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Flashcards in History Final Deck (215):
0

Where and when did Homo sapiens emerge?

Homo sapiens emerged in east Africa btwn 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.

1

Where did Homo sapiens migrate from? To?

Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the America's.

2

How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans?

Early humans were hunter/gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals.

3

Name 6 characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies in the old Stone Age :

. They were nomadic
. They invented first tools
. Learned how to make and use fire
. Lived in clans
. Developed oral languages
. Created cave art

4

What does cave art show archaeologists?

What daily life may have been like.

5

How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities?

Te beginning of settled agriculture and permanent settlements was a major step in the advance of civilization.

6

What are 5 characteristics of the societies in the New Stone Age?

. Developed agriculture (domesticated plants)
. Domesticated animals
. Used advanced tools
. Made pottery
. Developed weaving skills

7

What is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic age and completed during the Bronze Age ?

Stonehenge

8

Name two examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent that are studied by archaeologists.

Aleppo and Jericho

9

What Neolithic settlement is currently under excavation in Anatolia?

Catalhoyuk

10

What tests do archaeologists use to analyze fossils and artifacts?

Carbon dating

11

Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys?

Settlements appeared in river valleys and around the Fertile Crescent because river valleys provided rich soil and irrigation for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic people.

12

Where were the earliest civilizations located?

Mesopotamia - near Tigris and Euphrates river valley ( Southwest Asia)
Egyptians - Nile river valley and its delta (Africa)
Indians - Indus River valley (south Asia)
Chinese - Huang He valley (east Asia)

13

Where did early Hebrews settle?

Between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan river valley (part of Fertile Crescent)

14

Where did early Phonecians settle?

Along Mediterranean coast (also part of Fertile Crescent)

15

Where was Nubia located?

On the upper (southern) Nile river , Africa

16

What were called the "cradles of civilization"?

River valleys

17

What are some contributions made by early civilizations?

. Heredity rulers (dynasty kings, Pharaohs)
. Rigid caste system (slavery accepted)
. Developed political patterns
. World's first states( city states, kingdoms, empires)
. Centralized government (often based on religious authority)
. Written law codes (10 commandments, code of Hammurabi)
. Developed economic patterns
. Metal tools, weapons (bronze, iron)
. Increasing agricultural surplus (better tools, plows, irrigation)
. Increasing trade along rivers and by sea (Phonecians )
. Developed worlds first cities
. Developed the practice of slavery

18

What are two examples of written law codes from early civilizations?

Code of Hammurabi
Ten Commandments

19

What were medal tools and weapons made out of in early civilizations?

bronze and iron

20

What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?

polytheism (practiced my most early civilizations)
monotheism (practiced by hebrews)

21

WHo is considered the father of Judaism?

Abraham

22

Who led the israelites out of Egypt?

Moses

23

WHat city is central to Judaism?

Jerusalem

24

What people were the first to become monotheists?

Hebrews

25

WHat is the book that contains written records and beliefs of the Jews?

Torah

26

Which "laws" state the moral and religious conduct for Jews?

the ten commandments

27

How did Judaism influence western civilization?

the monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism christianity and islam- religions that changed the world

28

What was the Diaspora?

the scattering of the Jews

29

What forms of writing and language existed in early civilization?

Cuneiform
Hieroglyphics
Pictograms
Phoenician Alphabet

30

What are Pictograms?

earliest written symbols

31

Where did hieroglyphics orriginate?

Egypt

32

Where did Cuneiform orriginte?

sumer

33

What was the main Persian religion?

Zoroastrianism

34

How did Persian govern its empire?

*tolerance of conquered people
*development of imperial bureaucracy
*road system
*religion- Zorastrianism

35

What did the religion of Zorastrianism believe?

Belief in two opposing forces in the universe

36

Why were physical geography ad location important to the development of indian civilization?

classical indian civilization began in the Indus River valley and spread to the ganges river valley, then threw the indian sub continent. it continued with little interruption because of its geographic location

37

What physical barriers made invasion more difficult?

the himalayas
the hindu Kush
Indian Ocean

38

What provided migration routes into the indian sub continent?

mountain passes in the Hindu Kush

39

What were the two most important rivers in the indian sub continent?

indus
ganges

40

Why was the caste system central to indian culture?

the indo-aryan people migrated into the area creating a structured society (caste system) blended with those of the indigenous people

41

WHat impact did aryans have on india

creation of caste system which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations

42

What were some accomplishments of mauryan empire?

political unification of much of india
spread buddhism
free hospitals
veterinary clinics
good roads
and spread of buddhism

43

What contributions were made by the Gupta empire (golden age of classical indian culture)

*math (concept of zero)
*medical advances (set bones)
*astronomey (concept earth was round)
*new textiles
*literature

44

What are some characteristics of the hindu religon?

*belief in many forms of one god
*reincarnation
*rebirth based on karma
*concept of karma (knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences)

45

What were the Vedas and Upanishads?

hindu sacred writings

46

Where did Hinduism spread?

along major trade routes

47

Who was the founder of Buddhism?

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

48

What are two major beliefs of Buddhism?

belief in the four noble truths and belief in the eight fold path

49

WHere was buddhism founded?

it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in a part of india that is present day Nepal

50

Who sent missionaries throughout Asia to spread Buddhism, making it a major faith?

Asoka

51

Asoka's missionaries and their writings spread buddhism from where to where?

it spread from india to China and other parts of ASia

52

What are two of the most noted Chinese contributions to civilization?

Confucianism and Taoism

53

When did Chinese culture begin?

around 1500 B.C

54

How was China governed?

China was governed by a succession of ruling families called dynasties

55

Even though Chinese rulers were considered divine, they still served under what?

theyserved under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just

56

What facilitated trade and contact between China ad other cultures as far away as Rome?

the Silk Road

57

what are some contributions of classical china

1) civil service system
2) paper
3) porcelain
4) silk

58

WHy was the Great Wall of China built?

it was built for China's protection against invaders from the north

59

Where was classical china centered?

it was centered on the Huang Ye (yellow river)- was geographically isolated

60

WHo built the Great Wall?

Qin Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against invasions

61

How did Confucianism contribute in forming the social order in China?

1) belief humans are good not bad
2) respect for elders
3) code of politeness (still used today)
4) emphasis on education
5) ancestor worship

62

What were some contributions of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values?

belief in humility
simple life and inner peace
harmony with nature

63

What did yin yang represent for confucianism and Taoism?

opposites

64

What led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the mediterranean and Black Sea?

expansion of greek civilization through trade and colonization

65

why was agriculture limited in greece?

limited arable land

66

T/F
Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life

true

67

what are two reasons given for greek colonization?

overpopulation and a search for farmable land

68

is greek mythology based on polytheistic or monotheistic religion

polytheistic

69

how did greek mythology impact later civilizations?

it was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to the culture politics and art of Ancient Greece
many western civilizations symbols, metaphors words and idealized images come from Ancient Greek mythology
art and architecture

70

what was the purpose of the greek myths

they were explanations of natural phenomenon, human qualities and life events

71

Name six greek gods or goddesses

zeus
Hera
Apollo
artemis
athena
Aphrodite

72

how did democracy develop in athens

it started as a monarchy then became an aristocracy then became a tyranny and finally a democracy
although not everyone could participate in decision making
it became a foundation of modern democracy

73

what divided the greek city states of athens and Sparta

contrasting philosophies of government
athens, democracy
Sparta, oligarchy

74

what was the social structure in the greek polis?

citizens (only free adult males) had political rights and the responsibility of participation in government
women foreigners and slaves had no political rights

75

who were two tyrants in athens who worked for reform?

Draco and Solon

76

how did Sparta differ from athens

Sparta was an oligarchy with a rigid social structure and Sparta was militaristic and aggressive society

77

name something that helped cause the Peloponnesian war

competition between Sparta and athens for control of Greece

78

why were the persian wars important to greek culture?

persian wars united athens and Sparta against the persian empire

79

what two athenian victories over the persians left greeks in control of the Aegean sea

marathon and salamis

80

why was the greek victory important to athens

athens preserved its political independence and continued innovations in government and culture

81

Who controlled athens at the start of the peloponnesian war

the delian league

82

who controlled Sparta at the beginning of the peloponnesian war

the peloponnesian league

83

what was one result of the peloponnesian war

it resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power

84

when was the persian war

499-449 bc

85

when was the peloponnesian war

431-404 bc

86

why was the leadership of pericles important to the development of athenian life and greek culture

pericles extended democracy
pericles rebuilt athens after the persian wars (parthenon)
athenian culture became one of the foundation stones of western civilization

87

when was the golden age of Pericles?

it mostly occurred between the persian and peloponnesian wars

88

what were some important contributions of greek culture to western civilization

drama
poetry
history
sculpture
architecture
science
math
philosophy

89

name the two most important playwrights from Ancient Greek culture

they were Aeschylus and Sophocles

90

what greek poet wrote the Iliad and the odyssey

homer

91

who were ancient Greece's two most important historians

herodotus and Thucydides

92

name two Ancient Greek sculptors

Phidias and polyclitus (doryphoros)- considered the standard of ideal beauty

93

what are the three types of columns in greek architecture and which one is used in the parthenon

doric ionic Corinthian
doric

94

who were two well known scientists of Ancient Greece

Archimedes and hypocrites

95

what is hypocrites known for

he is known for advances in medicine (hippocratic oath)

96

name two Ancient Greek mathematicians

Euclid and Pythagoras (pythagorean theorem)/ euclidian geometry

97

name the three most famous philosophers of ancient Greece

socrates
plato
aristotle

98

what was the teaching method of socrates

socratic method- utilizes question and answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason

99

who was Socrates disciple

Plato

100

who was considered the greatest philosopher in western civilization

plato

101

what did Plato write

the republic

102

who was plato's student and who did he tutor

Aristotle
Alexander the Great

103

what did Aristotle write

politics

104

how did the empire of Alexander the Great establish a basis for the spread of Hellenistic culture

he adopted greek culture and spread hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire
greek defenses had been weakened during the peloponnesian war
making it easier for macedonian conquest

105

who was king of macedon and conquered most of greece

Phillip the second

106

who established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of india and extended greek cultural influences

Alexander the Great

107

how was hellenistic culture spread

through trade

108

what is the hellenistic age a blend of

Blend of greek and oriental elements

109

how was geographic location important to development of Ancient Rome

the city of rome with its central location on the italian peninsula was able to extend its influence over the entire mediterranean basin
the italian peninsula was protected by the sea and an arc of mountains known as the alps
distant from eastern mediterranean powers

110

what was the source of roman mythology

based on a polytheistic religion integral to culture politics and art
and it explained natural phenomenon, human qualities, and life events

111

name six roman gods or goddesses

jupiter
juno
Apollo
Diana
minerva
venus

112

what impact did roman mythology have on later civilizations

many of western civilizations symbols metaphors words and idealized images come from ancient roman mythology

113

how did the government of the roman republic become more democratic in its decision making

although women, most aliens, and slaves, were excluded from the governing process, the roman republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy which became a foundation of modern democracy

114

what was the social structure in the roman republic

patricians (powerful nobility, few in number)
plebeians (majority of population)
slaves (not based on race)

115

who could be citizens in the roman republic

patricians and plebeian men and selected foreigners
citizenship came with rights are responsibility (taxes and military service)

116

name four features of democracy

representative democracy
assemblies
the senate
consuls

117

during what war did rome conquer carthage

punic wars

118

how was rome able to conquer carthage

hannibal invaded the italian peninsula

119

roman culture spread throughout the mediterranean basin as a result of what

the victory over carthage and the punic wars

120

what were rome and carthage in competition for

trade

121

what were the dates for the punic wars

264-146 bc

122

how many wars did it take for rome to defeat carthage

three wars

123

where did the Roman Empire spread to

mediterranean basin (Africa, asia, Europe, eastern mediterranean, western Europe, gaul,and the British isles

124

why did the roman republic fail to survive challenges by Julius caesar

the roman republic in the face of changing social and economic conditions succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime which was the roman empire

125

name four causes for the decline of the roman republic

spread of slavery in the agricultural system
migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment
civil war over the power of Julius caesar
devaluation of roman currency (inflation)

126

describe the evolution of imperial rome

first triumvirate
Julius caesar - seizure of power, assassination
Augustus caesar- civil war, defeat of mark Antony, Rome's first emperor
empire- unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military
failure to provide for peaceful succession of emperors

127

what was the Pax Romana

2 centuries of peace and prosperity under roman rule

128

how did augustus caesar establish the Roman Empire

by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the empire

129

what was one outcome of the Pax Romana

expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire particularly in the near east

130

what was the economic impact of the Pax Romana

established uniform system of money which helped expand trade
guaranteed safe travel and trade on roman roads
promoted prosperity and stability

131

what was the social impact of the Pax Romana

returned stability to social classes and increased the emphasis on stability

132

what was the political impact of Pax Romana

created a civil service and developed a uniform rule of law

133

where does the origin of Christianity have its routes

it had its routes in judaism

134

who was considered the leader of christianity

it was lead by jesus of nazareth who was proclaimed to be the messiah
this conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of the Roman Empire

135

what were the essential beliefs of early christian faith

monotheism
jesus as both son and incarnation of god
belief in life after death
Christian doctrine established by early church counsels

136

what is the name of the book containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus as well as the writings of early christians

the New Testament

137

how was christianity spread

followers of jesus spread christianity throughout the Roman Empire.
carried by the apostles including Paul throughout the Roman Empire and it slowed as a result of persecution by roman authorities

138

who adopted and legalized christianity

emperor constantine

139

Who converted to Christianity and made it legal?

Emperor Constantine

140

What was the impact of the church on the late Roman Empire?

. Christianity became official state religion
. Church became moral authority
. Loyalty to church was more important than loyalty to Emperor
. Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe

141

How was western civilization influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome?

Conquests and trade spread roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the empire.

142

What are some of the contributions of Ancient Rome?

. Art/architecture (pantheon, colosseum, forum)
. Technology (roads, aqueducts, arches)
. Science (Ptolemy)
. Medicine
. Language (Latin, Romance languages)
. Literature (Virgil's Aeneid)
. Religion (roman mythology, adoption of Christianity as imperial religion)
. Law (innocent until proven guilty from twelve tables)
.

143

How was medicine influenced by Ancient Rome?

There was an emphasis on public health. (Public baths, public water system, medical schools)

144

Why did western Roman Empire decline?

Te Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems such as:
. Geographic size
. Economy (cost of defense and devaluation of currency)
. Military (decline in discipline due to inclusion of non-Romans )
. Political ( civil conflict and weak administration)
. Invasion (attacks on boarders)

145

Name one reason for the division of the Roman Empire

move of the capital by constantine from rome to byzantium renaming it Constantinople

146

Why was Constantinople established as the capital

it was changed to Constantinople to provide political economic and military advantages
protection of the eastern frontier
crossroads of trade
distance from germanic invasions in the western empire
easily fortified sight on a peninsula ordering natural harbor

147

what was the role of constantinople

seat of byzantine emperor until ottoman conquest
preserved classical greco roman culture and center of trade

148

what was the influence of Justinian codification of roman law on later legal codes

Justinian provided basis for law codes of Western Europe

149

name three things justinian did

codification of roman law
reconquest of former roman territory
expansion of trade

150

what was Justinian's influence on the byzantine empire

under Justinian, the byzantine empire reached its height in culture and prosperity

151

how did greek and roman culture survive within the byzantine empire

Greek orthodox christianity and imperial patronage enabled the byzantine empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture
greek and roman traditions were preserved in the byzantine empire

152

name some byzantine achievements in art and architecture

icons (religious images)
mosaics in public and religious structures
Hagia Sofia (byzantine dome church)
inspiration provided by christian religion and imperial power

153

name some contributions of the byzantine culture

continued flourishing of greco roman traditions
the greek language (as contrasted with latin in the west)
Greek Orthodox christianity
greek and roman knowledge preserved in byzantine libraries

154

what factors produced the division within the christian church

the cultural and political differences between the eastern and the western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian church and led to its division

155

name three facts about the eastern church

centered in Constantinople
closer to seat of power after Constantinople became the capital
use of greek language in liturgy

156

name three characteristics of the western church

centered in rome
farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital
use of latin language in liturgy

157

name some differences between the western and eastern churches

authority of the pope eventually was excepted in the west whereas authority of the patriarch was excepted in the east
practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the west

158

what are some reasons for the influence of byzantine culture on russia and Eastern Europe

trade routes between Black Sea and baltic seA
adoption of orthodox Christianity by russia and much of eastern Europe
adoption of greek alphabet to the slavic languages by saint cereal (Cyrillic alphabet)
church architecture and religious art

159

where did the Islamic religion originate

mecca and medina on the arabian peninsula were early muslim cities

160

who was the prophet of islam

the revelations of muhammad formed the basis of islamic religion (monotheistic faith)
muhammad and his followers spread islam

161

where did islam spread to

the geographic extent of first muslim empire was across asia and Africa and into spain

162

what are the beliefs and traditions and customs of islam

monotheism (allah-arabic word for god)
the Quran (Koran- the word of God)
five pillars of Islam
acceptance of judeo-christian prophets including moses and Jesus

163

how did political and cultural geography facilitate trade and cultural activity in early islamic lands

in the first three centuries after Muhammad's death muslim rule expanded rapidly in the first three centuries, overcoming geographic barriers and facilitated by weakened political empires
political unity and the Arabic language facilitated trade and stimulated intellectual activity

164

what were some geographic influences on the origin and spread of islam

diffusion along trade routes from mecca and medina
expansion, despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers
sprad into the fertile crescent, Iran, and Central Asia, facilitated by weak byzantine and persian empires

165

name some geographic influences on economic social and political development

political unity of the first muslim empire was short lived
Arabic language spread with islam and facilitated trade across islamic lands
slavery was not based on race

166

what were five historical turning points that effected the spread of islamic civilization

death of Ali -sunni -shi'a division
muslim conquest of Jerusalem and damascus
islamic capital moved to Baghdad
muslim defeat at the battle of tours
fall of Baghdad to the mongols

167

what were some cultural contributions of the islamic civilization

*architecture (Dome of the rock)
*mosaics
*arabic alphabet
*universities
*translation of ancient texts into arabic

168

name some scientific contributions of islamic civilization

arabic numerals (adapted from india), including zero
algebra
medicine
expansion of geographic knowledge

169

how did the church grow in importance in the Middle Ages

it grew in importance after roman authority declined.
it became the unifying force in Western Europe
during the Middle Ages, the pope anointed emperors, missionaries carry christianity to germanic tribes and the church served as the social, political, and religious needs of the people

170

what are three foundations of early medieval society

*the classical heritage of rome
*christian beliefs
*customs of germanic tribes

171

what influence did the roman catholic church have during the Middle Ages

*secular authority declined while church authority grew
*monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements
*missionaries carried christianity and Latin alphabet to germanic tribes
*pope anointed Charlemagne in 880
*parish priests served religious and social needs of the people

172

how did a feudal society develop in Europe during the Middle Ages

the decline of roman influence in western Europe left people with little protection against invasion so, they entered into feudal agreements with land holding lords who promised them protection
invasions shattered roman protection over the empire

173

what did the feudal society consist of

fief, vassals, serfs, and feudal obligations

174

how did the manorial system function during the Middle Ages

rigid class structure and self sufficient manors

175

how did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire

frankish kings used military power to expand their territory
the alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished roman culture in western Europe
franks emerged as a force in Western Europe
the pope crowed the emperor
power of the church was established in political life
roman culture was reinterpreted
most of Western Europe was included in the new empire
churches, roads and schools were built to unite the empire

176

how did invasions by the angles, saxons, magyars, and vikings influence the development of Europe

they disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe

177

name the areas of settlement from the invasions

the angles and saxons from continental Europe to England
the magyars settled from central asia to Hungary and the vikings settled from scandinavia to russia

178

what influence did the invaders have

invasions disrupted trade, towns declined, and the feudal system was strengthened
manors with castles provided protection from invaders, reinforcing the feudal system

179

what were the major trade routes during the medieval period

major trade routes in the eastern hemisphere were
*silk roads across asia to the mediterranean basin
*maratime routes across the Indian Ocean
*trans-saharan routes across North Africa
*northern european links with the Black Sea
*western european sea and river trade
*south china sea and lands of Southeast Asia

180

how did trade facilitate the spread of goods and ideas among different cultures

trade networks aided the diffusion or spread and exchange of technology and culture between Europe Africa and asia

181

how were goods spread

*gold, came from west Africa
*spices from lands around the Indian Ocean
*textiles from india, china, the Middle East, and later Europe
*porcelain from china and persia
*amber from the baltic region

182

what technology was spread

*paper from china through the muslim world to byzantium and Western Europe
*new crops from india (for making sugar)
*water wheels and windmills
*navigation- the compass from china and lateen sail from the Indian Ocean

183

what ideas were spread because of trade

spread of religions across the hemisphere and the spread of printing and paper money from china

184

what religions spread across the hemisphere

buddhism spread from china to korea and japan
hinduism and buddhism spread from india to Southeast Asia
and islam spread into west Africa central and Southeast Asia

185

where is japan located


it's a mountainous archipelago located in the Sea of Japan off the asian mainland

186

how did Chinese culture influence japan

because of china's proximity to japan, they influenced their writing, architecture, and buddhism

187

why where shinto and buddhism important to the development of japanese culture

they coexisted as religious traditions

188

name four facts about the shinto religion

its an ethnic religion unique to japan
importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors, it was the state religion worshipping the emperor and coexisted with buddhism

189

what states and empires flourished in Africa during the medieval period

GhAna
Mali
Songhai
in west Africa
Axum in east Africa
and Zimbabwe in South Africa

190

name two facts about Axum

located near Ethiopian highlands and the nile river
it was a Christian kingdom

191

name two facts about Zimbabwe

located near zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the Indian Ocean coast
city of great Zimbabwe was capital of a prosperous empire

192

what were the three west african kingdoms

Ghana Mail Songhai

193

what are three facts about the west african kingdoms

they are located near Niger River and sahara
importance of gold and salt to trans saharan trade
city of timbuktu as a center of trade and learning
role an animism and islam

194

where did the mayan civilization emerge

located in the mexican and Central American rain forest

195

name four facts about the mayan civilization

represented by chichen Itza
group of city states ruled by a king
economy based on agriculture and trade
polytheistic religion (pyramids)

196

where was the aztec civilization located

they were located in the arid valley in central mexico

197

name four facts about aztecs

they were ruled by an emperor
they were represented by tenochtitlan
their economy was based on agriculture and tribute from conquered peoples
polytheistic religion (pyramids, rituals)

198

where was the Incan civilization located

they were located in the andes mountains of South American

199

five facts about the Incan's

they were represented by Machu Picchu
they were ruled by an emperor
their economy was based on high altitude agriculture
they were a polytheistic religion and they had a road system

200

what were three achievements of the Aztec Mayan and Incan civilizations?

calendars mathematics and writing ad other record keeping systems

201

who led the norman conquest

William the conqueror (united most of england)

202

When did common law have its beginnings

during the reign of henry the second

203

what did king john sign limiting the kings power

Magna Carta

204

what war helped define England and france as nations

the 100 years war between England and france

205

who established the french thrown in paris and his dynasty gradually expanded control over most of france

Hugh Capet

206

who was a unifying factor in france (during the 100 years war)

Joan of arc

207

who unified spain and expelled jews and moors

Ferdinand and Isabella

208

under who did the spanish empire in the Western Hemisphere expand

Charles the 5th

209

who threw off the rule of mongols, centralized power in Moscow and expanded the russian nation

Ivan the Great

210

what church influenced unification of russia

Orthodox Church

211

where was power in russia centralized

in the hands of the Tsar

212

what are the five key events of the crusades

Pope urban speech
capture of Jerusalem
the founding of crusader states
the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin
sack of Constantinople by western crusaders

213

Who carried out the crusades and why

they were carried out by christian political and religious leaders to take control of the holy land (Jerusalem) from the muslims

214

What are the four effects of the crusades

weakened the pope and nobles
strengthened monarchs
stimulated trade throughout the mediterranean area
and the Middle East
left a legacy of bitterness among christians jews and muslims
weakened the byzantine empire