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Flashcards in Ferret Deck (171):
1

Domestic ferret genus and species

Mustela putorius furo

2

Ferrets can get through openings as small as _____ in diameter

1 inch

3

Ferrets have long necks almost as wide as their?

mandible

4

What is the name of a male ferret? Female?

hob, jill

5

T/F Castrated hobs(gib) tend not to get as big (do not develop heavy muscular build of intact males)

true

6

T/F Jills are larger and heavier if spayed(sprite) before sexual maturity.

true

7

Normal weight fluctuations and body fat storage are?

seasonal

8

T/F 30% to 40% increase of body fat storage in spring/summer with a decrease in fall/winter.

false-increase in fall/winter

9

The normal or "wild type" color is called

sable and fitch

10

A normal color that has black guard hairs with cream/buff undercoat and black feet, tail and mask

fitch

11

Immature and neutered animals have ____ facial fur and mask is _______

lighter, less distinct

12

What color is white with pink eyes and a naturally occurring mutation

albino/english

13

What are the naturally occurring coat colors?

sable, fitch, albino/english, and cinnamon

14

What happens when you breed silver mitts or black-eyed whites to each other?

can result in fetal resorption, abortion, or severe congenital abnormalities

15

T/F Shedding(molting) spring (shorter hair), coat length increases in the fall.

true

16

Do ferrets have sweat glands? What can they get?

No predisposes to hyperthermia/heat prostration

17

What is responsible for objectionable body odor?

sebaceous (oil) glands

18

What position are the anal glands located at?

3 and 9 o'clock

19

What is the vertebral formula?

C 7, T 15, L 5 (6 OR 7), S 3, Cd 18

20

Usually how many ribs does a ferret have?

15 ribs

21

What shape is their Os penis?

j shaped

22

T/F Ferrets are able to vomit and/or regurgitate but usually do not unless obstructed.

true

23

Since their small and large intestines are very short in length, their GI transit time=

3 to 4hrs

24

T/F They have no cecum or ileocolic valve so they digest fiber and CHO poorly.

true

25

What is the name of the single central artery that is in place of the bilateral carotid arteries?

innominate artery I or brachiocephalic artery

26

T/F The cranial pole of the right kidney is cranial to that of the left kidney and is embedded in the fossa of the caudate lobe of the liver.

true

27

How many mls can the urinary bladder hold?

10 mls

28

How long is a jill pregnant for?

41-43days avg 42 days

29

Where are the adrenal gland located?

embedded in fat medial to the cranial pole of the kidney

30

Name some states where ferrets are illegal.

CA, DC, NYC

31

T/F There are known established feral ferret colonies on this continent.

false-no known

32

How old is a middle aged ferret?

3-4 years old

33

T/F You can use canine distemper vaccine on ferrets.

FALSE-use ferret distemper vaccine

34

Imrab 3 is the only _____ vaccine approved for ferrets.

rabies

35

When do you give the Imrab 3? Which way?

3 months old, then booster annually, given SQ

36

T/F Legally ferrets can be sacrificed if a human is btiten.

true

37

T/F There are no heartworm preventative products labeled for ferrets so use is off label.

true

38

What is the most common gastrointestinal parasite in ferrets?

coccidia

39

T/F Most gastrointestinal parasites such as hookworms, roundworms, and tapeworms are not seen commonly in ferrets.

true

40

What parasites are more commonly seen than internal parasites?

ectoparasites-otodectes cynatosis, sarcoptes scabi, fleas

41

Isoflurane causes decrease in ____, ___, and ____, and decrease in count within 15 minutes of induction.

HCT, RBC count, and Hb

42

What are some ferret proof tips?

Seal all holes and openings (plumbing, AC units), shut all cabinets and drawers, keep garbage out of reach

43

What type of litter should be used? Shouldn't be used?

Pelleted litter, clay litter

44

What are these signs of: open mouth breathing/panting

Heat prostration

45

T/F Ferrets are omnivores.

False-strict carnivores

46

Can ferrets eat raw meat or eggs for a treat?

No likelihood of bacterial contamination can result in food-borne illness

47

The blood volume in healthy adult ferrets ___mls in female and ___mls in male

40, 60

48

What is just under the skin in a palpable groove on the ventral aspect of the proximal portion of the tail

Ventral tail artery

49

T/F ferrets normally have a relatively high PCV reported as 43-55% and can be as high as 61%

True

50

Normal insulin level with hypoglycemia(low glucose) supports diagnosis of _____, elevated insulin with hypoglycemia confirms _____.

Insulinoma

51

Persistent ______ can occur in apparently healthy ferrets so check biannually, look for signs of lymphosarcoma.

Lymphocytosis

52

T/F Creatinine levels are lower in ferrets than in dogs and cats and have a narrower normal range.

True

53

When giving an injection IM where do you put the needle in to avoid the sciatic nerve?

Quadriceps (front of thigh)

54

If fx not into the pulp cavity a fractured canine tooth can be?

Smoothed off with dremel tool

55

Dental calculus (tartar) build up leading to _____ and periodontitis.

Gingivitis

56

Chronic tearing of the teeth can mean?

Tooth root abscess

57

What are some foreign bodies that can cause gastric trichobezoar(hair ball) if they are over 3 years old

Shoe soles, foam rubber, cat toys, rubber bands, erasers, stuffing from furniture, sponges, cotton

58

List 2 clinical signs associated with acute onset of illness caused by GI FB in ferrets:

anorexia, dehydration, absence of stools, vomiting

59

T/F Piloerection in a ferret is normal.

False-can be signs of pain/something wrong

60

What are some causes of gastroenteritis/GI ulcers?

1) foreign body/trichobezoar(hair ball)
2) helicobacter mustelae infection (over 3-4yrs)
3) NSAIDS

61

How old is a middle aged ferret?

3-4years old

62

Clinical signs of gastritis?

1) pytalism (drooling)
2) bruxism (teeth grinding)
3) vomiting
4) diarrhea

63

GI ulceration clinical signs?

1) vomitting/nausea
2) melena
3) halitosis (bad breath)
4) anorexia

64

What is the GI viral disease known as Rotavirus infection(vomiting and diarrhea)?

Ferret Kit Disease

65

What is known as green slime disease (coronavirus infection)?

epizootic catarrhal enteritis

66

Clinical signs of epizootic catarrhal enteritis?

1) watery, dark green, foul smelling diarrhea with mucus "birdseed" (malabsorption) like appearance
2) anorexia, vomiting, weight loss

67

T/F epizootic catarrhal enteritis is easily cured.

false-no cure

68

What disease is where blood cells are not being formed?

hematopoietic disease

69

Clinical signs of hematopoietic disease?

1) splenomegaly
2) lymphosarcoma (malignant tumor of lymphocytes)

70

Estrogen-induced toxicity of hematopoietic tissue->

aplastic anemia

71

Hyperestrogenism is caused by what?

1) prolonged estrus (> 1mos) secondary to failure to ovulate
2) ovarian remnant in sprite (spayed female)

72

Hyperestrogen causes ______ suppression and aplastic anemia(RBCs, WBCs and PLts are not produced)

bone marrow suppression (toxicity)

73

Clinical signs of hyperestrogen:

1) swollen vulva/vaginal discharge
2) pale mucous membranes (anemia)
3) SQ hemorrhages (petechia)
4) bilaterally symmetrical alopecia

74

What causes splenomegaly?

=marked congestion and extramedullary hematopoisesis of unknown cause (not true hyperslenism)

75

What disease is this: pushes glucose into the cells, tumors of beta cells in pancreatic islets

insulinoma

76

Since tumors from insulinoma produce excessive amounts of insulin, this results in ______

hypoglycemia

77

Clinical signs of insulinoma:

1) collapse
2) depressed or minimally responsive
3) drooling or pawing at face (nausea)
4) glazed eyes

78

To obtain a glucose sample the ferret must fast, what is the limit of how long it can go without eating?

fast for 4 hours to no more than 6 hours (longer causes serious hypoglycemic episode)

79

Normal insulin with hypoglycemia ____ insulinoma, elevated insulin with hypoglycemia ______ insulinoma.

supports, confirms

80

______ & ______ are often present in ferrets with insulinoma.

adrenal disease & cutaneous mast cell tumor

81

Unlike in dogs and cats, these proliferative lesions produce excessive amounts of _____ precursors and _____ not cortisol.---this disease is called?

estrogen, androgens (sex hormones)--adrenalocoritcal disease

82

Clinical signs of adrenalocoritcal disease:

1) most common bilat symmetrical alopecia
2) yellow discoloration of coat

83

Signs of Adrenal associated endocrinopathy:

1) vulvar swelling
2) hind limb weakness and pot-bellied appearance
3) enlarged spleen

84

T/F If a Adrenalectomy is performed bilateral it's possible to see adrenal associated endrinopathy again on the other side.

true

85

What are some neoplasia diseases?

1) lymphosarcoma (solid tumor of lymph nodes)
2) cutaneous neoplasia
3) insulinoma
4) adrenocortical adenoma

86

___ is benign and _____ is malignant

oma, sarcoma

87

T/F There are two forms of lymphosarcoma (LSA).

true

88

T/F Peripheral lymphadenomegaly (enlarged lymph nodes) will spread to viscera and organ failure late in course of disease and is seen in ferrets younger than 2-3 years old.

false- greater than 3 years old

89

The juvenile form of LSA is early visceral involvment often with ______ mass

large thymic mass

90

Clinical signs of LSA:

1) extremely variable depends on affected area
2) peripheral or localized lymph node enlargement
3) lethargy, anorexia, weakness, splenomegaly

91

Lymphocytosis is common in the ____ form of LSA, while lymphopenia is more common in _____ ferrets.

juvenile, older

92

The most common skin problem:

cutaneous neoplasia (skin tumors)

93

Mast cell tumor:
1) very common in ages ____
2) signs?

1) greater than 3 years old
2) alopecia, hyperkeratotic (scaly) plaques

94

Sebaceous Epithelioma:
1)_____tumor of sebaceous glands
2) signs?

1) benign tumor
2) verrucous (wart-like) masses, piloerection of head and neck

95

Family Paramyxoviridae, Genus Morbillivirus

Canine Distemper virus

96

_______ is close to 100% fatal in ferrets!

Canine Distemper virus

97

Canine Distemper virus is most commonly spread via _____ (infection via inhalation), and also direct contact.

aerosols

98

Characteristics of Canine Distemper clinical signs:

1) mucopurulent oculonasal discharge
2) photophobia (light sensitive) and
3) blepharospasm (eye spasms)

99

Canine Distemper (CDV) causes _______ and suppurative ______.

immunosuppression and suppurative bronchopneumonia

100

What is recommended if a ferret has distemper? How do you prevent it?

euthanasia, vaccinations (can't do them all at once separate them)

101

Family Orthomyxoviridae, ferrets susceptible to human influenza

Influenza virus

102

Clinical signs of Influenza virus:

1) pnemonia is uncommon
2) sneezing, watery eyes, coughing

103

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in ferrets?

Aspiration Pneumonia (forced medication)

104

Due to aspiration (involuntary inhalation) of oral medications or of vomitus into the lungs

Aspiration Pneumonia (forced medication)

105

Cardiomyopathy:
1) how old?
2) signs? same as?

1) usually seen at 5 and 7 years but can be 1 years in severe cases
2) decreased activity, exercise intolerance, weak in hind end, dyspnea (same as heartworm)

106

Cardiomyopathy signs are similar to _______, so you must do a _____ test.

heartworm

107

T/F Small number of worms usually, so often with very low level or no microfilaermia, therefore need to run occult (antigen) tests.

true

108

What do you use for heartworm prevention?

Prophylaxis with Ivermectin

109

Bacterial infection most common in females which causes E. coli.

Urinary tract infection

110

Proteinuria may be indicative of this?

renal disease (chronic interstitial nephritis)

111

Common due to adrenal diagnosis, accumulation of secretory material and keratinand and prostatic cyst formation in the prostate gland

Prostatic diagnosis

112

Enlarged prostate gland and multiple cysts impinge upon prostatic portion of urethra causing partial or complete obstruction of urine flow

Prostatic diagnosis

113

Fatal muscle disease (disseminated idiopathic myofascitis):
1) unknown causes?
2) affects primarily?
3) ___ disease
4) contagious?
5) treatment?

1) yes
2) young 6-18mos
3) progressive
4) noncontagious
5) no treatment

114

Fatal muscle disease (disseminated idiopathic myofascitis) clinical signs:

acute onset of pain and reluctance to move with fever, failure to respond to meds

115

Clinical pathology for Fatal muscle disease (disseminated idiopathic myofascitis):

1) leukocytosis with mature neutrophilia
2) mild hypoalbuminemia and mild hyperglycemia
3) elevated ALT, AST, bilirubin

116

Fatal muscle disease (disseminated idiopathic myofascitis gross lesions:

1) white streaking in muscles
2) splenomegaly
3) enlarged lymph nodes

117

T/F There are no vaccines licensed for general use in wild animals or hybrids.

true

118

T/F Almost all primates will become aggressive once they have reached maturity.

true

119

Rabies is an acute,
progressive encephalitis caused by a ______

lyssavirus

120

T/F In the US, there is currently no federal protection for privately owned reptiles, parrots, rabbits, rodents, or fish.

true

121

Reasons why to not have "exotic" animals? (according to wildlife article)

owners are unable to meet the animal's nutritional, housing, social, and behavioral needs (the animal may be inappropriate itself as a pet because of aggression, or because of a serious risk of disease transmission)

122

In 2003, humans were infected with monkeypox, a foreign animal disease, after being bitten by a "sick" pet ________ that had been housed, at the facility of an animal dealer with ______ that were infected with monkey pox.

prairie dog, gambian rats

123

In some states, wild animals species defined as dangerous include:

large carnivores, nonhuman primates, and venomous reptiles

124

What statement is not true regarding skunks:
1) skunks are omnivores and their natural diet consists of insects, rodents and other small vertebrates, fruits, green vegetables and grains
2) skunks can release anal gland secretions voluntarily and spray them up to 3 meters
3) skunks can be restrained easily by scruffing them behind the back of the neck
4) skunks have sharp teeth and can bite through leather gloves causing serious injuries

3) skunks can be restrained easily by scruffing them behind the back of the neck

125

According to Part I of the 2011 Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, a healthy ferret that bites a person should be:

confined for 10 days and observed daily for signs of illness

126

T/F Domestic ferrets likely originated from the Black-Footed Ferret and were originally used for rodent control then "rabbiting" in the US.

false

127

T/F All pet ferrets should have their glands removed at an early age because these glands produce a noxious secretion that can spray you if he/she gets upset.

false

128

Which statement is false about ferrets:
1) they have numerous sebaceous and sweat glands
2) ferrets have a very short intestinal tract and lack a cecum
3) they have long, wide tracheas resulting in decreased central airway and pulmonary resistance and a relatively large respiratory reserve
4) hobs have a j-shaped Os penis that is easily palpable but makes it difficult to catheterize

1) they have numerous sebaceous and sweat glands

129

T/F Ferrets have a stomach capable of expanding greatly for gorging on large amounts of food at a time, but they cannot vomit

false

130

It is recommended that pet ferrets be vaccinated for?

rabies and canine distemper

131

What are two proprietary brand names of 2 vaccines currently approved for in use of ferrets?

Imrab3, Purevax

132

Which statement is true regarding appropriate feed and nutrition for ferrets:
1) ferrets are omnivores and will eat a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables along with dry food
2) ferrets are carnivores and require a diet with up to 40% animal-based protein and a high fat content (up to 30%)
3) ferrets are carnivores and should be fed large amounts of raw meat and eggs and occasional fruits and vegetables

2) ferrets are carnivores and require a diet with up to 40% animal-based protein and a high fat content (up to 30%)

133

T/F Ferrets will usually bite when handled and should be securely restrained during physical examination.

false

134

Concerning normal ferret CBC values, which is not true:
1) ferrets have relatively high PCVs
2) ferrets have low PLT counts lower than those of most animals
3) ferret reticulocyte counts tend to be higher than those of other animals
4) ferret WBCs tend to be low
5) all the above

2) ferrets have low PLT counts lower than those of most animals

135

CBC results of blood from ferret a ferret with lymphosarcoma can include:
1) persistent leukocytosis (WBC count >25,000 cells/microliter) without lymphocytosis
2) lymphocytes persisting @ 60% or more of the total WBC count
3) persistent leukocytosis (WBC count >10,000 cells/microliter) with lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count >3,500)
4) a&b
5) b&c

5) b&c-2) lymphocytes persisting @ 60% or more of the total WBC count
3) persistent leukocytosis (WBC count >10,000 cells/microliter) with lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count >3,500)

136

In ferrets <2 years old, gastrointestinal obstruction is often due to ingestion of a rubber foreign body (fb). In older ferrets, GI obstruction more commonly secondary to?

gastric hair balls

137

Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis (Green Slime disease) is a GI dz of ferrets that:
1) is caused by a coronavirus
2) can damage the Gi tract leading to chronic maldigestion and malabsorption
3) is associated with high mortality and morbidity in 2-6wk old kits
4) a&b
5) a,b, c

4) a&b-1) is caused by a coronavirus 2) can damage the Gi tract leading to chronic maldigestion and malabsorption

138

Concerning Canine influenza virus infection in ferrets:
1) clinical signs in ferrets are similar to those in people and typically are associated with upper respiratory infection
2) infection can be prevented with off-label use of human flu vaccines
3) older ferrets can develop pneumonia and die

1) clinical signs in ferrets are similar to those in people and typically are associated with upper respiratory infection

139

How do ferrets usually contract canine influenza?

from infected people

140

Which is not true regarding Canine Influenza infection in ferrets?
1) it's a Paramyxovirus in the genus Morbillivirus
2) it's almost 100% fatal
3) it's commonly spread by ingestion of body excretions containing virus
4) it causes immunosuppresion

3) it's commonly spread by ingestion of body excretions containing virus

141

Which is not true regarding estrogen-induced bone marrow toxicity in ferrets:
1) it occurs secondary to hyperestrogenism caused by prolonged estrus (>1month)
2) it occurs when jills are not bred because jills that are not bred are not stimulated to ovulate and thus remain in estrus
3) it causes suppression of only RBC production in the bone marrow
4) it can occur in a spayed female due to ovarian remnant or adrenal tumor

3) it causes suppression of only RBC production in the bone marrow

142

Adrenal lesions causing AAE in ferrets are suspected to occur secondary to a combination of factors including:

early neutering, artificial lighting, and genetic predisposition

143

Prednisole is used for medical management of Insulinoma. It increases blood glucose levels by:
1) stimulating the adrenal gland to produce cortisol which increases blood glucose
2) inhibiting glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and increasing formation of glucose in the liver
3) shrinking Insulinoma tumor cells making them nonfunctional
4) all of the above

2) inhibiting glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and increasing formation of glucose in the liver

144

T/F Clinical signs of AAE are caused by production of excessive amounts of cortisol by the adrenal cortex

false

145

Name another neoplastic disease that is either commonly or sometimes seen with AAE

Insulinoma, LSA

146

T/F Skin tumors are the most common skin problem occurring in ferrets

true

147

Name one of the two most common skin tumors that occurs in ferrets

cutaneous mast cell tumor, sebaceous epithelioma

148

Define domesticate? Exotic?

to tame or breed for human use, foreign or not native in terms of country of origin

149

Rabies is considered endemic in Fl, what does that mean?

always present but generally under control

150

Name the species that serves as the primary wildlife reservoir for rabies virus in Florida

raccoon

151

List 2 other wildlife species responsible for carrying and spreading the rabies virus in the USA

skunk, bats

152

The one most common health problem and leading cause of clinical problems in skunks is

obesity

153

List 2 reasons why ferrets are considered to be wild animals and/or are illegal to own in some states.

1) they are considered "dangerous" according to that state
2) they bite too many children

154

My pet ferret was descented before I got him why does he still smell so bad most of the time?

he still has the sebaceous gland remnant to reduce the smell you will need to spay/neuter the ferret so the hormones will decrease

155

I have an intact male hob and jill that i want to breed but a friend said that I shouldn't because they are both silver mitts. Is this true ___ why?

yes, it can result in fetal reabsorption or congenital abnormalities

156

The veterinarian wants to take a quick look at the inside of a ferrets mouth but the patient is not cooperating. What can be done to remedy the situation without using sedation/anesthesia.

scruff the ferret by the neck to create its "yawn"

157

Sable (fitch) is the "wild type" or normal ferret color. List a naturally occurring mutation

albino/english

158

List a third naturally occurring ferret color mutation.

cinnamon

159

What 3 specific recommendations would you make to a client who wants to keep his ferret outside?

1) keep ferret on heartworm preventative (smallest one for feline)
2) keep in the shade with plenty of water
3) inform of predators that could possibly try to get ferret

160

What is the gastrointestinal time of a ferret? Why is this significant?

3-4hrs, because ferrets will be going to the bathroom more often than most animals so make litter available and clean up after it often

161

What is the best site of blood collection in ferrets for larger quantities (>1ml)?

jugular vein

162

What's another site for large quantities of blood?

cranial vena cava

163

Emergency treatment of seizures due to Insulinoma involves administering 50% Dextrose slow IV until a response is seen. In ferrets exhibiting milder signs like confusion or weakness, what treatment can the owner administer at home?

high quality protein food if will eat can can swallow, if not rub small amount of honey, corn syrup, or other liquid sugar products on gum

164

Is a ferret: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

domestic

165

Is a sugar glider: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

wildlife and exotic

166

Is a quaker parrot: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

exotic and wildlife

167

Is a prairie dog: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

native and wildlife

168

Is a green iguana: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

native and wildlife

169

Is a skunk: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

native and wildlife

170

Is a pigeon: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

exotic

171

Is a dwarf rabbit: domestic, exotic, native, wildlife?

domestic