What route of administration is the fastest? the slowest?
How can you avoid the sciatic nerve when giving an injection?
go in laterally at a 45 degree angle
What is the maximum volume that should be injected IM in one spot in a cat/dog?
no more than 2 to 5 mls
What is the rationale of pulling back on the syringe before giving an IM injection?
in order to ensure that the needle is not placed in a blood vessel
What complications can arise from fluids/medications being delivered by syringe and needle?
inflammation, pain, infection, allergic reactions
What can the technician do to increase blood flow to the vein?
pump the foot
If a hematoma occurs can you still reattempt veinipuncture, if so where?
above the injection site, not below
What size needle and syringe should be used when performing a venipuncutre on the femoral vein of a cat? why?
1-6 mls depending on the vein chosen and blood volume needed
Why might the the jugular vein be chosen for venipuncture over other sites?
it's a larger vessel, it's easier to hit, and you can obtain a larger volume
What surgical blades/handles are the most common for small animal surgery?
nos. 10, 11, 12 15
What are the functions of the mayo-hegar and olsen hegar needle holders?
holds tissue, scissors that cut suture
What are the functions of the metzenbaum dissecting scissors? the mayo?
delicate tissues, rough tissue and heave connective large muscle tissue
What are the functions of the backhaus towel clamps? the bone rongerus?
attaches towel to patient, breaks up bone
What are the functions of the roeder towel clamps? snook spay hook?
prevents being placed in deeply in tissue, grasps uterine horns
What are the functions of the gelpi retractor and weitlander retracter?
for orthopedic and neurological surgery
What are the functions of the kelly forceps? the halstead mosquito forceps?
medium vessels, small vessels
What are the functions of the kerns bone holding forceps? the mayo-hegar needle holders?
holds bone together, holds tissue
Which instrument does this describe? vertical and horizontal serrations (checker board)
rochester carmalt hemostatic forceps
The destruction of the vegetative form of bacteria but not spores
The destruction of all organisms and spores on an object
Scissors are categorized by?
cutting tissue, suturing wire, bandage material
Operating scissors are categorized by?
blades, type of points, and cutting edge of the blade
List 4 agents of disinfectants and examples.
idopher:iodine, biguanides: chlorhexidine, alcohols: ethyl alcohol, phenols: lysol, quaternary ammonium compound: benzalkonium chloride, chloride: chlorine, aldehyde: formaldehyde
Give advantage/disadvantage of cold sterilization.
advantage: use equipment more than once in a day, disadvantage: cannot be guaranteed
Temperature, time, and psi for autoclave
250 F, 13 mins, 15-35
Ethylene oxide being effective depends on what?
concentration of gas, exposure time, temperature, and humidity
How is ethylene oxide enhanced?
by increase in temperature or gas concentration
Examples of nonabsorable suture/absorbable suture
non: nylon, polphrophine, polyestor, silk ab: polyglactin, polyoglic, polyoxide
Which suture is not attached?
Which suture is the most atramatic?
Name the muscles.
A: semimembranosus/semitendinosus B: quadriceps C: epaxial muscles D: tricpes
Label parts of an instrument.
1) tips 2) jaws 3) box lock 4) shank 5) ratchet 6) ring handle
Describe the process of cleaning instruments.
1) pre-soak 2) decontaminiation 3) cavatation (ultrasonic) 4) lubrication (milking) 5) autoclave
How does the ultrasonic machine work? Temperature/time?
uses sound waves higher than heard by the human ear, which creates tiny bubbles that produce a scrubbing effect (cavitation), 3 to 6 minutes at 110-130 F
What precaution do you take when loading the autoclave?
Don't overload it
Explain cold sterilization. Give an example of a solution.
liquid chemicals that must be noncorrosive, glutaraldehyde solution
Which type of pack lasts longer? Where are they stored?
double lasts longer than single, water-proof dust covers in closed cabinents
What is surgical conscience?
the commitment of surgical personnel to adhere strictly to the aeseptic and sterile technquie
What are the responsibilites of the scrubbed personnel? Non-scrubbed?
scrubbed: keep everything sterile, non-scrubbed: follow sterile rules only touch nonsterile items
Proper attire for the surgical suite.
no jewlery, no nail polish, disposable coverings, lint-free scrubs tucked into the pants, surgical caps, mask, gown
What are the different methods for hand scrub? Explain them
counted brush stroke: counted number of strokes on each surface 30 strokes per surface 5-10 mins 4 times, timed method: scrubbing and rinsing for a set period of time
What is a hand scrub? How is it used?
a scrubless, brushless, waterless antiseptic hand preparation, contains an alcohol solution and lotion and applied evenly on dry hands and allowed to air dry
Why is the risk of contamination minimized with closed gloving?
because the outside of the gloves never contacts skin, there's a much higher risk with open gloving which should only be worn for minor procedures when a gown is not worn
What areas of the gown are considered sterile/non-sterile?
sterile: from in front from the chest to the level of the sterile field, sleeves are sterile from 2in above the elbow to the top of the cuff, non: the neckline, shoulders, and cuffed portion of the sleeve, and back of gown
What are the sterility rules for drapes?
they should cover the entire animal, the furniture, and the equipment that are part of the sterile field, nothing below the table
If drapes or gowns become wet with saline or blood they are no longer impermeable to bacteria and are said to be _____
What are some responsiblites that technicians who are responsible for packs.
That packs are not stacked on top of each other, check to make sure there are no rips or tears
What are the most common wrapping materials for packs?
cotton or linen textiles and paper
When would you double wrap a pack?
in case there is a contamination when unwrapping the outer layer the additonal layer protects the inside
How should the patient be placed to being surgical prep?
the animal's limbs are tied to the table, the body may be braced in a position by a V-trough, the head, neck, or abdomen may need to be elevated through a rubber tube or rolled towels, the leg's should not be forced to bend or extend pass their natural anatomic limitations, bony prominences should be cushioned to protect against excessive compression
List rules for clipping of the hair.
Must be symmetrical, neat, and tidy, should be done with surgical clipper blade because of its close-set teeth, #40 clipper blade, 2 clipper blade widths apart unless its a small animal, shave against the grain of the hair
Describe hair clipping for general, orthopedic, and neruologic.
general: 2-4cm in every direction of the propsed incision, orthopedic: entire circumference of the limb is clipped from the foot up onto the body, neurologic: two vertebral spaces cranial and two vertebral spaces caudal to the affected site
What rules of urination should be followed and precautions?
the bladder should be emptied, take caution if there is trauma to the abdomen it may cause more damage to the bladder, patient may urinate during/after surgery a patient lying in urine can get urine scald
What is povidone-iodine? What's it diluted at?
a scrub that is a bactericidla, virucidal, fungistatic, and fungicidal, dilutes at 50:50
The first product used in the preparation is a _____ product.
What is chrlohexidine glucomate? Dilution?
a scrub product that has bactericidal action agaisnt 30 bacteria, 60:40
After the application of a scrub product, a ______ agent is needed to remove detergent.
What is isopropyl alcohol?
a rinsing agent that is 70% concentration and effective against most gram-negative bacteria
What does sterile water and sterile saline do?
rinsing agent that removes detergent products but contains no antimicrobial properties
The most common applicator is a ________ which can be used indiviudally or saturated with a product.
A cotton-tipped applicator is only chosen for?
A spray bottle applicator is only appropriate?
of the final paint solution because mist from the bottle may deposit on the patient's skin
What surgical prep is necessary for male dogs?
if preparing the abdomen of a male dog, after all the hair has been removed from the prepuce, the sheath must be flushed to remove potential contaminants
T/F The target pattern is the most common pattern and is used to prepare surgical sites for the abdomen, thorax and neurology cases.
Dirty prep preparations:
chlorhexidine>alcohol to iodine>alcohol 3 times
T/F gauze touches areas more than once
Clean/sterile prep procedure:
clean hand>dirty hand 3 times
What are the 5 basic parts of the anesthesia machine?
breathing circuits, flow meter, vaporizer, rebreathing circuits, nonrebreathing circuits
What do the breathing circuits do?
deliver fresh gases to the patient and transport exhaled gases from the patient
What does the flow meter do? What number should it never go past?
it measures and delivers a constant gas flow to the vaporizer, the common gas outlet, and the breathing circuit, 15
What does the vaporizor do?
it produces a controlled and predictable concentration of anesthic vapor by delivering a diluted anesthetic to the patient, has two types precision(outside of breathing circle) and nonprecision(inside)
What do the rebreathing circuits do?
takes the exhaled gas from the pateint and recirculates it back to the patient with the CO2 removed
What do the nonbreathing circuits do?
they do not have a CO2 absorber, the gases are vented through the reservoir bag where the gases are released in the scavenging system through an overflow valve
What is the flush valve used for? When can it be used?
a quick infusion of only oxygen into the breathing circuit which occurs because the vaporizer is bypassed the oxygen dilutes gases in bag, don't push while patient is connected
What are 3 ways to tell if soda lime is exhausted?
since the crystals absorb the exhaled CO2, the chemcial reaction produces heat, water, and color change
The least accurate way to tell if the soda lime is exhausted? Most accurate? How long does it last?
least: color change, most: use over 6-8 hours, if unused up to a month
What is the most common breathing sytem used in veterinary hospitals?
rebreathing circuits(circle system)
The advantages of having the pop-off valve closed?
economically (less used), patient wise (humidifies air), environment (non release of gas)
Why is the open pop-off better?
its easier to change anesthesia depth
What are the nonbreathing systems used?
Mapleson A, modified Mapleson D, Mapleson E, Mapleson F circuits, and the Humphrey ADE (can switch among mapleson a, d, e)
When do you use a nonrebreather?
when the animal is 15 lbs or less
What is the circuit manometer? What number should it be at?
a pressure gauge that measures the pressure in the system of a patient's lungs, should not go above 20
What is the pop-off valve used for?
it can act as a vent when it is completely open by preventing the build up of pressure, it can be used to determine flow rate techniques
What are the three most commonly used inhalant anesthetic agents?
isoflurane, sevoflurane, and halothane
Describe the gas cylinders (psi, liters)
E tanks are smaalller and attached to the machine, H tanks are bigger and stand alone away from the machine 2,200 psi when full for both, E 700l, H 6,500l
Describe the air flow of the anesthesia machine.
oxygen tank>flow meter>vaporizer>inhalation>exhalation>resivor bag>CO2>popoff(scavenger)
What's the difference between precision vapors and nonprecision vapors?
nonprecision are used only with low vapor pressure and are located in the breathing circuit, precision vaporizers allow precise delivery of high vapor pressure inhalant agents and are located out of the breathing circuit
If oxygen is on and the vaporizer is off will the animal die?
T/F The manometer pressure of mercury is controlled by the popoff valve
How do you perform a leak test? When do you?
close popoff valve, your fingers go over the breathing tubes, the bag should be full, and the manometer should not drop, before every procedure
What are considered to be in the breathing circle? Not?
tubes, CO2 absorber, resivoir bag, scavenger, manometer, popoff valve what's not in the circle are the vaporizer, flow meter, and O2 tank
What gases flow into the resivoir bag?
oxygen, CO2, and anesthetic gas
Give an example of a passive scavenger, when is it exhaused, how do you know?
carcoal with filter on the bottom, when it gains 50 grams its exhausted, you know by weighing it before each time it's used
What is the purpose of a biopsy log?
to provide the signalment, history, and site of biopsy for the pathologist identifying a sample
What is celiotomy/laparotomy?
surgical incision into the abdominal cavity, flank incision into the abdominal cavity
What is a pyometra?
a condition of the uterus whic endometrial hyperplasia has resulted in increased uterine secretions and accumlation of fluid in the uterus
What areas of the abdomen are the common sites for surgical incisions?
the ventral midline, paramedian, flank, and paracostal incisions
Clipping guidelines for a ovariohyseterectomy
the ventral abdomen should be clipped from the xiphoid to the pubis laterally to the edge of the ribs
Clipping guidelines for castration, what special precaution must be taken?
clipped from the tip of the prepuce to just above the scrotum and should extend laterally into the inguinal section on both sides, the scrotum should not be clipped, take caution by palpating for the presence of both testicles to make sure the animal is not cryptorchild
adson 1 x 2 thumb forceps
allis tissue forceps
Backhaus towel clamp
bard parker scalpel handle #3
blunt, blunt, curved operating scissors
adson-brown thumb forceps
Crile hemostatic forceps
kelly hemostatic forceps
Rochester-Carmalt Hemostatic Forceps
Lister bandage scissors
Mayo dissecting scissors
mayo-hegar needle holders
Metzenbaum dissecting scissors
Olsen-hegar needle holders
roeder towel clamp
snook spay hook
Littauer suture removal scissors
halstead mosquito hemostatic forceps
What sphaneous vein is for a dog? Cat?