Anemia/Blood parasites/WBC abnormalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anemia/Blood parasites/WBC abnormalities Deck (217):
1

What is anemia?

decreased RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, and PCV

2

Anemia is a reduction of?

oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

3

Anemia is more commonly a result of a _____ disease process rather than a ____ disease.

generalized, primary

4

T/F Once anemia has been detected, its cause should be investigated to determine the proper therapeutic management of the patient.

true

5

T/F Treatment is not to be directed at the anemia necessarily (unless it is an emergency) but the underlying cause which must be determined and corrected.

true

6

The development of clinical signs of anemia and their severity depends on what four things?

how rapid of an onset of the anemia, degree, cause, and physical activity of animal

7

T/F Relative anemia is the most common form.

false-absolute

8

Classification of relative and absolute(indices) anemia are based on what 3 factors?

1) erythrocyte morphology(regenerative or not)
2) indicies (MCV/MCHC)
3) bone marrow response

9

Morphology classification is based on the erythrocyte indices ___ and ___ .

mcv, mchc

10

When this classification is used a normal MCV is termed ____, a normal MCHC is _____

normocytic, normochromic

11

Evidence of bone marrow response to anemia is then obtained by determining the degree of _______ in the blood

reticulocytes

12

Based on the bone marrow erythropoietic response evident in the peripheral blood, anemia is classified as ____ or ____.

regenerative or nonregenerative

13

How long does it take the bone marrow to show a positive response to blood loss?

3-5 days

14

What is regenerative anemia?

evidence of increased RBC production in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, must see an increased number of reticulocytes(polychromataphils)

15

In regenerative anemia what 5 things can you see a combination of?

1) reticulocytes 2) anisocytosis 3) polychromataphils 4) nRBCs 5) howell-jolly bodies-nuclear remanant

16

What is nonregenerative anemia?

when bone marrow is not responding, suggests that the primary cause of anemia has a pathologic or suppressant effect on the bone marrow

17

An expression of the percentage of RBCs that are reticulocytes

reticulocyte count

18

What is the best semiquantitative indicator of bone marrow response?

reticulocyte count

19

What 2 types of reticulocytes are seen in cats and should be counted?

punctate and aggregate

20

The absence of reticulocytes in an anemic patient suggests?

bone marrow failure, reduced erythropoietin production, or defective iron utilization

21

To incubate blood for a reticulocyte count of many drops of blood do you need? Stain? How long does it take?

3 drops of blood, 3 drops of stain, 10 minutes

22

T/F A corrected reticulocyte count above 1% in a dog and cat indicates an active response.

true

23

Regenerative anemia can cause what diease?

renal disease

24

One third of the blood volume has been lost in a short period of time, shock occurs and death may ensue-tachycardia dyspnea

acute blood loss

25

What are the 4 signs of acute hemolytic anemia?

1)icterus/bilirubin 2)hemoglobemia 3)hemoglobiuria 4) fever

26

A PCV greater than 70% would suggest a primary?

polycythemia

27

What is relative polycythemia?

dehydration

28

What is primary polycythemia?

bone marrow

29

If there is an increase in spherocytes what does that indicate?

immune mediated anemia

30

How do sphereocytes affect MCHC value?

has no effect

31

What are examples of chronic blood loss?

renal failure, flea anemia, blood parasites

32

What are some signs of acute blood loss?

tachycardia, dypsnea

33

T/F Anemia is a primary disease.

false-generalized

34

The decreased values of what 2 blood tests would be indicative of anemia?

PCV, RBC, Hb count

35

List 4 clinical signs a patient that is anemic may demonstrate.

dypsnea, tachycardia, paleness, weakness, lethargic

36

Indicate 2 classifications of anemia based on morphology.

1) regenerative 2) nonregenerative

37

Every time you do a blood smear and anemia is present what question do you need to ask yourself?

If it's regenerative or nonregenerative

38

The answer to the question you ask yourself is based on what?

An increase in reticulocytes and if the MCV and MCHC are increased or decreased based on normal values

39

List 5 things you may see on a blood smear? What one thing is required to determine if bone marrow is responding appropriately to the anemia?

1) anisocytosis 2) polychromataphils 3) reticulocytes-indicates 4)nRbcs 5) howell-jolly bodies

40

To confirm a positive bone marrow response indicated by what you see on your blood smear what test would you need to run?

reticulocyte count

41

Why is icterus seen in hemolytic anemias?

the bilirubin carried in RBC from the liver

42

Dirofilaria immitis prepatent, where it's located, intermediate host?

6-9 months, pulmonary arteries->right ventricle->right atrium, mosquito

43

Acanthocheilonema reconditum is where? How is it transmitted?

subcutaneous, fleas

44

What's the difference between A. reconditum and D. imminitis?

A. reconditum is non pathological and has a blunt head with a curved body, D. immunitis is pathological has a tapered head and straight body

45

Leishmania infantum/chagasi is what phylum? Intracellular or epicellular? Where is it? Transmitted?

protozoa, intracellular in WBC, by sandflies

46

Anaplasma phagocytophilum what phylum? What type of infection is it? What type of organism is it?

protozoa, tick-borne infection, rickettsial organism

47

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects what type of cell?

neturophils (morulae found in circulating neutrophils)

48

How can you diagnose Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

PCR, Serology (in-house snap test), identification of morulae in neutrophil

49

T/F Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects the neutrophils (its also granulocytotrophic) and has been seen in Eosinophils but it is rare.

true

50

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by?

Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus

51

Anaplasma platys is what type of parasite? Phylum? What does it affect? Intra or Epi?

Rickettsial parasite, is a protozoa, which affects the platelets, intracellular in platelets

52

Anaplasma platys is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected _____ (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) or other arthropod

tick

53

Anaplasma platys is difficult to find in the platelets because of its _____ nature

cyclic canine thrombocytopenia

54

Which parasite often times an “incidental finding?”

Anaplasma playts

55

Parasite that is worldwide, tick borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites

Canine babesiosis

56

Babesia canis the vector?

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

57

Babesia canis is it intracellular or epicellular? Transmitted?

intracellular in canine RBC, ticks

58

Describe 4 things about Babesia canis.

1) tear drop shape(piroplasmosis) intracellular organisms
2) usually seen singularly, pairs, multiples
3) only a small number of the RBCs will be affected
4) causes immune meditated hemolytic anemia

59

Describe 4 things about Babesia gibsoni.

1) vector unknown
2) small, pleomorphic organism
3) observed in erythrocyte
4) thrombocytopenia is commonly seen

60

Cytauxzoon felis is the _____ blood protozoan of cats

tick-bourne

61

Cytauxzoon felis is it intracellular or epicellular? Where is it? Vector? How is it transmitted?

intracellular in RBCs, Dermacentor variablis, fatal and rapid, ticks

62

Ehrlichiosis is transmitted? Where is it?

through ticks, monocytes

63

Ehrlichia canis is transmitted by?

Brown dog tick-Rhipicephalus sanguineus

64

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is transmitted by?

Lone Star Tick-Amblyomma americanum

65

Ehrlichia ewingii is transmitted by?

Lone Star Tick-Amblyomma americanum

66

Ehrlichia ewingii appear in small clusters in the cytoplasm of?

the monocyte and neutrophil

67

Mycoplasma haemophilus is intracellular or epicellular? What disease does it cause?

(human form) epicellular on feline RBCs, anemia

68

Describe 4 things about Mycoplasma haemophilus.

1) appear as small coccoid, rod shaped or ring-line structures
2) stain purple
3) often appear as short rods on the periphery of RBCs
4) parasite is cyclic

69

T/F Mycoplasma haemocanis is common in dogs.

false-rare

70

Which parasite is usually seen only in dogs that have had their spleen removed or are immunosuppressed

Mycoplasma haemocanis

71

Organisms of Mycoplasma haemocanis appear as chains of small ____ or rods that are on the surface of the cell.

cocci

72

The diagnosis for Ehrlichia ewingii is?

PCR, buffy coat smear can be beneficial since the organisms are difficult to find and are usually seen only at the acute phase

73

What is usually responsible for leukocytosis?

one cell

74

What can increase WBC count? What does steroids increase?

stress, steroids increases neutrophils

75

Degree of leukocytosis depends upon several factors:

1) cause of elevation
2) severity of infection
3) resistance of the animal(sick, old, neonate)
4) species variation

76

What are the types of Leukocytosis?

1) physiologic (stress, fear, pregnancy)
2) pathologic (disease, infection, drugs, necrosis)

77

A common change that may be seen in animals with inflammation is the presence of?

increased numbers of immature neutrophilic granulocytes

78

What's the most common cell seen?

metamyelocyte

79

T/F The extent of the left shift indicates the severity of the disease, whereas the magnitude of the cell count reflects the ability of the bone marrow to meet the demand.

true

80

T/F The more mature forms you see the more severe the disease.

false-immature

81

The total leukocyte count is slightly too markedly elevated because of neutrophilia and the number of immature neutrophils is usually below that of the mature neutrophils (more mature neutrophils than bands)

regenerative left shift

82

What does regenerative left shift indicate?

bone marrow is able to respond

83

Total leukocyte count varies from being below normal to occasionally slightly elevated.

degenerative left shift

84

What's the main feature of degenerative left shift?

there is more bands than mature neutrophils

85

What does degenerative left shift indicate?

bone marrow can't keep up with how overwhelming an infection is (bad response)

86

What is the value for neutrophil bands?

less than 300 is normal

87

What is right shift?

an increase in the percent of the older cells (hypersegmentation)

88

What are conditions associated with hypersegmentation:

1) old blood
2) steroids
3) vitamin b12 deficiency

89

What can cause a false left shift?

Pelger-Huet Anomaly (Inherited Morphologic
Abnormalities)

90

Describe Mucopolysaccharidosis/Lysosomal storage
disorder.

1) pinpoint purple granules in the cytoplasm of the neutrophils
2) Birman cats-neutrophils-> no disease associated with it
3) small discrete vacuoles most often recognizable in the lymphocytes

91

Describe Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.

1) rare hereditary disorder
2) granules round to oval
3) stain pink maybe single or multiple granules

92

What disease displays leukopenia?

panleukopenia

93

What are the causes of leukopenia?

1) overwhelming bacterial infection
2) viral diseases
3) blood parasites
4) drugs/chemotherapy
5) neoplasis/cancer of bone marrow

94

T/F For toxic WBCs changes are noted in the neutrophils series.

true

95

The morphological abnormalities are acquired during?

maturation

96

Morphologic abnormalities are caused by intense stimulation of neutrophil production which shortens the _____ time in marrow

maturation

97

Segmented and band neutrophils with toxic change have?

less condensed chromatin

98

A bluer cytoplasm is due to retention of ______ _____.

ribosomal RNA

99

T/F The cytoplasmic basophilia can be focal, streaked, or diffuse.

true

100

Focal basophilia appears as pale blue spots, called _______

dohle bodies

101

What represents aggregated ribosomes and whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum?

dohle bodies

102

Many cells with toxic change are larger than normal and have frothy or vacuolated cytoplasm, which represents degranulation of ______.

lysosomes

103

What are the 5 components of toxic WBCs?

1) dohle bodies (irregularly shaped, small, blue gray particles in the cytoplasm)
2) cytoplasmic basophilia
3) toxic granulation
4) cytoplasmic vacuolation
5) gigantism

104

Multiple small purple granules in the cytoplasm

toxic granulation

105

cells are released more rapidly from the bone marrow and normal maturation has not occurred causing the larger size

gigantism

106

Pale blue or gray cytoplasmic inclusions due to abnormal cell maturation

dohle body

107

When grading toxicity you have to?

indicate how severe it is(mild, moderate) and quantify it

108

1+ toxicity (mild)=

dohle body

109

Large coarse reddish granules due to abnormal specific granule formation

toxic granulation

110

Moderate toxicity=

toxic granulation and dohle bodies

111

1 – 2+ (mild to moderate)=

Cytoplasmic Basophilia

112

Diffuse cytoplasmic staining in immature and mature neutrophils

Cytoplasmic Basophilia

113

Marked toxicity=

Cytoplasmic Basophilia , dohle bodies, toxic granulation, gigantism, Cytoplasmic Vacuolation

114

Indistinct vacuoles giving a foamy appearance to the cytoplasm

Cytoplasmic Vacuolation

115

What is common in cats due to abnormal proliferation and maturation of cells?

gigantism

116

What are the quantifications? (few, moderate, marked)

1) few = 5-10%
2) moderate = 11-30%
3) marked = >30%

117

Large immature or mature neutrophil

gigantism

118

Which parasites are all transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus?

Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis, Ehrilicia canis

119

Whenever you see WBC toxicity what else will you also see?

left shift

120

Diagnosis for Ehrlichia canis?

antibody titers, PCR, 4Dx Snap test (antibody test), morulae in the monocyte

121

Write a term to describe these:
PCV 65%
PCV: 30%

marked/severe anemia
moderate/moderate anemia

122

What parasite causes feline infectious anemia?

Mycoplasma felis

123

Defect that causes hyposegmentation of the granulocytes, chromatin is very condensed

Pelger-Huet Anomaly

124

What are examples of chronic blood loss?

renal failure, flea anemia, blood parasites

125

What are some signs of acute blood loss?

tachycardia, dypsnea

126

T/F Anemia is a primary disease.

false-generalized

127

The decreased values of what 2 blood tests would be indicative of anemia?

PCV, RBC, Hb count

128

List 4 clinical signs a patient that is anemic may demonstrate.

dypsnea, tachycardia, paleness, weakness, lethargic

129

Indicate 2 classifications of anemia based on morphology.

1) regenerative 2) nonregenerative

130

Every time you do a blood smear and anemia is present what question do you need to ask yourself?

If it's regenerative or nonregenerative

131

The answer to the question you ask yourself is based on what?

An increase in reticulocytes and if the MCV and MCHC are increased or decreased based on normal values

132

List 5 things you may see on a blood smear? What one thing is required to determine if bone marrow is responding appropriately to the anemia?

1) anisocytosis 2) polychromataphils 3) reticulocytes-indicates 4)nRbcs 5) howell-jolly bodies

133

To confirm a positive bone marrow response indicated by what you see on your blood smear what test would you need to run?

reticulocyte count

134

Why is icterus seen in hemolytic anemias?

the bilirubin carried in RBC from the liver

135

Dirofilaria immitis prepatent, where it's located, intermediate host?

6-9 months, pulmonary arteries->right ventricle->right atrium, mosquito

136

Acanthocheilonema reconditum is where? How is it transmitted?

subcutaneous, fleas

137

What's the difference between A. reconditum and D. imminitis?

A. reconditum is non pathological and has a blunt head with a curved body, D. immunitis is pathological has a tapered head and straight body

138

Leishmania infantum/chagasi is what phylum? Intracellular or epicellular? Where is it? Transmitted?

protozoa, intracellular in WBC, by sandflies

139

Anaplasma phagocytophilum what phylum? What type of infection is it? What type of organism is it?

protozoa, tick-borne infection, rickettsial organism

140

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects what type of cell?

neturophils (morulae found in circulating neutrophils)

141

How can you diagnose Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

PCR, Serology (in-house snap test), identification of morulae in neutrophil

142

T/F Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects the neutrophils (its also granulocytotrophic) and has been seen in Eosinophils but it is rare.

true

143

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by?

Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus

144

Anaplasma platys is what type of parasite? Phylum? What does it affect? Intra or Epi?

Rickettsial parasite, is a protozoa, which affects the platelets, intracellular in platelets

145

Anaplasma platys is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected _____ (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) or other arthropod

tick

146

Anaplasma platys is difficult to find in the platelets because of its _____ nature

cyclic canine thrombocytopenia

147

Which parasite often times an “incidental finding?”

Anaplasma playts

148

Parasite that is worldwide, tick borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites

Canine babesiosis

149

Babesia canis the vector?

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

150

Babesia canis is it intracellular or epicellular? Transmitted?

intracellular in canine RBC, ticks

151

Describe 4 things about Babesia canis.

1) tear drop shape(piroplasmosis) intracellular organisms
2) usually seen singularly, pairs, multiples
3) only a small number of the RBCs will be affected
4) causes immune meditated hemolytic anemia

152

Describe 4 things about Babesia gibsoni.

1) vector unknown
2) small, pleomorphic organism
3) observed in erythrocyte
4) thrombocytopenia is commonly seen

153

Cytauxzoon felis is the _____ blood protozoan of cats

tick-bourne

154

Cytauxzoon felis is it intracellular or epicellular? Where is it? Vector? How is it transmitted?

intracellular in RBCs, Dermacentor variablis, fatal and rapid, ticks

155

Ehrlichiosis is transmitted? Where is it?

through ticks, monocytes

156

Ehrlichia canis is transmitted by?

Brown dog tick-Rhipicephalus sanguineus

157

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is transmitted by?

Lone Star Tick-Amblyomma americanum

158

Ehrlichia ewingii is transmitted by?

Lone Star Tick-Amblyomma americanum

159

Ehrlichia ewingii appear in small clusters in the cytoplasm of?

the monocyte and neutrophil

160

Mycoplasma haemophilus is intracellular or epicellular? What disease does it cause?

(human form) epicellular on feline RBCs, anemia

161

Describe 4 things about Mycoplasma haemophilus.

1) appear as small coccoid, rod shaped or ring-line structures
2) stain purple
3) often appear as short rods on the periphery of RBCs
4) parasite is cyclic

162

T/F Mycoplasma haemocanis is common in dogs.

false-rare

163

Which parasite is usually seen only in dogs that have had their spleen removed or are immunosuppressed

Mycoplasma haemocanis

164

Organisms of Mycoplasma haemocanis appear as chains of small ____ or rods that are on the surface of the cell.

cocci

165

The diagnosis for Ehrlichia ewingii is?

PCR, buffy coat smear can be beneficial since the organisms are difficult to find and are usually seen only at the acute phase

166

What is usually responsible for leukocytosis?

one cell

167

What can increase WBC count? What does steroids increase?

stress, steroids increases neutrophils

168

Degree of leukocytosis depends upon several factors:

1) cause of elevation
2) severity of infection
3) resistance of the animal(sick, old, neonate)
4) species variation

169

What are the types of Leukocytosis?

1) physiologic (stress, fear, pregnancy)
2) pathologic (disease, infection, drugs, necrosis)

170

A common change that may be seen in animals with inflammation is the presence of?

increased numbers of immature neutrophilic granulocytes

171

What's the most common cell seen?

metamyelocyte

172

T/F The extent of the left shift indicates the severity of the disease, whereas the magnitude of the cell count reflects the ability of the bone marrow to meet the demand.

true

173

T/F The more mature forms you see the more severe the disease.

false-immature

174

The total leukocyte count is slightly too markedly elevated because of neutrophilia and the number of immature neutrophils is usually below that of the mature neutrophils (more mature neutrophils than bands)

regenerative left shift

175

What does regenerative left shift indicate?

bone marrow is able to respond

176

Total leukocyte count varies from being below normal to occasionally slightly elevated.

degenerative left shift

177

What's the main feature of degenerative left shift?

there is more bands than mature neutrophils

178

What does degenerative left shift indicate?

bone marrow can't keep up with how overwhelming an infection is (bad response)

179

What is the value for neutrophil bands?

less than 300 is normal

180

What is right shift?

an increase in the percent of the older cells (hypersegmentation)

181

What are conditions associated with hypersegmentation:

1) old blood
2) steroids
3) vitamin b12 deficiency

182

What can cause a false left shift?

Pelger-Huet Anomaly (Inherited Morphologic
Abnormalities)

183

Describe Mucopolysaccharidosis/Lysosomal storage
disorder.

1) pinpoint purple granules in the cytoplasm of the neutrophils
2) Birman cats-neutrophils-> no disease associated with it
3) small discrete vacuoles most often recognizable in the lymphocytes

184

Describe Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.

1) rare hereditary disorder
2) granules round to oval
3) stain pink maybe single or multiple granules

185

What disease displays leukopenia?

panleukopenia

186

What are the causes of leukopenia?

1) overwhelming bacterial infection
2) viral diseases
3) blood parasites
4) drugs/chemotherapy
5) neoplasis/cancer of bone marrow

187

T/F For toxic WBCs changes are noted in the neutrophils series.

true

188

The morphological abnormalities are acquired during?

maturation

189

Morphologic abnormalities are caused by intense stimulation of neutrophil production which shortens the _____ time in marrow

maturation

190

Segmented and band neutrophils with toxic change have?

less condensed chromatin

191

A bluer cytoplasm is due to retention of ______ _____.

ribosomal RNA

192

T/F The cytoplasmic basophilia can be focal, streaked, or diffuse.

true

193

Focal basophilia appears as pale blue spots, called _______

dohle bodies

194

What represents aggregated ribosomes and whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum?

dohle bodies

195

Many cells with toxic change are larger than normal and have frothy or vacuolated cytoplasm, which represents degranulation of ______.

lysosomes

196

What are the 5 components of toxic WBCs?

1) dohle bodies (irregularly shaped, small, blue gray particles in the cytoplasm)
2) cytoplasmic basophilia
3) toxic granulation
4) cytoplasmic vacuolation
5) gigantism

197

Multiple small purple granules in the cytoplasm

toxic granulation

198

cells are released more rapidly from the bone marrow and normal maturation has not occurred causing the larger size

gigantism

199

Pale blue or gray cytoplasmic inclusions due to abnormal cell maturation

dohle body

200

When grading toxicity you have to?

indicate how severe it is(mild, moderate) and quantify it

201

1+ toxicity (mild)=

dohle body

202

Large coarse reddish granules due to abnormal specific granule formation

toxic granulation

203

Moderate toxicity=

toxic granulation and dohle bodies

204

1 – 2+ (mild to moderate)=

Cytoplasmic Basophilia

205

Diffuse cytoplasmic staining in immature and mature neutrophils

Cytoplasmic Basophilia

206

Marked toxicity=

Cytoplasmic Basophilia , dohle bodies, toxic granulation, gigantism, Cytoplasmic Vacuolation

207

Indistinct vacuoles giving a foamy appearance to the cytoplasm

Cytoplasmic Vacuolation

208

What is common in cats due to abnormal proliferation and maturation of cells?

gigantism

209

What are the quantifications? (few, moderate, marked)

1) few = 5-10%
2) moderate = 11-30%
3) marked = >30%

210

Large immature or mature neutrophil

gigantism

211

Which parasites are all transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus?

Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis, Ehrilicia canis

212

Whenever you see WBC toxicity what else will you also see?

left shift

213

Diagnosis for Ehrlichia canis?

antibody titers, PCR, 4Dx Snap test (antibody test), morulae in the monocyte

214

Write a term to describe these:
PCV 65%
PCV: 30%

marked/severe anemia
moderate/moderate anemia

215

What parasite causes feline infectious anemia?

Mycoplasma haemofelis

216

Defect that causes hyposegmentation of the granulocytes, chromatin is very condensed

Pelger-Huet Anomaly

217

What animal is the chronic carrier of Babesia Canis?

grey hounds