What are the 2 main functions of the cardiovascular system?
bloodflow to the tissues, pressure of the arteries
Which circulatory system is a high pressure system?
systemic arterial circulation
Increased hydrostatic pressure is required too perfuse tissues with a high resistance to blood flow. List two tissues resistance to blood flow
At what point inthe cardiac cycle are the atria filling and the ventricles relaxed?
T/F The vena cava carry oxygenated blood.
The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called the
systolic blood pressure
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure is
During systole/diastole blood in the right/left ventricle is pumped into the lungs through the semilunar valve called the aortic/pulmonic valve
systole, right, pulmonic
What part of the brain is responsible for concious thought and interpretation of sesnory information?
Nerve impulses are transmitted from neurons to taget tissues via
Which neurotransmitter is always inhibitory?
T/F afferent nerve fibers travel away form the CNS
Describe how a reflex arc works.
Stimulation of sensory receptor>motor neuron in the CNS (spinal cord or brainstem) sends out an impulse which ends at the target organ>response
Mechanical breakdown of food resulting in the increase of surface area for exposure to digestive enzymes is
Release of ____ from the intestine slows down gastric empyting by inhibiting gastric motility
secretion and cholecystokinin
The process of slowing down gastic empyting is called
Transport of water, ions and nutrients form the gut lumen across the epithelium and into the blood is
Secretion of _____ inhibits muscle activity of the gastric fundus allowing it to relax and fill during ingestion of food
The process of contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in the GI tract is known as
T/F HCl, pepsin, and gastric are all secreted into the lumen of the stomach
Durring deglutition the _____ prevents food from entering the trachea
Parietal cell is produces
Chief cells produce
G cells produce
Mucuous cells produce
T/F Motility and secretion in the GI tract are decreased by stimulation by the parasympathetic nervous system
Gastrin, acetylcholine, and histamine stimulat the secretion of hydrogen and chloride in the stomach by binding to specific receptors on gastric___
T/F postaglandins stimulate bicarbonate production and cause enhanced blood flow to the stomach for repair of damage to the gastric epithelial lining
List two species that cannot vomit. Why?
horse, rabbit because of their anatomy
List the parts of the ruminant stomach.
abomasum, rumen, reticulum, omasum
The true glandular stomach of ruminants is called
______ is produced by the rumen microbes for use as energy source in ruminants
volatile fatty acids
T/F the rumen and reticulum are fully functional at birth
What is the common term for eructation? What purpose does it serve?
burping, release of methane gas and carbone dioxide
T/F carnivores have a large sacculated colon and well developed cecum.
The _____ filters material absorbed from the GI tract from the blood before they reach the systemic circulation
The enzymes for protein digestion are produced by the
pancreas and small intestine
The major blood protein is ______ and it is produced by the _____
List two general functions of the kidney.
Produce urine, maintence of homeostasis
Regurgitation of chewed food for rechewing and reswallowing
Accessory organs supply ____ to the GI tract and what are some examples.
secretions, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
What is secreted by gastric glands and needed for absorption of vitamin B12?
Contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the GI tract that crush, mix, and propel its contents
Delivery of enzymes, mucus and ions into the lumen of the GI tract , adn hormones into the blood
a mammal that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first compartment/example
hindgut, horse NOT PIG
What mixes intestine contents by slow movements of liquid ingesta?
Release of CCK ______ intestinal motility and _____ gastric motlity
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats must be chemically broken down to be absorbed via
The stomach breaks into gobules into droplets via agitation of antrum
_____ break down proteins into amino acids and dipeptides by _____ digestion
_____ are bile acids secreted into the duodenum via ____ bile duts
the largest organ in the body
The smallest compartment of the ruminant stomach
Part of the ruminant stoamch which fermentative digestion is anaerobic
Most of the water in the body is contrained within the ___ compartment
What structure regulates the flow of fluid and molecules into and out of cells?
The factors that detemine whether a molcule passes in a cell are
size, lipid solubility, ionic charge
The force equaling the difference between the osmotic pressure of blood and that of intersitial fluid/lymph that keep fluid in blood vessels are
Which stage of mitosis is considered the metabolic phase when the cell is growing and maturing?
When normal cells stop diving when they come in contact with each other is called
The initial process by which simple sugars are assembled into polysaccharide chains, glycerol and fat are connected to form fat molecules and chains of amino acids are assembled to form proteins called
The majority of the ATP is produced by
electron transport chain
T/F glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and pyruvate is the product formed
Cofactors assist enzymes in catalyzing reactions by
compeleting the shape of the enzyme's binding site
What is not a structural protein?
Protein catabolism occurs in the ____ and requires _____
T/F the liver is responsible for controlling lipid metabolism
What disease can occer in cats fed diets deficient in taurine?
cardiomyopathy, retinal degeneration
What type of epithelium is present in mesothelium?
Which epithelium usually has 2 layers and lines large excretory ducts?
Where is transitional epithelial found?
urinary bladder and ureters
T/F most exocrine glands are unicellular glands
What are the epithelial surface specializations?
cilia, microvili, keratin
The basement membrane functions to
connect epithelial cells to the underlying tissue and allow diffusion of nutrients from waste to vessels in underlying tissue
Glands with cells that accumulate secretory products in their cytoplasm and then die and disintegrate are known as
What is an example of connective tissue proper?
What are the specialized connective tissues?
blood, bone, cartilage
Which type of cartilage is found in the epiglottis and pinnae?
What characteristic of dense regular fibrous connective tissue is not one
tensile strength in many directions
Pus is made up of ____ which function to ____
neutrophils and macrophages, aid in the removal of bacteria and cellular debris
The scab is formed by _____ and will fall off allowing wound repair to continue via ___
The breakdown of nutrients with ___ of energy is ____
production, catabolic metabolism
The building of molecules _____ of stored energy for
the use, anabolic metabolism
The function of cilia and where it's found.
sweep away debris, nasal cavity
Three components that make up connective tissue are
cells, fibers, ground substances
A different solution is placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane. Water moves from side A to side B. Which side has the greater effective somotic pressure for this to occur?
The process which water moves from one side of the membrane to the other is called
What ion is relatively higher conentration in the intracellular fluid than in the extracellular fluid?
What happens to red blood cells that are placed into a hypertonic solution?
they decrease in volume
T/F most of the water in the body is extracellular
Filtration is a passive membrane process that functions based on a pressure gradient. The force pushing a liquid from one side of a membrane to another is
In what organ system is filtration best illustrated in?
All cells participate in the active transport of what electrolytes?
Na+, K+, Ca2+
The process by which somatic cells divide and produce 2 indentical daughter cells is
The process by which cells form organs and tissues with diverse shapes and functions is controlled by multiple genes and involves temporary or permanent inhibition of genes active in other cells is called
Once inside cells via _______ glucose is broken down during a process called ____
active transport, glycolysis
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the mammalian cell?
synthesis and transport of proteins
T/F carbohydrate metabolism via glycolysis produces pyruvate and requires ATP
Which cells are most sensitive to fluctuations in CHO levels they cannot get energy from other sources?
neurons and erythrocytes
Protein synthesis begins in the ____ and uses RNA polymerase to transfer instructions in the DNA to mRNA in a process called ___
Amino acids are assembled into proteins using transfer RNA(tRNA) in a process called
The 4 primary types of tissues are
epithelial, muscle, connective, and nervous
The lateral surfaces of epithelial cells are connected to each other by
Which epithelial tissue allows filtration and diffusion?
T/F transitional epithelium is stratified epithelium with a cuboidal or squamous layer depending on the degree of organ distension
How is the negative charge in a cell maintained?
K+ diffuses out of cells more easily than Na+ goes back into cells via simple diffusion.
Sodium-potassium pump only retrieves 2 K+ for every 3 Na+ pumped out per ATP molecule used. Cytosolic proteins have slight negative charge.
Which epithelium is ciliated?
T/F all epithelial tissues are avascular.
The method of grandular secretion storage and relase in which the apical portion of the cell's cytoplasm is pinched off and lost while releasing the secretory product is called
Examples of exocrine glands.
pancreas, mammary gland, salivary gland
Connective tissues are composed of ground substance, fixed and transient cells and ___
Connective tissue cells that are "fixed" are
adipocytes and reticular cells
Membranes are thin, protective layers that line body cavities, separate organs and cover surfaces. The type of membrane that does NOT have an epithelial layer overlying a layer of connective tissue proper is
What fluid is formed between the parietal and visceral layesr of serous membranes?
The most common/rigid type of cartilage in the body?
During the process of inflammation, what causes the clinical signs of heat and redness?
increased blood flow due to vasodilation
What causes pain?
swelling presses nerve endings
A wound that is allowed to heal by organization and regeneration healing is by
What is formed during organization?
What indicates the type of muscle or group of muscles that produces the desired muscle action?
T/F skeletal muscle cells are very long, have only one nucleus and appear striated
Smooth muscle cells have ____ attached to the contractile filaments at both ends of the cell.
Which is true about visceral smooth muscle: found in the walls of internal organs, contracts without external stimulation, reacts to stretching by contracting
all of th above
List two areas inthe body where visceral smooth muscle is found.
What is not true about multi-unit smooth muscle?
it's used for large movements
What describes one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates
During muscle contraction, when the need for oxygen exceeds the supply, muscle fibers shift to anaerobic metabolism to produce energy and ____ is produced as a byproduct of incomplete glucose breakdown.
T/F energy is required for both muscle contraction and relaxation
T/F all three types of muscle have contractile units called sarcomeres
What type of muscle has intercalated disks?
Transverse tubules are invaginations of the sarcolemma that function to:
bring the impulse into the interior of the cell
In dogs, 5 epidermal layers are only present in areas with very thick skin including
What is true about langerhan's cells?
originate in the bone marrow and function to stimulate other cells of the immune system, are specialized epidermal macrophages
Functions of the hypodermis:
thermo-insulation and shock absorption, inabling the skin to move smoothly over the underlying musculature
What is another name for hypodermis?
What is not true about horns and antlers?
antlers generally are found on both male and females
_____ are shed and grown annually
- Stratum basel
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum corneum
- A. Keratinization occurs here
- B. langerhan's cells located here
- C. new cells are produced here and move up
- D. outermost layer
- E. keratinized clear cells
- A. inflammation of the skin
- B. bacterial skin infection
- C. itichiness of the sin
- D. hair loss
- E. term for infection with cutaneous mties
Describe how a muscle contracts.
Acetylcholine binds to receptors on sarcolemmal surface->impusle travels through transverse tubules to interior of cell->to sarcoplasmic reticulum->release of stored calcium ions into sarcoplasm->diffuses into myofilaments>shorten(contraction)
Functions of renal waste:
filteration of blood, reabsorption, secretion
What the urinary system is composed of:
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones, targets whole body, part of flight or fight
insulin and glucagon, all body cells, movement of glucose into cells and its used for energy
For any substance to be absorbed it must..
pass out of the tubular lumen go through/betweem the tubular epithelial cells into the intersitial fluid, pass through the endothelium into peritubular capillaries
androgens, whole body, anabolic effect and development of male sex characteristics
estrogens and progestins, whole body, preparation for breeding and pregnancy
Where is blood filtered?
in the renal corpuscle
Fluid that was filtered out of the glomerular capillaires
Small openings that allow certain molecules to leave that are too big in capillary endothelium that aid the filtration of blood
Reabsorption of potassium:
in PCT, loop of henle, DCT via simple diffusion
Reabsorption of calcium:
in PCT, loope of hele, DCT via vitamin d, parathyriod, calcitonin
Reabsorption of magnesium:
from PCT, loop of henle, by the collecting ducts is increased by parathyroid
___, ____, ____ are eliminated by secretion
hydrogen, potassium, ammonia
Secretion mostly takes place in the ____
distal convoulted tubule
To get rid of substances the kidney must do what? This is called ____
transfer them from the peritubular capillaries>into the intestinal fluid>into the tubular epithelial cells>into the tubular filtrate out in urine, secretion
Reproductive process starts with this
Spernatizan penetrates ___
Reproductive cells are produced by a process of cell division called
Androgens are ____
male sex hormones
Androgens are produced in the _____ by interstial cells
Androgens primarily produce ____
Period of time from fertilization through parturition
What are the three trimesters of gestation?
1. period of the embryo
2. fetal development/differentiation
3. fetal growth
sites spread diffusely over surface of placenta and endometrium
Numerous small, separate sites
Single disk-shaped area of attachment
thyriod and calcitonin hormone, targets cell body cells, grwoth and metabolic regulation
parathyroid, targets-kidneys, intestines, bones, prevents hypoglycemia
glucocortoid, mineralocotocid, and sex hormones, targets whole body, increased blood glucose and blood pressure
growth, prolactin, thyroid, adrenocortictoropic, follicle, luternizing, melanocyte, targets all body, for metabolic regulation
antidiurectic and oxytocin hormone, targets kidney, action is water conservation
How fast blood plasma is filterd as it passes through the glomerulus
GFR=glomerular filtration rate
Abnormal amounts of protein in the urine is used as an indicator of _____ damage
Reabsorption occurs from the ____ of the nephron into the _____ capillaries
Reabsorption of sodium requires both _____ and ____ membrane processes
active and passive
When glucose and amino acids "hitch a ride" on the same carrier protein and are passively transported into PCT epithelial cells this is called
Passive diffusion of concentrates into peritubular capillaries is
BUN=blood urea nitrogen
_____ is determined by the amount of water in the tubular filtrate when it reaches the renal pelvis
Two hormones responsible for the majority of urine volume regulation are
ADH and aldosterone
Without this hormone water cannot be reabsorbed and will increase urine volume (polyuria)
Aldosterone increases absorption of sodium in the ____ and _____ back into the blood
DCT, collecting ducts
The ureters exit kidney at ____ and eneter urinary bladder near the ___ at an oblique angle
The ureters continuously move urine fromt he kidneys to the urinary bladder via?
peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle
Expulsion of urine from urinary bladder into urethra for elimination from the body
The fullness of urinary bladder is detected by ____ in bladder wall
The urethra runs through the _____ to the outside of the body via _____ or _____
pelvic canal, penis, vulva (vestibule)
Contain genetic material for all structures and functions in the body
All the cells in the body except ___ and ___ contain identical chromosomes
Chromosomes that occur in pairs and the number is always even
One of the pairs of chromosomes that make up the diploid chromosome number contains the _____
Haploid chromosome number is
(n, X, n, Y)
As a cell divides by this process the total number of chromosomes in each of the daughter cels is reduced by half of the number the parent had
_____ produced by ____
male sex cells, seminiferous of testes
The spermatoza are stored and where they mature here
The female sex cells ____, where they are produced are ____
Ovaries produce two types of hormones ____ and _____
The hormone produced by ovarian follices and is responsible for physical/behavioral changes
The hormone produced by the corpus luteum and prepares the uterus for pregnancy
Production of ova involves a complex sequence of cyclial events under the influence of two hormones ___ and ___
FSH(follicle stimulating hormone), LH(luteinizing hormone)
one offspring at a time
give birth to litters
Stage for follicular development
Stage for sexual receptivity and ovulation
The birth process
The three stages of labor.
1. uterine contractions: cervical dialation
2. delivery of new born: water breaks
3. delivery of the placenta: weak contractions
The male/female germ cells spermatoza or ova
Stage during which major organs are forming
____ carry unoxygenated waste filled blood from the fetus to the placenta
paired umbilical arteries
_____ carry nutrients and oxygen rich blood from the placenta to the fetus
single umbilical vein
Stage of formation of major internal/external structures is complete
The embyro of a fetus
Rupture of mature follicle with release of the oocyte(called a mature ovum after release) into the uterine tube
Oocyte that is surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
FSH released to stimulate primordial follicales to develop
Activated follicles that multiply
A mature follicle is also known as
vesicular ovarian follicle
The time from the beginning of one heat period to the beginnig of the next
When the female is receptive to the male
Act of breeding
Release of enyzmes that help sperm penetrate ovum
occurs in oviduct, only one sperm cell can penetrate the ovum
A fertilized ovum, male and female pronucleus
Rapid division of zygote
blastocyst attaches to endometrium
forms fluid filled sac around the fetus
Forms allantoic sac around the amnionic sac
Placenta membranes covered by the ____ which attaches tot he uterine lining and links to the fetus via the umbilical cord
Before milk production mammary glands produce ____
Colostrum supplies nutrients and has laxative effect to clear ____ from intestinal tract
____ are antibodies that must be consumed within the first few hours after birth or intestine will not be able to absorb large protein molecules
Hormones involved with lactation are
prolactin, growth hormone, and adrenal cortical hormones
Specialized skin glands
T/F mammary glands are present in both male and females
Milk secreting units of the mammary gland=
The effect of nursing or milking