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Flashcards in Equine Diseases Deck (63):

Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Sarcoids (most common skin tumor)

1) Signs- Ulcerated nodular masses
2) Diagnosis-Clinical presentation, Biopsy
3) Treatment-Immunotherapy (BCG)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Exuberant Granulation Tissue (Proud Flesh)

1) Signs-Pink moist mass on distal limb over previous injury
2) Diagnosis- Clinical presentation, History
3) Treatment- Surgical debulking, +/- skin graft, Topical preparations containing digestive enzymes(trypsin/papain)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1) Diagnosis-Clinical presentation, Impression smear, Biopsy
2) Signs-Hairless areas, Unpigmented skin, Solar radiation(sunlight)
3) Treatment-Excision (surgical removal), Radiation therapy (prognosis guarded)


Discuss the signs, diagnosis and treatment of Melanoma

1) Signs/Diagnosis- Multiple tumors on hairless areas
2) Treatment- Cryosurgery(application of extreme cold to destroy diseased tissue), Cimetadine


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rabies

1) Transmission-Bite of infected animal (raccoon, fox, skunk)
2) Signs-Dumb/Paralytic form(most common EQ form)-weakness, incoordination, tail paralysis, urine dribbling, colic. Aggressive form-photophobia, belligerence, grinding of teeth/obsessive chewing, seizures
3) Diagnosis-Ante-mortem-Fluorescent Antibody Test, Full thickness skin biopsy, Cheek epithelial cells. Post Mortem-Submit brain and spinal cord to laboratory
4) Treatment- None it's fatal
5) Prevention-Vaccination Rabvac-3 (Ft. Dodge) the only FDA approved Rabies vaccine for horses, Avoid exposure(Wire mesh fencing preventing wildlife access)


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Encephalomyelitis (Sleeping Sickness/West Nile Virus/Arbovirus)

1) Transmission- Bite of infected mosquito
2) Signs/Diagnosis-Fever, Depression/Stupor(state of near unconsciousness), Impaired vision, Incoordination, Circling, Head pressing
3) Treatment-Supportive care-NSAIDs, Antibiotics, Fluid replacement, Physical support/protection
4) Prevention: Vaccination(Should be administered every 3-4 months during mosquito season), Mosquito Control


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Equine Herpesvirus (Rhinopneumonitis/Herpes 1 & 4 Virus/Neurologic)

1) Transmission-Transmissible by direct aerosol
2) Signs/Diagnosis-Weakness, Ataxia, Paralysis(if adequate supportive care is provided horses can recover completely)
3) Treatment-Supportive care-NSAIDs, Antibiotics, Intensive nursing care for recumbent horses, rest
4) Prevention-Vaccination


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Equine Protozoal Myelitis (Sarcocystis neurona)

1) Transmission-consumption of contaminated pasture or feedstuffs
2) Signs- Dependent upon parasite’s location in CNS-Muscle atrophy(loss of muscle tissue), Obscure lameness, Asymmetric ataxia
3) Diagnosis- Western Blot Test- of questionable value-Serum: + test (ab’s in blood) does not mean active infection, CSF: sample is often contaminated w/small amount of blood making “positive” difficult to interpret result
4) Treatment- Ponazuril (Marquis), Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine (60-70% of cases improve w/tx), Vit E supplementation
5) Prevention-Vaccination of questionable value


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Esophageal Obstruction(choke)

1) Cause- grain, hay, corn cobs, and apples
2) Signs- dysphagia(inability to swallow food or water), coughing, nasal discharge, drooling/salivation
3) Diagnosis- Physical examination for aspiration pneumonia, Nasoesophageal tube if cannot pass through
4) Treatment- a nasogastric tube and some type of lavage (washing)


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Gastric Ulcers

1) Cause-Inflammation, Stress (in foals), Management (in adults)
2) Signs/Diagonsis- Salivation/grinding of teeth, Dorsal recumbency, Stunted growth
3) Treatment- Fluid management, Pain management, Re-establish GI tract function, Prevent infection


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Colic (abdominal pain)

1) Cause-Gastrointestinal-Impaction, Intussusception(intestine have folded into another section of intestine), Volvulus(twisting and rotation of SI), Spasmodic(hypermotility), Genitourinary, Iatrogenic(caused by medical treatment), Inflammation, Inability to vomit
2) Signs-Rolling, Pawing, Getting up and down, Patchy sweating
3) Diagnosis- Nasogastric reflux, abdominocentesis, rectal exam, abdominal auscultation, mucous membranes, physical exam (TPR), history
4) Treatment- Fluid management, Pain management, Re-establish GI tract function, Prevent infection, Medical management of a surgical case of colic is fatal. Surgical intervention in a medical case of colic is highly counterproductive.


Discuss the cause, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of Potomac Horse Fever(Ehrlichia risticii)

1) Cause-No direct horse to horse transmission, Route of exposure is unknown
2) Signs-Loss of gut sounds, Fever, Depression, Loss of appetite, Laminitis
3) Diagnosis-Appropriate clinical signs in an endemic area, Serology-paired samples
4) Treatment-Antibiotics(Oxytetracycline), Supportive care(Fluid replacement, Correction of acid-base imbalance, Intestinal protection, NSAIDs)


Colic is a _____ not a diagnosis.

symptom (abdominal pain)


List 4 causes of diarrhea.

-Potomac Horse Fever
-Post-surgical complications


List 3 post-surgical complications of colic surgery.

-Dehiscence(wound ruptures along surgical suture.)
-Abdominal wall herniation
-Jugular vein thrombophlebitis


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Equine Infectious Anemia (Swamp Fever)

1) Diagnosis-Coggins Test (which is required for interstate movement of horses)
2) Prevention-Good management


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Tetanus (Clostridium tetani/Anaerobic Bacterial disease)

1) Diagnosis- History of puncture wound, Absent or unknown vaccination history, Symptoms(erect ears, sawhorse stance, erect tail, stiff movements)
2) Prevention-Vaccination


Discuss the diagnosis and prevention of Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

1) Diagnosis-Inability to swallow, muscle weakness, easily fatigued
2) Prevention-Vaccination
3) Treatment-Penicillin


Which Immunology disease is a reportable disease?

Equine Infectious Anemia


Discuss the causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of Recurrent Uveitis

1) Cause- Leptospira and Onchocerca implicated
2) Signs-Lacrimation, Conjunctivitis, Corneal edema, cloudy anterior chamber
3) Treatment- Corticosteroids(Topical and Systemic), Mydriatics, NSAIDs
4) Prevention-Change bedding, decrease dust, eliminate low branches


Discuss the causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of Corneal ulcer

1) Cause-Injury/trauma
2) Signs- Blepharospasm(involuntary closure of the eyelids), Lacrymation, Photophobia(eye discomfort in bright light), Positive Fluorescein stain
3) Treatment- Mydriatics(dilating the pupil), Topical antibiotics
4) Prevention-Keep away from fences and sharp objects


T/F While Encephalomyelitis is a public health concern there is no transmission from horses to people.



The most common cause of hoof cracks is?



Understand how corns occur and how they can progress if not treated.

-These are a type of bruise trauma injury that is caused by impact and appears reddish because of the damaged tissues and blood vessels. The corns can be stand alone dry bruises or they can become moist and infected.
-Horses that work in hard graveled terrain may be more prone to bruising and corns.
-Corns are found in the sole at the angle formed by the wall and the bar of the sole. (This most commonly occurs inside the front feet)


What is thrush and canker?

-They are both a degenerative condition of the frog characterized by infection and blackening of the affected area. It may penetrate the horny tissue into the underlying sensitive structures of the foot. Can also cause infection of the sulcus and grooves of the frog by anaerobic bacteria.
-CANKER invades the horn of the frog anywhere throughout its structure
-THRUSH is limited to the lateral and medial sulci or the base of the frog if a fissure is present.
-Canker generally originates in the frog and can be mistaken for thrush in the early stages.


What is the treatment of thrush and canker?

-Iodine or a commercial remedy.
-You should also keep the feet dry and trimmed


What is the prognosis of thrush and canker and what affects the prognosis?

With good aggressive treatment (ex. 7-10 days), the treatment should control the canker. Once the tissue is healed it is rare for the disease to reoccur. In some cases the canker will return before completely going away.


What is another name for gravel, its cause, treatment and prognosis?

-Gravel is also called Abscess and is a common term describing the coronary band.
-CAUSE forms as a result of bruising to the sole, frog or heel bulbs, or as a result of a foreign body or penetrating wound.
-TREATMENT would be by exposing the infection and relieving pressure. You can do this by soaking the hoof in Epsom salts or osmotic draw such as iodine or sugar.
-PROGNOSIS for a simple foot abscess is excellent, and following drainage horses will return to soundness rapidly and totally. In severe cases the prognosis is okay but can take considerably longer to return to full soundness.


What type and age of horses are commonly affected by navicular disease?

Common in Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, and Warm bloods. This could be from a hereditary predisposition which may be related to upright conformation. It is commonly seen in horses of 7-14 years old.


List four signs of Navicular disease:

1) Tendency to land toe first
2) Stumbling or tripping
3) Excessive heel growth
4) Worse pain on rough, uneven ground


What is the procedure/equipment used for diagnosis of Navicular disease?

-You can diagnose with the history, lower limb flexion test, hoof testers over the heel regions, radiography, and diagnostic anesthesia.
-You can also do a nuclear scintigraphy (which is the uptake of radioactive nucleotide specifically in the region of the navicular bone/bursa, but is not always necessary.
-The equipment that can be used is a hoof tester, x-ray machine, anesthesia, and/or the nuclear scintigraphhy machine.


What is the different imaging techniques used for diagnosis of Navicular disease.

Common radiographic pathology includes: the enlargement of the vascular channels within the navicular bone or lollipops (cyst-like lesions within the bone), calcification of the associated ligaments and fractures of the bone


Discuss treatment options for navicular disease.

-MEDICATION (you can use NSAIDs)
-SURGERY (you could do a Posterior Digital neurectomy which cuts the navicular suspensory ligament) The surgery results in a loss of sensation to the caudal 1/3 of the foot.


Disscuss the side effects and list the complications from the digital neurectomy.

This surgery sometimes has the chance of neuroma formation which is a benign but painful growth. Other concerns would be nail punctures and heel abscesses that will go unnoticed by the owners and the horse because the horse cannot feel anything there.


Define laminitis.

Also known as founder and is the inflammation of laminae that attach the coffin bone to the hoof wall


List 4 possible causes of laminitis:

1) Trauma
2) Systemic infection
3) Ingestion of cold water
4) Certain NSAIDs


List 3 clinical signs of laminitis:

1) Hind limbs that may be tucked under the body, 2) palpably hot over the coronary band and
3) hoof wall and shifting leg lameness when standing


Discuss radiographic signs consistent with laminitis.

the radiographs will show rotation of the coffin bone and evidence of sinking of the coffin bone


Discuss treatment options for laminitis:

this is centered on eliminating the cause, which is also pain management, improving blood flow, external support, and diet management


Understand the cause of seedy toe.

-Seedy toe is also called White Line Disease.
-It is an anaerobic bacteria that enters the white line through separation, and separation is caused by the overgrowth of the hoof. The anaerobic bacteria that enters through the white line is called Clostridium.


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications of Influenza.

-TRANSMISSION: Aerosol transmission
-SIGNS/DIAGNOSIS: fever, depression, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, cough, and muscle soreness/stiffness
-TREATMENT- supportive care (includes NSAIDs, antibiotics for 2 degrees bacterial infections, and rest. (rule of thumb for rest is 1 week of rest for each degree of fever because continued training/stress during clinical disease can result in cardiomyopathy and/or pleuropneumonia)
-PREVENTION: vaccinations
-COMPLICATIONS: failure to treat the disease, continued stress, continued training. All of these could cause cardiomyopathy and pleuropneumonia


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications of Rhinopneumonitis/Rhinovirus/Respiratory (can also be neurological and reproductive)

-Transmission: by direct aerosol
-Signs/Diagnosis: flu-like symptoms like fever, depression, loss of appetite, cough, nasal discharge, and lymph node enlargement.
-Treatment:supportive care like NSAIDs, antibiotics, rest
-Prevention: vaccination
-Complications: from protracted recumbency like decubital ulcers, pneumonia, and colic


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications of Equine Arteritis

-TRANSMISSION: aerosol(like virus particles rapidly diluted in open-air environment)
-SIGNS: limb edema, urticaria (hives), fever, loss of appetite, abortion, and respiratory symptoms
-DIAGNOSIS: can be done by virus isolation, serology with paired antibody titers
TREATMENT: REST and supportive care like NSAIDs, antibiotics and +/- antihistamines
-PREVENTION: vaccination and isolation of affected horses to prevent exposure
-COMPLICATIONS: no known complications


Discuss the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications of Strangles (Streptococcus equi AKA Distemper)

-TRANSMISSION: oral/nasal mucosa contact bacteria in nasal discharge of infected horses or contaminated surfaces.
-SIGNS/DIAGNOSIS: mandibular lymph node enlargement, purulent tenacious nasal discharge, constant cough, severe pharyngitis and laryngitis
-TREATMENT: NSAIDs to manage fever and/or discomfort, procaine penicillin
-PREVENTION: vaccination
-COMPLICATIONS: no known complications


List 3 causes of pneumonia.

1) strangles/distemper
2) rhinopenumonitis from protracted recumbency
3) botulism causes aspiration of pneumonina


Discuss the clinical signs, cause/breeds affected, history, diagnosis, and treatment of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

-SIGNS/DIAGNOSIS: chronic cough, crackles and wheezes, increased respiratory effort, abdominal muscle hypertrophy-heave line, increased suspecibility to other airway diseases, and exercise intolerance/diminished athletic capacity.
-CAUSE/BREEDS AFFECTED: Environmental factors
-HISTORY: There are 2 types: Type I (immediate) or Type III (arthus) which is hypersensitivity reaction to irritants. It is also called an allergic airway disease.
-TREATMENT: management (the more effective the management the less medication that is required. Medication that can be used are antihistamines, bronchodilators


Discuss the clinical signs, cause/breeds affected, history, diagnosis, and treatment of Pulmonary Hemorrhage

-SIGNS: Epistaxis
-CAUSE/ BREEDS AFFECTED: excessive intramural pressure during exercise
-HISTORY- The incidence is directly related to intensity (not duration) of the exercise.
-DIAGNOSIS: from the history, clinical signs
-TREATMENT: Palliative, not curative (The goal of palliative care is to prevent and relieve suffering and to support the best possible quality of life for patients)


Discuss the clinical signs, cause/breeds affected, history, diagnosis, and treatment of Idiopathic Laryngeal Hemiplegia

-SIGNS: exercise intolerance and inspiratory wheezing
-CAUSE/BREEDS AFFECTED: It occurs mainly in large TB’s and draught horses
-HISTORY: respiratory noise usually evident on fast exercise only on inspiration, and the condition is progressive.
-DIAGNOSIS: endoscopic exam
-TREATMENT: surgical either a laryngoplasty or ventriculosacculectomy


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Angular Limb Deformities

-SIGNS: crooked legs
-CAUSE: are either congenital (ex. Uterine malpositioning) or acquired (ex uneven weight bearing)
-DIAGNOSIS: would be radiographs (dorsopalmar assists in determining the source of deviation and to r/o carpal bone collapse)
-TREATMENT: surgical correction


Joints involved with angular limb deformities are the carpus, fetlock, and hock. There are 2 different kinds of angular limb deformities:
1) ____ which is the most common and is generally found in the carpus
2) ____ what is less common but the fetlock is more affected



Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Bowed Tendons (the stretching or tearing of tendon fibers)

-SIGNS: swelling at the palmar aspect of the midmetacarpus
-CAUSE: due to the forces placed by galloping horses where both the deep and superficial tendons are prone to injury. The superficial type is more common
-DIAGNOSIS: is by palpatations of the tendons in the non-weight bearing position
-TREATMENT: You should control inflammation and control exercise


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Septic Arthritis

-SIGNS: the 2 most common clinical signs are joint effusion and lameness.
-CAUSES: trauma, wound penetrating joint capsule and/or contamination after intra-articular injection
-DIAGNOSIS- by the history, joint effusion, lameness, fever, culture and sensitivity, and radiography
-TREATMENT: is with a joint lavage and systemic antibodies


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Splints

-SIGNS: is swelling over the medial aspect of the MC and little to no lameness
-CAUSES: conformation, periostitis, direct trauma
-DIAGNOSIS: is the history and the clinical findings (swelling that is painful to palpitation) radiographs are needed to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out a splint bone fracture.
-TREATMENT: in early stages treatment is cold-hosing, bandaging, long-acting corticosteroid injected subperiostally and NSAIDs


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Bucked shins

-SIGNS: lameness on the bilateral forelimb more common than unilateral.
-CAUSE: bucked shins is the most common injury in young horses in high intensity training
-DIAGNOSIS: physical examination by palpating heat, pain and swelling on the dorsal surface of the forelimbs.
-TREATMENT: depends on the extent of the new bone production. Large amounts of new bone production require more resting of the patient. Small amounts of bone allow continued training with substantial modification.


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Elbow Hygroma

-SIGNS: blemish
-CAUSE: results from trauma,
-DIAGNOSIS: Palpitation
-TREATMENT: There are therapeutic techniques (rest, acupuncture) and medications (NSAIDs)


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Cervical Malformation

-SIGNS: stumbling, falling down or obscure lameness.
-CAUSES: it is an abnormal growth or articulation of the vertebral bodies resulting in narrowing of the vertebral canal and focal compression of the spinal cord.
-DIAGNOSIS: history, neurologic exam, radiographs, and also a myelogram which requires general anesthesia.
-TREATMENT: surgery (the shorter the time between diagnosis and surgery- the better the prognosis). For cases that are too severe the animals should be euthanized for fear of danger to themselves and others.


Cervical Malformation: Why is this important with reference to usage?

Because there is a question of whether the animals should be put into the breeding pool as to not carry the trait onto the young. Which also means this horse cannot be used much.


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Externtional Rhambdomyolysis

-SIGNS:Anxiety/sweating/elevated heart rate, muscular soreness/stiffness on deep palpitation
-CAUSES/Diagnosis: basic mechanism is not known, but a common history of it shows several days of no exercise and fed grain and followed by vigorous exercise.
-TREATMENT: would be to NOT force exercise. Also NSAIDs, rehydration/correction of electrolyte imbalance


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease

-SIGNS/DIAGNOSIS: fever, shifting leg lameness, joint swelling/joint effusions, arthritis.
-CAUSES: route of exposure is the intermediate host (the deer tick).
-TREATMENT: antibiotics only!


T/F With Lyme disease there is NO horse to horse transmission and there is NO horse to human transmission.



What is the Genus and species of lyme disease?

Burrelia burgdorferi


Discuss the clinical signs, cause, diagnosis and treatment of Dengenerative Joint Disease

-SIGNS: Clinically, the disease is characterized by pain and dysfunction of the affected joint.
-CAUSE: the most common cause is due to joint instability or trauma.
-DIAGNOSIS: by intra-articular injection and radiology
-TREATMENT: to reduce the inflammation and a variety of drugs.


What are the specific joints involved with Degenerative Joint Disease?

The 3 kinds of degenerative joint disease are: HOCK-SPAVIN, FETLOCK-OSSELET, and PASTERN-RINGBONE