo built the Great Wall?
Qin Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against invasions
How did Confucianism contribute in forming the social order in China?
1) belief humans are good not bad
2) respect for elders
3) code of politeness (still used today)
4) emphasis on education
5) ancestor worship
What were some contributions of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values?
belief in humility
simple life and inner peace
harmony with nature
What did yin yang represent for confucianism and Taoism?
What led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the mediterranean and Black Sea?
expansion of greek civilization through trade and colonization
why was agriculture limited in greece?
limited arable land
Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life
what are two reasons given for greek colonization?
overpopulation and a search for farmable land
is greek mythology based on polytheistic or monotheistic religion
how did greek mythology impact later civilizations?
it was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to the culture politics and art of Ancient Greece
many western civilizations symbols, metaphors words and idealized images come from Ancient Greek mythology
art and architecture
what was the purpose of the greek myths
they were explanations of natural phenomenon, human qualities and life events
Name six greek gods or goddesses
how did democracy develop in athens
it started as a monarchy then became an aristocracy then became a tyranny and finally a democracy
although not everyone could participate in decision making
it became a foundation of modern democracy
what divided the greek city states of athens and Sparta
contrasting philosophies of government
what was the social structure in the greek polis?
citizens (only free adult males) had political rights and the responsibility of participation in government
women foreigners and slaves had no political rights
who were two tyrants in athens who worked for reform?
Draco and Solon
how did Sparta differ from athens
Sparta was an oligarchy with a rigid social structure and Sparta was militaristic and aggressive society
name something that helped cause the Peloponnesian war
competition between Sparta and athens for control of Greece
why were the persian wars important to greek culture?
persian wars united athens and Sparta against the persian empire
what two athenian victories over the persians left greeks in control of the Aegean sea
marathon and salamis
why was the greek victory important to athens
athens preserved its political independence and continued innovations in government and culture
Who controlled athens at the start of the peloponnesian war
the delian league
who controlled Sparta at the beginning of the peloponnesian war
the peloponnesian league
what was one result of the peloponnesian war
it resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power
when was the persian war
when was the peloponnesian war
why was the leadership of pericles important to the development of athenian life and greek culture
pericles extended democracy
pericles rebuilt athens after the persian wars (parthenon)
athenian culture became one of the foundation stones of western civilization
when was the golden age of Pericles?
it mostly occurred between the persian and peloponnesian wars
what were some important contributions of greek culture to western civilization
name the two most important playwrights from Ancient Greek culture
they were Aeschylus and Sophocles
what greek poet wrote the Iliad and the odyssey
who were ancient Greece's two most important historians
herodotus and Thucydides
name two Ancient Greek sculptors
Phidias and polyclitus (doryphoros)- considered the standard of ideal beauty
what are the three types of columns in greek architecture and which one is used in the parthenon
doric ionic Corinthian
who were two well known scientists of Ancient Greece
Archimedes and hypocrites
what is hypocrites known for
he is known for advances in medicine (hippocratic oath)
name two Ancient Greek mathematicians
Euclid and Pythagoras (pythagorean theorem)/ euclidian geometry
name the three most famous philosophers of ancient Greece
what was the teaching method of socrates
socratic method- utilizes question and answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason
who was Socrates disciple
who was considered the greatest philosopher in western civilization
what did Plato write
who was plato's student and who did he tutor
Alexander the Great
what did Aristotle write
how did the empire of Alexander the Great establish a basis for the spread of Hellenistic culture
he adopted greek culture and spread hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire
greek defenses had been weakened during the peloponnesian war
making it easier for macedonian conquest
who was king of macedon and conquered most of greece
Phillip the second
who established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of india and extended greek cultural influences
Alexander the Great
how was hellenistic culture spread
what is the hellenistic age a blend of
Blend of greek and oriental elements
how was geographic location important to development of Ancient Rome
the city of rome with its central location on the italian peninsula was able to extend its influence over the entire mediterranean basin
the italian peninsula was protected by the sea and an arc of mountains known as the alps
distant from eastern mediterranean powers
what was the source of roman mythology
based on a polytheistic religion integral to culture politics and art
and it explained natural phenomenon, human qualities, and life events
name six roman gods or goddesses
what impact did roman mythology have on later civilizations
many of western civilizations symbols metaphors words and idealized images come from ancient roman mythology
how did the government of the roman republic become more democratic in its decision making
although women, most aliens, and slaves, were excluded from the governing process, the roman republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy which became a foundation of modern democracy
what was the social structure in the roman republic
patricians (powerful nobility, few in number)
plebeians (majority of population)
slaves (not based on race)
who could be citizens in the roman republic
patricians and plebeian men and selected foreigners
citizenship came with rights are responsibility (taxes and military service)
name four features of democracy
during what war did rome conquer carthage
how was rome able to conquer carthage
hannibal invaded the italian peninsula
roman culture spread throughout the mediterranean basin as a result of what
the victory over carthage and the punic wars
what were rome and carthage in competition for
what were the dates for the punic wars
how many wars did it take for rome to defeat carthage
where did the Roman Empire spread to
mediterranean basin (Africa, asia, Europe, eastern mediterranean, western Europe, gaul,and the British isles
why did the roman republic fail to survive challenges by Julius caesar
the roman republic in the face of changing social and economic conditions succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime which was the roman empire
name four causes for the decline of the roman republic
spread of slavery in the agricultural system
migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment
civil war over the power of Julius caesar
devaluation of roman currency (inflation)
describe the evolution of imperial rome
Julius caesar - seizure of power, assassination
Augustus caesar- civil war, defeat of mark Antony, Rome's first emperor
empire- unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military
failure to provide for peaceful succession of emperors
what was the Pax Romana
2 centuries of peace and prosperity under roman rule
how did augustus caesar establish the Roman Empire
by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the empire
what was one outcome of the Pax Romana
expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire particularly in the near east
what was the economic impact of the Pax Romana
established uniform system of money which helped expand trade
guaranteed safe travel and trade on roman roads
promoted prosperity and stability
what was the social impact of the Pax Romana
returned stability to social classes and increased the emphasis on stability
what was the political impact of Pax Romana
created a civil service and developed a uniform rule of law
where does the origin of Christianity have its routes
it had its routes in judaism
who was considered the leader of christianity
it was lead by jesus of nazareth who was proclaimed to be the messiah
this conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of the Roman Empire
what were the essential beliefs of early christian faith
jesus as both son and incarnation of god
belief in life after death
Christian doctrine established by early church counsels
what is the name of the book containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus as well as the writings of early christians
the New Testament
how was christianity spread
followers of jesus spread christianity throughout the Roman Empire.
carried by the apostles including Paul throughout the Roman Empire and it slowed as a result of persecution by roman authorities
who adopted and legalized christianity
Who converted to Christianity and made it legal?
What was the impact of the church on the late Roman Empire?
. Christianity became official state religion
. Church became moral authority
. Loyalty to church was more important than loyalty to Emperor
. Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe
How was western civilization influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome?
Conquests and trade spread roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the empire.
What are some of the contributions of Ancient Rome?
. Art/architecture (pantheon, colosseum, forum)
. Technology (roads, aqueducts, arches)
. Science (Ptolemy)
. Language (Latin, Romance languages)
. Literature (Virgil's Aeneid)
. Religion (roman mythology, adoption of Christianity as imperial religion)
. Law (innocent until proven guilty from twelve tables)
How was medicine influenced by Ancient Rome?
There was an emphasis on public health. (Public baths, public water system, medical schools)
Why did western Roman Empire decline?
Te Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems such as:
. Geographic size
. Economy (cost of defense and devaluation of currency)
. Military (decline in discipline due to inclusion of non-Romans )
. Political ( civil conflict and weak administration)
. Invasion (attacks on boarders)
Name one reason for the division of the Roman Empire
move of the capital by constantine from rome to byzantium renaming it Constantinople
Why was Constantinople established as the capital
it was changed to Constantinople to provide political economic and military advantages
protection of the eastern frontier
crossroads of trade
distance from germanic invasions in the western empire
easily fortified sight on a peninsula ordering natural harbor
what was the role of constantinople
seat of byzantine emperor until ottoman conquest
preserved classical greco roman culture and center of trade
what was the influence of Justinian codification of roman law on later legal codes
Justinian provided basis for law codes of Western Europe
name three things justinian did
codification of roman law
reconquest of former roman territory
expansion of trade
what was Justinian's influence on the byzantine empire
under Justinian, the byzantine empire reached its height in culture and prosperity
how did greek and roman culture survive within the byzantine empire
Greek orthodox christianity and imperial patronage enabled the byzantine empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture
greek and roman traditions were preserved in the byzantine empire
name some byzantine achievements in art and architecture
icons (religious images)
mosaics in public and religious structures
Hagia Sofia (byzantine dome church)
inspiration provided by christian religion and imperial power
name some contributions of the byzantine culture
continued flourishing of greco roman traditions
the greek language (as contrasted with latin in the west)
Greek Orthodox christianity
greek and roman knowledge preserved in byzantine libraries
what factors produced the division within the christian church
the cultural and political differences between the eastern and the western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian church and led to its division
name three facts about the eastern church
centered in Constantinople
closer to seat of power after Constantinople became the capital
use of greek language in liturgy
name three characteristics of the western church
centered in rome
farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital
use of latin language in liturgy
name some differences between the western and eastern churches
authority of the pope eventually was excepted in the west whereas authority of the patriarch was excepted in the east
practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the west
what are some reasons for the influence of byzantine culture on russia and Eastern Europe
trade routes between Black Sea and baltic seA
adoption of orthodox Christianity by russia and much of eastern Europe
adoption of greek alphabet to the slavic languages by saint cereal (Cyrillic alphabet)
church architecture and religious art
where did the Islamic religion originate
mecca and medina on the arabian peninsula were early muslim cities
who was the prophet of islam
the revelations of muhammad formed the basis of islamic religion (monotheistic faith)
muhammad and his followers spread islam
where did islam spread to
the geographic extent of first muslim empire was across asia and Africa and into spain
what are the beliefs and traditions and customs of islam
monotheism (allah-arabic word for god)
the Quran (Koran- the word of God)
five pillars of Islam
acceptance of judeo-christian prophets including moses and Jesus
how did political and cultural geography facilitate trade and cultural activity in early islamic lands
in the first three centuries after Muhammad's death muslim rule expanded rapidly in the first three centuries, overcoming geographic barriers and facilitated by weakened political empires
political unity and the Arabic language facilitated trade and stimulated intellectual activity
what were some geographic influences on the origin and spread of islam
diffusion along trade routes from mecca and medina
expansion, despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers
sprad into the fertile crescent, Iran, and Central Asia, facilitated by weak byzantine and persian empires
name some geographic influences on economic social and political development
political unity of the first muslim empire was short lived
Arabic language spread with islam and facilitated trade across islamic lands
slavery was not based on race
what were five historical turning points that effected the spread of islamic civilization
death of Ali -sunni -shi'a division
muslim conquest of Jerusalem and damascus
islamic capital moved to Baghdad
muslim defeat at the battle of tours
fall of Baghdad to the mongols
what were some cultural contributions of the islamic civilization
*architecture (Dome of the rock)
*translation of ancient texts into arabic
name some scientific contributions of islamic civilization
arabic numerals (adapted from india), including zero
expansion of geographic knowledge
how did the church grow in importance in the Middle Ages
it grew in importance after roman authority declined.
it became the unifying force in Western Europe
during the Middle Ages, the pope anointed emperors, missionaries carry christianity to germanic tribes and the church served as the social, political, and religious needs of the people
what are three foundations of early medieval society
*the classical heritage of rome
*customs of germanic tribes
what influence did the roman catholic church have during the Middle Ages
*secular authority declined while church authority grew
*monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements
*missionaries carried christianity and Latin alphabet to germanic tribes
*pope anointed Charlemagne in 880
*parish priests served religious and social needs of the people
how did a feudal society develop in Europe during the Middle Ages
the decline of roman influence in western Europe left people with little protection against invasion so, they entered into feudal agreements with land holding lords who promised them protection
invasions shattered roman protection over the empire
what did the feudal society consist of
fief, vassals, serfs, and feudal obligations
how did the manorial system function during the Middle Ages
rigid class structure and self sufficient manors
how did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire
frankish kings used military power to expand their territory
the alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished roman culture in western Europe
franks emerged as a force in Western Europe
the pope crowed the emperor
power of the church was established in political life
roman culture was reinterpreted
most of Western Europe was included in the new empire
churches, roads and schools were built to unite the empire
how did invasions by the angles, saxons, magyars, and vikings influence the development of Europe
they disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe
name the areas of settlement from the invasions
the angles and saxons from continental Europe to England
the magyars settled from central asia to Hungary and the vikings settled from scandinavia to russia
what influence did the invaders have
invasions disrupted trade, towns declined, and the feudal system was strengthened
manors with castles provided protection from invaders, reinforcing the feudal system
what were the major trade routes during the medieval period
major trade routes in the eastern hemisphere were
*silk roads across asia to the mediterranean basin
*maratime routes across the Indian Ocean
*trans-saharan routes across North Africa
*northern european links with the Black Sea
*western european sea and river trade
*south china sea and lands of Southeast Asia
how did trade facilitate the spread of goods and ideas among different cultures
trade networks aided the diffusion or spread and exchange of technology and culture between Europe Africa and asia
how were goods spread
*gold, came from west Africa
*spices from lands around the Indian Ocean
*textiles from india, china, the Middle East, and later Europe
*porcelain from china and persia
*amber from the baltic region
what technology was spread
*paper from china through the muslim world to byzantium and Western Europe
*new crops from india (for making sugar)
*water wheels and windmills
*navigation- the compass from china and lateen sail from the Indian Ocean
what ideas were spread because of trade
spread of religions across the hemisphere and the spread of printing and paper money from china
what religions spread across the hemisphere
buddhism spread from china to korea and japan
hinduism and buddhism spread from india to Southeast Asia
and islam spread into west Africa central and Southeast Asia
where is japan located
it's a mountainous archipelago located in the Sea of Japan off the asian mainland
how did Chinese culture influence japan
because of china's proximity to japan, they influenced their writing, architecture, and buddhism
why where shinto and buddhism important to the development of japanese culture
they coexisted as religious traditions
name four facts about the shinto religion
its an ethnic religion unique to japan
importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors, it was the state religion worshipping the emperor and coexisted with buddhism
what states and empires flourished in Africa during the medieval period
in west Africa
Axum in east Africa
and Zimbabwe in South Africa
name two facts about Axum
located near Ethiopian highlands and the nile river
it was a Christian kingdom
name two facts about Zimbabwe
located near zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the Indian Ocean coast
city of great Zimbabwe was capital of a prosperous empire
what were the three west african kingdoms
Ghana Mail Songhai
what are three facts about the west african kingdoms
they are located near Niger River and sahara
importance of gold and salt to trans saharan trade
city of timbuktu as a center of trade and learning
role an animism and islam
where did the mayan civilization emerge
located in the mexican and Central American rain forest
name four facts about the mayan civilization
represented by chichen Itza
group of city states ruled by a king
economy based on agriculture and trade
polytheistic religion (pyramids)
where was the aztec civilization located
they were located in the arid valley in central mexico
name four facts about aztecs
they were ruled by an emperor
they were represented by tenochtitlan
their economy was based on agriculture and tribute from conquered peoples
polytheistic religion (pyramids, rituals)
where was the Incan civilization located
they were located in the andes mountains of South American
five facts about the Incan's
they were represented by Machu Picchu
they were ruled by an emperor
their economy was based on high altitude agriculture
they were a polytheistic religion and they had a road system
what were three achievements of the Aztec Mayan and Incan civilizations?
calendars mathematics and writing ad other record keeping systems
who led the norman conquest
William the conqueror (united most of england)
When did common law have its beginnings
during the reign of henry the second
what did king john sign limiting the kings power
what war helped define England and france as nations
the 100 years war between England and france
who established the french thrown in paris and his dynasty gradually expanded control over most of france
who was a unifying factor in france (during the 100 years war)
Joan of arc
who unified spain and expelled jews and moors
Ferdinand and Isabella
under who did the spanish empire in the Western Hemisphere expand
Charles the 5th
who threw off the rule of mongols, centralized power in Moscow and expanded the russian nation
Ivan the Great
what church influenced unification of russia
where was power in russia centralized
in the hands of the Tsar
what are the five key events of the crusades
Pope urban speech
capture of Jerusalem
the founding of crusader states
the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin
sack of Constantinople by western crusaders
Who carried out the crusades and why
they were carried out by christian political and religious leaders to take control of the holy land (Jerusalem) from the muslims