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Veterinary Technician > Equine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Deck (256):
1

Should you bribe a horse and instill fear when training it?

No the reward should never precede the desired behavior to avoid biting behavior, a horse cannot learn while frightened

2

The only true wild horse remaining

equus przewalski

3

The horse as we know it

equus caballus

4

The horse, donkey, onager, and zebra are part of what family?

equidae(equines)

5

What's the name of a donkey/jackass?

equus asinus

6

What's the name of the onager/wild ass?

equus hemonius

7

Plains zebra has how many chromosomes? Name?

22 pairs of chromosomes, equus burchelli

8

Imperial zebra has how many chromosomes? Name?

23 pairs of chromosomes, equus grevyi

9

Mountain zebra has how many chromosomes? Name?

16 pairs of chromosomes, equus zebra

10

What's the hybrid species of a donkey mixed with a horse?

mule

11

Mare mixed with an Ass=

mule

12

Jennet mixed with a Stallion=

hinny

13

T/F Hinnies are more common than mules due to logistics of breeding.

false-mules

14

T/F Mule or Hinney may be male or female phenotype

true

15

T/F Mule are almost always sterile.

true

16

What type of stomach do horses have?

monogastric/hindgut

17

How long do horses sleep for? Why?

20 minutes at a time because they're always looking for predators

18

What is the origin of the Eohippus?

58 million years ago

19

What is Eoshippus? How many toes did it have?

dawn horse, was dog sized 14" at the shoulder and 5 toed

20

How were horses introduced to Europe?

horses crossed the land bridge into northern Asia (20 million years ago)

21

Horses disappeared from the Western Hemisphere during?

the Ice Age (10,000 years ago)

22

In 1500 A.D., horses are reintroduced to the Americas by?

Spanish explorers

23

In order what priorities are of importance to the horse?

1) safety 2) food 3) comfort 4) play/socialization

24

T/F If a horse does not feel safe, its handler is not safe.

true

25

T/F "Don't worry, he's more afraid of you than you are him" is a recipe for disaster?

true

26

T/F Horses are not approval seekers but comfort seekers.

true

27

T/F The dominant stallion leads the heard form the front.

false-rear

28

If play is denied to a horse, what can develop?

vices can develop

29

What are a horses defense mechanisms in order?

1) flight 2) flight aggression: 1) biting 2) kicking 3) striking

30

What's the most the efficient way of feeding a horse?

when small amounts off forage are consumer frequently over an extended period of time-grazing

31

What part of a horse's musculoskeletal enables it to sleep standing and enhances its ability to flee?

stay apparatus

32

What part of a horse's musculoskeletal holds head up without exertion?

nuchal ligament

33

When does foaling usually occur?

at night typically between 12-3am

34

Stage II labor(delivery) duration is how long?

less than an hour

35

Foal stand and nurses how long after it's born?

less than an hour

36

T/F Horses have almost a 360 degree visual field .

true

37

What's the opening that gives horses extensive peripheral vision?

horizontal pupillary opening

38

T/F A horse will recognize you if you're wearing different clothes; if you change your scent he may not.

true

39

What is the order of equine threatening behavior?

1) pinned ear 2) bared teeth 3) turning away 4) lifting hind leg

40

Which side do you approach a horse on?

left

41

T/F Horses must move their head in order to see the blind spot because their eyes are far apart.

true

42

T/F The blind spot behind them doesn't need time to adjust from binocular to monocular.

false-it does

43

Intact male 5 years old or older

horse/stallion

44

Intact male less than 5 years old

colt

45

Neutered male of any age

gelding

46

Crytorchild male

rig/ridgling

47

Female 5 years old or older

mare

48

Female less than 5 year old

filly

49

Either sex from birth to weaning

foal

50

Either sex weaning to 12 months

weanling

51

Either sex 12-23 months (1 year to 2)

yearling

52

What's a maiden?

a horse of either sex that has not won a race, a female that has not yet had foal

53

What's a stud?

a male used for breeding

54

What's a pony?

under 14 hands

55

What's a light?

14-17 hands

56

How are horses measured?

in hands

57

Where are horses measured at?

at the withers (the highest fixed point on the body)

58

1 hand =

4 inches

59

1 inch =

.1 hand

60

A horse that measures 15.3 hands is?

63" or 5' 3"

61

What type of identification uses liquid nitrogen where the hair regrows white?

freeze brand

62

What type of identification is where the hair does not regrow?

heat brand

63

What type of identification is a twirl of hair?

whorl or cowlick

64

What is equivalent to the horses thumb? Where is it?

chestnut, medial leg

65

Where are microchips installed in horses?

in middle third of the neck in the nuchal ligament

66

What does the department of agriculture require?

6 month equine health permit and a driver's license for horses

67

What are the two bones that have over time retracted and are often fractured when a horse kicks itself?

splint bones

68

How long is a horse pregnant for?

11 months (310-365 days)

69

BS/BC for a horse

1-9 between 5.5-7.5

70

When can a foal absorb colostrum?

24 hours after birth

71

T/F Its very common for a horse to have twins.

false-rare

72

What's the Rogan factor? What's the name of the disease?

when the females blood type is negative and she produces antibodies against the neonate's different blood type->isoerythrolysis

73

Towards the midline of the limb

axial

74

Away from the midline of the limb

abaxial

75

What's the easiest way to restrain a horse?

a lead rope and a halter

76

What is the maximum you can leave on a nose twitch?

15 mins

77

T/F You should tie a horse whenever you can.

false-never tie a horse unless its accustomed to it

78

T/F You should wrap the lead rope around your arm and tie yourself to the animal when possible.

false-never

79

How do you listen to a horse's heart?

you must separate the elbow and leg

80

Temperature for a horse?

99-101.5

81

Pulse?

22-44 avg. 28 bpm

82

Respiration?

8-12

83

4 beat gait, walk, no suspension phase, all for legs touch floor at different time

walk-natural

84

2 beat gait, symmetrical, suspension phase all 4 legs off the ground

trot/jog

85

3 beat gait, asymmetrical

canter/lope

86

Man Made gait?

paso fino

87

P3 is also known as?

coffin bone

88

4 beat gait, when horse is fully extended

gallop/run

89

1) binocular vision 2) blind area 3) monocular 4) monocular 5) blindspot

90

What color?

bay-black mane, tail, lower legs

91

What color?

chestnut/sorrel-red hair with blonde no black markings

92

What color? What's unique about it's coat?

dapple grey, born dark(black) and lighten with age

93

What color? How indicates this being a bay?

black(may have white markings), any brown hair in tail or muzzle or flank

94

What color?

Dun/buckskin-tan with black mane and tail

95

What color?

Palomino-blond hair

96

What color?

blue roan

97

What color?

red roan

98

What color?

bay roan

99

What type of marking is this?

star

100

T/F Markings are alwasy white.

true

101

What type of marking is this?

snip

102

What marking is this?

strip(under an 1 in in width)

103

What type of marking?

blaze(at least 1 in wide)

104

What type of marking?

bald faced

105

1) stocking 2) sock 3) fetlock 4) pastern 5) coronet

106

What is P1 and P2 called?

p1: long pastern bone p2: short pastern bone

107

1) heels 2) central sulcus 3) bar 4) white line 5) sole 6) wall 7) frog 8) commissure

108

What are the different types of exams for lameness?

put a lead rope on them and watch their forelegs while they go in circles, hoof testers, flexion test

109

Pinchers used to exert pressure (detect sensitivity) on areas contained within the hoof

hoof testers

110

Forceful flexion of the limb (60-90 seconds) which fatigues the joints and may exacerbate a lameness

Flexion test

111

Support/protection of limb distal to carpus/hock

standing bandage

112

For knees and hocks; always place standing bandage distal to _____

spider bandage

113

For foreleg lameness the head nods ___

up

114

For hindleg lameness the head ducks ___

down

115

When you banage a damaged limb what also must you do to the opposite one?

bandage it also to provide additional support

116

T/F You must check a bandage every 48 hours.

false-24hrs

117

When bandaging a horse's leg which layer is compression applied?

the securing layer

118

T/F Bandages put on right legs clockwise and left legs couterclockwise.

true

119

T/F Too tight wraps can cause a "bandage bow" too loose wraps are useless.

true

120

T/F An ear hold is useful for steadying the head by putting a twitch on a horse's ear.

false-never put a twitch on a horse's ear

121

What can wear patterens on teeth be affected by?

diet, behavioral or anatomic abnormalities, or trauma

122

T/F Teeth do not grow, they continue to erupt over the horse's lifetime.

true

123

T/F Healthy horses die of old age because of tooth loss and inability to access nutrients.

true

124

What are incisors for? What type of movement?

tearing, cutting, up and down motions

125

What are molars for? What is their movement?

grinding, side to side movement

126

Which teeth determine a horse's age?

the incisors

127

How many teeth do foals have? Females? Males?

24, 36-40, 40-44

128

Canine teeth are?

more pointed than incisors or cheek teeth

129

Male horse's teeth are?

almost always have four more teeth than females

130

Wolf teeth:

1) are often removed to avoid interference with the bit
2) sometimes never come in
3) are the remnants of teeth that were well-developed in the eocene ancestors of the horse
4) are often shed about the same time as the milk tooth behind it, but might remain indefinitely

131

“Galvayne’s groove” is a:

is a line on the upper corner incisor that appears when a horse is nine or 10, and runs the length of the tooth by the time he’s 20

132

Wolf teeth erupt through the gum at?

5 to 6 months

133

What can result in unilateral nasal discharge?

abscessed teeth

134

1) molars 2) premolars 3) wolf teeth 4) canines 5) incisors

135

What are the temporary (deciduous/baby) teeth of a horse?

milk teeth

136

 The two central pairs both above and below are called?

nippers

137

How many incisors should an mature horse have? Cheek teeth(premolars/molars)?

12, 24

138

You age horses by the incisors, how for young horses? More mature horses?

type, wear

139

T/F Canine teeth can be filed down or extracted because they are not the type of tooth that contiunually erupt.

true

140

Where is Galvaynes groove (I3)?

on corner incisor

141

What is the first premolar tooth?

wolf tooth

142

What angle becomes more acute as a horse ages?

incisor angle

143

T/F Occlusal surface of incisors change from rectangular to circular as a horse ages.

false-triangular

144

Describe Galvaynes groove at 10 years, 12 years, 15 years, 17 years, 20 years

10) appears

12) extends halfway down tooth

15) extends down the length of the tooth

17) halfway gone(starts going uo from bottom)

20) gone

145

T/F Canine teeth are found almost exculsively in males.

true

146

What are caps?

Remaining baby teeth that are present on the erupting surface of adult teeth

147

When all cups are worn from the permanent incisors the horse is about 12 years of age this is termed

smooth mouth

148

What is it called to perform dental on a horse?

floating

149

What age?

foal

150

How old?

5-year-old

151

How old?

15-year-old

152

How old?

20-year-old

153

T/F Top jaw is larger than lower jaw, as a result normal chewing wears teeth unevenly.

true

154

Sharp points that develop and these need to be filed off because they can cause ulcers or cuts are called

hooks

155

Which teeth evenutally form hook teeth?

Adult Incisors 3 (I3)

156

T/F The first premolar (wolf tooth) is a vestigial tooth, it is grandually being lost as the horse evolves.

true

157

How much of a tooth erupts every year?

1/8 of an inch

158

At at the age of 6, look at the flat surface of the lower incisors because the pits look like caviites called

infundibulum

159

The toothless region on the mandible between the incisors and molars (where the bit sits) it is a safe location for the examiner to reach into the mouth and where oral medication administration devices are introduced.

Bars

160

Rounded boney enlargements palpated on the bottom of the lower jaw when adult molars are erupting where all molars and roots are forming

eruption bumps

161

What is termed an "under bite"

monkey mouth

162

What is termed as an "overbite/prognathia"

parrot mouth

163

How old is a horse when all they have a full mouth of adult teeth?

5 years old

164

T/F A hook appears at 7 years old on the corner incisor and disappears at age 8 and reappears at age 14.

true

165

What instrument is used for teeth extraction?

bone rongerus

166

Pulpmark that is a dark line in front of a dental cup and is a product of exposure of central cavity pulp

dental star

167

What age does the dental star appear?

8-9 years old

168

At age 11 what is all gone?

the pits

169

How and where do you use the curry comb?

In circular motions on the muscles never on the face or legs

170

What does the dandy brush do?

flicks off dirt

171

Capillart refill time?

<2 seconds

172

How much water does a horse need per day? What is the maximum a horse's stomach can hold?

1 gallon per 100lbs-stomach holds 4-6 max

173

What is a wooden stall's concern?

fires

174

What should you think of when choosing bedding for a horse?

cleaning, comfort, horse's health(allergies), cost, absorbency, staining(newspaper), flammable

175

What can you add to a horse's food to make them eat it?

molasses

176

What are the different types of exams for lameness?

put a lead rope on them and watch their forelegs while they go in circles, hoof testers, flexion test

177

Pinchers used to exert pressure (detect sensitivity) on areas contained within the hoof

hoof testers

178

Forceful flexion of the limb (60-90 seconds) which fatigues the joints and may exacerbate a lameness

Flexion test

179

Support/protection of limb distal to carpus/hock

standing bandage

180

For knees and hocks; always place standing bandage distal to _____

spider bandage

181

For foreleg lameness the head nods ___

up

182

For hindleg lameness the head ducks ___

down

183

When you banage a damaged limb what also must you do to the opposite one?

bandage it also to provide additional support

184

T/F You must check a bandage every 48 hours.

false-24hrs

185

When bandaging a horse's leg which layer is compression applied?

the securing layer

186

T/F Bandages put on right legs clockwise and left legs couterclockwise.

true

187

T/F Too tight wraps can cause a "bandage bow;" too loose wraps are useless.

true

188

T/F An ear hold is useful for steadying the head by putting a twitch on a horse's ear.

false-never put a twitch on a horse's ear

189

What can wear patterens on teeth be affected by?

diet, behavioral or anatomic abnormalities, or trauma

190

T/F Teeth do not grow, they continue to erupt over the horse's lifetime.

true

191

T/F Healthy horses die of old age because of tooth loss and inability to access nutrients.

true

192

What are incisors for? What type of movement?

tearing, cutting, up and down motions

193

What are molars for? What is their movement?

grinding, side to side movement

194

Which teeth determine a horse's age?

the incisors

195

How many teeth do foals have? Females? Males?

24, 36-40, 40-44

196

Canine teeth are?

more pointed than incisors or cheek teeth

197

Male horse's teeth are?

almost always have 4 more teeth than females

198

Wolf teeth:

1) are often removed to avoid interference with the bit
2) sometimes never come in
3) are the remnants of teeth that were well-developed in the eocene ancestors of the horse
4) are often shed about the same time as the milk tooth behind it, but might remain indefinitely

199

“Galvayne’s groove” is a:

is a line on the upper corner incisor that appears when a horse is nine or 10, and runs the length of the tooth by the time he’s 20

200

Wolf teeth erupt through the gum at?

5 to 6 months

201

What can result in unilateral nasal discharge?

abscessed teeth

202

1) molars 2) premolars 3) wolf teeth 4) canines 5) incisors

203

What are the temporary (deciduous/baby) teeth of a horse?

milk teeth

204

 The two central pairs both above and below are called?

nippers

205

How many incisors should an mature horse have? Cheek teeth(premolars/molars)?

12, 24

206

You age horses by the incisors, how for young horses? More mature horses?

type, wear

207

T/F Canine teeth can be filed down or extracted because they are not the type of tooth that contiunually erupt.

true

208

Where is Galvaynes groove (I3)?

on corner incisor

209

What is the first premolar tooth?

wolf tooth

210

What angle becomes more acute as a horse ages?

incisor angle

211

T/F Occlusal surface of incisors change from rectangular to circular as a horse ages.

212

Describe Galvaynes groove at 10 years, 12 years, 15 years, 17 years, 20 years

10) appears

12) extends halfway down tooth

15) extends down the length of the tooth

17) halfway gone(starts going uo from bottom)

20) gone

213

T/F Canine teeth are found almost exculsively in males.

true

214

What are caps?

Remaining baby teeth that are present on the erupting surface of adult teeth

215

When all cups are worn from the permanent incisors the horse is about 12 years of age this is termed

smooth mouth

216

What is it called to perform dental on a horse?

floating

217

What age?

foal

218

How old?

5-year-old

219

How old?

15-year-old

220

How old?

221

T/F Top jaw is larger than lower jaw, as a result normal chewing wears teeth unevenly.

true

222

Sharp points that develop and these need to be filed off because they can cause ulcers or cuts are called

hooks

223

Which teeth evenutally form hook teeth?

Adult Incisors 3 (I3)

224

T/F The first premolar (wolf tooth) is a vestigial tooth, it is grandually being lost as the horse evolves.

true

225

How much of a tooth erupts every year?

1/8 of an inch

226

At at the age of 6, look at the flat surface of the lower incisors because the pits look like caviites called

infundibulum

227

The toothless region on the mandible between the incisors and molars (where the bit sits) it is a safe location for the examiner to reach into the mouth and where oral medication administration devices are introduced.

Bars

228

Rounded boney enlargements palpated on the bottom of the lower jaw when adult molars are erupting where all molars and roots are forming

eruption bumps

229

What is termed an "under bite"

monkey mouth

230

What is termed as an "overbite/prognathia"

parrot mouth

231

How old is a horse when all they have a full mouth of adult teeth?

5 years old

232

T/F A hook appears at 7 years old on the corner incisor and disappears at age 8 and reappears at age 14.

true

233

What instrument is used for teeth extraction?

bone rongerus

234

Pulpmark that is a dark line in front of a dental cup and is a product of exposure of central cavity pulp

dental star

235

What age does the dental star appear?

8-9 years old

236

At age 11 what is all gone?

the pits

237

How and where do you use the curry comb?

In circular motions on the muscles never on the face or legs

238

What does the dandy brush do?

flicks off dirt you brush it with the hair

239

Capillart refill time?

<2 sec

240

How much water does a horse need per day? What is the maximum a horse's stomach can hold?

1 gallon per 100lbs-stomach holds 4-6 max

241

What is a wooden stall's concern?

fires

242

What should you think of when choosing bedding for a horse?

cleaning, comfort, horse's health(allergies), cost, absorbency, staining(newspaper), flammable

243

What can you add to a horse's food to make them eat it?

molasses

244

Common teeth abnormalities for young horses:

retained caps, impaction of incisors, malocculsion from cup retraction, eruption bumos, unerupted wolf teeth

245

Common abnormalities for adult horses:

ramps, tall molars, wave mouth, fractured teeth, gingivits/tarter, ulcers

246

What are the two types of horse teeth?

molars and incisors

247

T/F 24 Cheek teeth (molars and premolars) are for grinding with or without up to four wolf teeth.

true

248

What teeth are thought of as evolutionary leftovers that serve no purpose today?

wolf teeth

249

T/F There are up to four canines in males.

true

250

There are __ incisors for gripping and cutting forage.

12

251

What age is a horse termed a "full mouth" (when all permant incisors are in)?

it varies from 6-9 years of age

252

When do the permant incisors come in the center? Intermediate? Corner?

2 years old, 3 years old, 4 years old

253

The incisor teeth of a horse are_____ on the grinding surface of each tooth

cupped

254

T/F These cups wear down with use (age)
 

true

255

T/F Past the age of smooth mouth, it becomes more difficult to tell age.

true

256

What does the phrase "long in tooth" or "getting long in tooth" mean?

the gums are receeding