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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (378):
1

Reasons for drug use (can be different things)

indicators

2

Reasons for not using (side effects)

contraindications

3

What happens to drugs in body

pharmacokinetics

4

How drugs exert their effects

pharmacodynamics

5

Adverse drug reactions

toxicity

6

The set of circumstances that must exist between the veterinarian, the client, and the patient before the dispensing of prescription drugs is appropriate

veterinarian-client-patient relationship

7

T/F Drugs sources are traditionally plant and mineral origin.

true

8

What are the active components of plants for drug sources?

alkaloids, glycosides, gums oils and resins

9

_____ and ____ produce many antibiotics and anthelmintics.

bacteria, mold

10

Mineral sources of drugs include the?

electrolytes

11

What does pharmaco mean?

means drug or medicine

12

What is pharmacology?

the study of drugs

13

What is kinetics?

the scientific study of motion

14

An undesirable response to a drug by a patient. It may vary in severity from mild to fatal.

adverse drug reaction

15

A drug that brings about a specific action by binding with the appropriate receptor

agonist

16

A drug that inhibits a specific action by binding with a particular receptor

antagonist

17

Any manipulation performed to produce a dosage-form drug, other than the manipulations described in the directions for use on the labeling of an approved drug product

compounding

18

A substance used to diagonse, prevent, or treat disease

drug

19

The extent to which a drug causes the intended effects in a patient

efficacy

20

The use of a drug that is not specifically listed on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved label

extralabel use

21

The amount of time (usually expressed in hours) that it takes for the quantity of a drug in the body to be reduced by 50%

half-life

22

The bulk production of drugs for resale outside of the veterinarian-client-patient relationship

manufacturing

23

The biochemical process that alters a drug from an active form to a form that is inactive or that can be eliminated from the body

metabolism(biotransformation)

24

The route of administration of injectable drugs

parenteral

25

The ratio of the solubility of substances between two states in which they may be found

partition coefficient

26

A drug that is limited to use under the supervision of a veterinarian because of potential danger, difficulty of administration, or other considerations . The legend that designates a prescription drug states the dollowing "Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian"

prescription drug

27

List 4 parts of the regimen.

the route, the dose (how much), and the duration (for how long of) administration, the time and frequency

28

An amount of a drug still present in animal tissue or products at a particular point

residue

29

The length of time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from animal tissue or products after it is no longer used

withdrawal time

30

What is pharmacokinetics?

the study of drug motion, which includes absorption, blood levels, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs

31

How many oz are in 1 cup?

8

32

How many qt are in 1 gal?

4

33

How many cups are in 1 pint?

2

34

1qt=________oz

32

35

4qt=______oz

32oz=1qt
32 x 4=128

36

1oz=______ml

30

37

1ml=1cc=__gm

1 gm=gram

38

1tsp=___ml

5

39

1tbsp=____ml

15

40

2tbsp=____ml

30

41

1oz=____ml

30

42

1l=___mls

1,000

43

How many ounces are in 1 quart?

32 oz

44

How many mls in 1 pint?

16oz=1 pint
1oz=30ml
16 x 30mls=960mls

45

1 loss of a pound is also 1 pint of?

blood lost per pound

46

What does q stand for?

every

47

SID=

every 24hrs, once a day

48

BID=

12 hrs, twice a day

49

TID=

8 hrs, 3 times a day

50

QID=

6 hrs, 4 times a day

51

QOD=

every other day

52

AU=

both ears

53

OD=

right eye

54

OS=

left eye

55

OU=

both eyes

56

How many tsps are in 1tbsp?

3

57

What are the 5 rights of the "5 rights procedure?"

1) right patient
2) right drug
3) right dose
4) right route
5) right time and frequency

58

H=

hour

59

D=

day

60

PRN=

as needed

61

STAT=

immediately

62

QD=

every day

63

q6h=

every 6 hours

64

AC=

before meals

65

PC=

after meals

66

NPO=

nothing by mouth

67

PO=

by mouth

68

2.5gal=____qt

2.5 x 4=10.0, 10

69

256 oz=____gal

128oz=1gal 256/128=2

70

27oz=____tbsp

15ml=1tbsp
2tbsp=1oz
27 x 2=54

71

30oz=_____gr

(gr=grains) 438gr=1oz 30 x 438=1314

72

How many grains are in 1 oz?

438

73

1gr=_____mg

64.8, 65

74

2.4gr=_____mg

1gr=65mg 65 x 2.4=156.0, 156

75

1cup=_____mls

240

76

18oz=____tsp

1oz=30ml 18oz x 30ml=540
1tsp=5ml 540/5 =180

77

1cup=_____oz

8

78

1gal=_____l

3.79

79

1qt=____pt

2

80

1g=____mg

1,000

81

1g=____gr

15

82

1pt=____l

0.47

83

1qt=____pt

2

84

Regulates the development and approval of biologicals, vaccines, serums, antitoxins, animal food?

USDA-united states department of agriculture

85

Drugs that have a potential for abuse

Controlled Substances

86

What is the biochemical process that alters a drug from an active form to an inactive form so it can be eliminated from the body?

Biotransformation, metabolism

87

What is the degree to which a drug is absorbed and reaches the general circulation?

bioavailabilty

88

When measuring drug levels in blood, urine, Cerebral spinal fluid help determine whether theraputic levels have been achieved or level are too high is called?

Therapeutic drug monitoring

89

Most biotransformation occurs in what organ?

Liver

90

Oral medication-route of administration?

enteral

91

1.5qt=____pt

1qt=2pts
1.5 x 2= 3

92

12pt=___gal

1gal=8pt 12/8=1.5gal

93

3qt=_____cups

1qt=4cup
3 x 4=12cups

94

12cups=_____pt

2cups=1pt 12/2= 6pt

95

2oz=___tbsp

1tbsp=15ml
30ml=1oz
2tbsp=1oz
2 x 2=4

96

1gal=___oz

32oz=1qt
4qt=1gal
32 x 4=128oz

97

1pt=___oz

1qt=2pts
32oz=1qt
32/2=16oz

98

6pt=____qt

1qt=2pts
6/2=3qtz

99

150mg=____g

1gram=1000mg
150/1000=0.15g

100

2L=____ml

1l=1000mls
2 x 1000=2000ml

101

2250mg=__g

1g=1000mg
2250/1000=2.25g

102

5g=____mg

1g=1000mg
5 x 1000=5000mg

103

3000ml=____L

1L=1000ml
3000/1000=3L

104

2kg=____g

1kg=1000g
2 x 1000=2000g

105

1.25mg=_____g

1g=1000mg
1.25/1000=0.00125g

106

0.004g=___mg

1g=1000mg
0.004 x 1000=4mg

107

1pt=____ml

1pt=2cups
1cup=240ml
240 x 2=480ml

108

2tbsp=___ml

30mls

109

15ml=____cc

15cc

110

2cups=____oz

1cup=8oz
2 x 8=16oz

111

125ml=___tsp

1tsp=5ml
125/5=25tsp

112

5oz=_____ml

1oz=30ml
5 x 30=150ml

113

In pharmacotherapeutics drugs are selected by what broadly defined methods? (3)

1. Diagnostic- Assessment of the patient
2. Empirical- Calls on the use of practical experience and common sense when the drug choice is made
3. Symptomatic- Same as empirical

114

What is the degree to which the drug is absorbed and reaches general circulation?

Bioavailability

115

What are some factors affecting absorption?

Mechanism, absorptive surface area, blood supply to area, dosage form, solubility of drug, status of GI tract, interaction with other drugs and pH and ionization state of drug

116

1lb=____kg

2.2kg

117

20#=____kg

10kg

118

15#=____kg

15kg/2.2kg=6.8kg

119

32#=____kg round to 10th

32kg/2.2=14.5454=14.54=14.5kg

120

1.8#=_____kg round to 10th

1.8/2.2=0.8181=0.8kg

121

19kg=____lbs round to whole number

19kg x 2.2#=41.8lbs=42#

122

55kg=_____lbs

55kg x 2.2#=121#

123

Write a prescription for 50mg Urosidal once a day for 30 days:

Rx: 50mg Urosidal sid 30d/q24h

124

Write a prescription for Reglon 5mg/kg IV every 6 hours for 3 days as needed by mouth:

Rx: Reglon 5mg/kg IV qid 3d prn PO

125

Write a prescription for left ear Comofite 1% twice a day for 3 weeks:

Rx: Comofite 1% AS bid 3wk

126

Process by which a drug is carried from its site of absorption to its side of action

drug distribution

127

Concentration or movement of a drug in the different compartments

concentration gradient

128

Fat that helps drugs move or stores the drug

lipid solubility

129

Block or slow movement of a drug? Examples?

physical barriers, blood brain barrier, placenta

130

Drugs that effect the disease or diseases of an animal

disease process

131

How is a drug absorbed?

absorption->plasma->interstitial fluid->cellular receptors in tissue->metabolism->excretion

132

What organ metabolizes? Excretion?

liver, kidney

133

Changing the drug chemically from administered form to a form that the body can eliminate

biotransformation or metabolism

134

Factors altering the hepatic processes:

species, age, nutritional status, tissue storage, health status

135

What are routes of drug excretion-main and other?

main: liver metabolizes, renal excretion
other: mammary glands, lungs, intestinal tract, sweat glands, salivary glands skin

136

____ the most important/most common drug excretion

renal excretion

137

Study of the mechanisms by which drugs produce physiologic changes in the body (enhance or depress physiologic activity)

pharmacodynamics

138

T/F The larger the number you get the safer the drug is.

true

139

Therapeutic index=

LD50/ED50
Lethal dose in 50 patients/effective dose in 50 patients

140

Plasma or tissue levels of a drug are altered by the presence of another-alterations in absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion

pharmacokinetic

141

Action or effect on one drug is altered by another

pharmacodynamic

142

Physical or chemical reaction takes places as a result of mixing drugs in a syringe or other container

pharmaceutic

143

Does Valium work well with other drugs?

no only ketamine

144

Regulates development and approval of animal drugs and feed additives through CVM (Center for Veterinary Medicine)

FDA-food and drug administration

145

Round to the nearest 10th
1) 0.253
2) 0.478

1) 0.3
2) 0.5

146

Round to the nearest 100th
1) 10.967
2)15.777

1) 10.97
2) 15.78

147

1cup=_____oz=_____ml

1oz=30ml
30ml x 8= 240mls
1cup=8oz
1cup=8oz=240mls

148

1 liter=_____ml

1,000ml

149

0.66 liters=____ml

0.66 x 1,000=660ml

150

1 pint=____oz=_____ml

16oz x 30ml=480mls
1 cup=8oz 2 cups= 8 x 2=16
2 cups= 1 pint= 16 oz
1 pint=16oz=480mls

151

____ pints= 1 qt

2 pints=1 qt

152

____qt=1 liter

0.95 qt=1 liter

153

128oz=____qtz=___gals=______ml

2 pints= 32 oz 1 qt= 32 oz
128 oz/ 32 oz= 4 qtz
4 qtz= 1 gal
1 qt= 960 mls 960 x 4 qtz= 3,840ml
128oz=4 qtz= 1 gals= 3,840 mls

154

130 mg=___gr

1 gr=65 mg
130/65=2gr

155

1 g =____mg

1 g= 1,000mg

156

3 tbsp=___ml

1 tsbp= 15ml
3 x 15= 45 mls

157

4.5 L=_____gal

1 gal= 3.79 liters
4.5 L/3.79 L=1.18733 gal
=1.19gal

158

AS=

left ear

159

List two reasons why a Vet Tech needs to be familiar with the drug they are dispensing?

1) the side effects each drug can cause
2) knowing if the patient has any allergies to a particular drug

160

Once a drug has been biotransformed it is called?

electrolytes

161

Drug labeled for use in canine and felines but prescribed for a bird

extra label use

162

Study of how drugs are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted

pharmacokinetics

163

Drugs prescribed based on PE findings, blood work, history, etc

diagnostic

164

Use of drugs to treat disease

pharmacotherapy

165

The dispensing of medication to treat disease processes based on practical experience and common sense

empirical

166

The ________ became a government agency to enforce the Federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

FDA

167

Controlled substances are regulated by?

the DEA

168

T/F The schedules of drugs are classified in 5 schedules on drug's potential for harm relative to medical benefit the higher the schedule number, the lower the potential.

true

169

T/F Schedule 1 has no medical use such as heroin.

true

170

T/F Controlled substances must be stored in a locked cabinet or safe.

true

171

T/F The schedules of drugs are classified in 5 schedules on drug's potential for harm relative to medical benefit the higher the schedule number, the lower the potential.

true

172

The development of blood vessels

angiogenesis

173

An agent that causes contraction after application to tissue

astringent

174

Hypertrophy of the horny layer of the epidermis in a localized area as a result of pressure or friction

callus

175

A fibrous substance found in the skin, tendon, bone, cartilage, and all other connective tissue

collagen

176

A plug of keratin and sebum within a hair follicle of the skin (pimple)

comedo (Pl. Comedones)

177

What regulates the development and approval of animal topical pesticides, sprays, dips?

EPA-environmental protection agency

178

These drugs cause no harm when taken

over the counter

179

Leakage of fluid, cells, or cellular debris from blood vessels and their deposition in or on the tissue

exudation

180

New tissue formed in the healing of wounds of the soft tissue, consisting of connective tissue cells and ingrown young vessels; it ultimately forms a scar

granulation tissue

181

Pertaining to, or composed of, skin

integumentary system

182

An agent that promotes loosening or separation of the horny layer of the epidermis

keratolytic

183

An agent that promotes normalization of the development of keratin

keratoplastic

184

Itching

pruritus

185

Any skin disease characterized by the presence of formation of pus

pyoderma

186

An increase in scaling of the skin; sebum production may or may not be increased

seborrhea

187

Condition characterized by scaling and excess lipid production that forms brownish yellow clumps, which adhere to the hair and skin (oily)

seborrhea oleosa

188

Characterized by dry skin and white to gray scaled that do not adhere to the hair or skin (dry)

seborrhea sicca

189

An inflammatory type of seborrhea characterized by scaling and greasiness

seborrheic dermatitis

190

Inflammation of the skin

dermatitis

191

Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillarity

erythema

192

Give an example of a brand name and a generic name.

brand: valium, heart guard
generic: dizapaum, ivermectin

193

Process whereby there is an excessive turnover rate of the cells resulting in excessive dandruff or scale

desquamation

194

What shampoo ingredients/drugs can you not use on cats? What can you use on dogs and cats?

1) selenium sulfide and coal tar
2) sulfur, salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide

195

T/F You can put the owner's name on a prescription for the animal's drugs.

false

196

What is the largest organ in the body?

integumentary system

197

Dose for 1# 22mg 1kg

1#/2.2kg=0.4545=0.45kg
22 x 0.45= 9.9mg

198

Dose for metronidzole 40mg/kg PO SID 7d 23#

23/2.2kg=10.454kg=10.5kg
10.5 X 40mg= 420mg
420mg by mouth once a day 7days q24h

199

What are the three names a drug has?

brand name, trade name, and proprietary name

200

What are the Nonsteriodal Antipruritics(anti itching)?

1) Colloidal oatmeal (soothing effect)
2) Pramoxine HCL (palliative treatment for itching)

201

Relief from itching, burning, and inflammation often combined with antibiotics and astringents

Topical Corticosteriods

202

What are some Topical Corticosteriods?

1) Hydrocortisone (otc)
2) Triamcinolone (prescription)
3) Flucinolone (prescription)
4) Betamethasone (prescription)

203

What topical antipruritic only provides temporary relief of itching?

Nonsteroidal Antipruritics

204

Have little penetration and act to precipitate proteins

astringents

205

Inhibit the growth of bacteria and are found in many dermatologic preparations

antiseptics

206

What are the antiseptics?

1) alcohol (also disinfectant)
2) propylene glycol
3) chlorhexidine (also disinfectant)
4) acetic acid (vinegar)
5) iodine (also disinfectant)
6) benzalkonium chloride (also disinfectant)

207

_______ has a residual effect that binds to keratin and doesn't require contact time, _____ requires 5 mins of contact time.

chlorhexadine, iodine

208

What is used for superficial fungal infections? An example of a superficial fungal infection?

Antifungal, ringworm

209

What are some fatty acid supplements?

1) Omega 3 and 6
2) Linoleic acid and Linolenic (essential fatty acids-must be supplied in diet, gives shine and texture to coat, and controls itching)

210

1 cup=______ml

240mls

211

Convert weight to pounds:
12.3 kg

12.3kg x 2.2#=27.06=27.1#

212

Convert weight to pounds:
48 kg

48kg x 2.2#=105.6#

213

Convert weight to kg:
250lbs

250lbs/2.2kg=113.6363=113.6kg

214

Convert weight to kg:
83lbs

83lbs/2.2kg=37.7272=37.7kg

215

One tablet by mouth every 6 hours:

1 tab PO QID

216

2 drops in each eye 3 times a day:

2 gtt OU TID

217

1 tablet by mouth 2 times a day:

1 tab PO BID

218

2 drops in right ear every 48 hours:

2 gtt AD q48hrs

219

1 drop once a day as needed:

1 gtt SID PRN

220

Dose for 10kg Cephalexin 30-50mg/kg

10kg x 30mg=300mg
10kg x 50mg= 500mg

221

What are the Nonsteriodal Antipruritics(anti itching)?

1) Colloidal oatmeal (soothing effect)
2) Cortico-Pramoxine HCL (palliative treatment for itching)

222

Primarily keratolytic, antipruritic, follicular flushing, and degreasing (also antibacterial) what does it help with?

benzoyl peroxide, demodex

223

What liquid preparation consists of alcohol, sweetener flavoring and medicinal agent?

elixir

224

What shampoo ingredient has follicular flushing capabilities and the treatment of what skin disease is this beneficial?

benzoyl peroxide, dermatitis (seborrhea oleosa)

225

How many mls in 4 oz?

1 oz=30mls
30 x 4=120mls

226

How many mg in a 1/2 grain?

1gr=65ml
65/2=32.5mg

227

How many mls are approximately 1 pound?

1lb=16oz
1oz=30mls
16oz x 30ml= 480mls

228

One tablet every 8 hours:

1 tab q8hrs

229

T/F Coal tar cannot be used on cats

true

230

What route of administration is contraindicated in a patient that is vomiting?

oral (enteral)

231

Regarding endoparasites, where do they live, internal or external infection, infected or infested?

1) live within the body of the host
2) causes internal parasite infection
3) infected

232

1lb=______oz

16oz

233

32 oz=____qt=_______ml=approx_______liter

2 cups/1 pint=16oz
1qt/2 pints= 32oz 32oz=1qt
32oz=1qt 1oz=30mls 32oz x 30mls=960mls
1l=1,000ml 960/1,000=0.96liters
32oz=1qt=960ml=0.96liter

234

What is a benzimidazoles?

work by interfering with energy metabolism of the worm

235

Recognize -azole ending in drug name for what antihelminitics?

benzimidazoles

236

Antihelmintics kill _____ parasites.

intestinal

237

Regarding ectoparasites, where do they live, internal or external infection, infected or infested?

1) live on the body surface of the host
2) external parasite
3) infested

238

Albendazole is a ________, ______, and _________ interferes with the energy metabolism of the worm.

antinematodal, antitrematodals, antiprotozoal

239

T/F Using two organophosphates at the same time is contraindicative.

true

240

Mnemonic way to remember effects of toxicity?

SLUDGE
s-salivation
l-lacrimation
u-urinartion
d-defecation
g-GI upset
e-emesis(throwing up)

241

Causes disintegration of the cestode, effective against Taenia and Dipylidium, but not Echinococcus.

Epsiprantel (cestex)

242

Difference between stat and cidal?

stat: doesn't kill all limits the number
cidal: super expensive

243

What are the three stages of management of heartworm disease?

1) preventative
2) adulticide therapy
3) microfilaricide

244

Arsenic Melarsomine Dihydrolehoride for heartworm is given where and what way?

epaxial muscles, IM

245

Mnemonic way to remember effects of toxicity of organophosphates?

SLUDGE
s-salivation
l-lacrimation
u-urinartion
d-defecation
g-GI upset
e-emesis(throwing up)
polydipsia not an sogin

246

Reduces the number of oocysts shed, coccidia treatment

Sulfadimethoxine (Albon)

247

T/F Anticoccidial drugs are coccidiostats (do not kill parasite, so hygiene is crucial)

true

248

Reduces the number of oocysts shed, reducing spread of disease

Sulfadimethoxine (Albon)-anticoccidial

249

T/F Other drugs such as Nicarbazine, Amprolium, and Monensin work mainly by affecting the protozoan's metabolism.

true

250

_____ a protozoal disease caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia

giardiosis

251

Blood protozoan ________ is transmitted by ticks.

Babesia sp

252

_____ has cholinergic effects on the protozoan.

Imidiocarb

253

Heartworm disease is caused by the filarial nematode _______

Dirofilaria immitis

254

What is the generic name for K9 Advantix? For?

Imidacloprid and Permethrin, ticks and fleas repels mosquitoes

255

Larvae of several fly species

bots

256

Parasite worms, including nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes

helminths

257

A prelarval stage of a filarial worm transmitted to the biting insect from the principal host

microfilaria

258

Parasitic worms, including intestinal roundworms, filarial worms, lungworms, kidney worms, heartworms, and others

nematodes

259

A substance that can interfere with the function of the nervous system by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase

organophosphate

260

A condition in which an animal harbors an endoparasite or an ectoparasite, but no clinical signs of infection or infestation are evident

parasitiasis

261

Two living organisms of different species living together

symbiosis

262

Any parasitic organism belonging to the class trematode, including flukes

trematode

263

A tapeworm

cestode

264

5 types of symbiosis
predator-
phoresis-
mutualism-
commensalism-
parasitism-

1) predator-prey
2) phoresis-to carry (fly transmitting disease)
3) mutualism-both gain benefit from being there
4) commensalism- one benefits and no harm
5) parasitism-one benefits and host is harmed

265

Buprenex dose is 0.02 mg/kg q 4-6 hours IV, IM, SQ
concentration of drug: 0.3mg/ml
weight is 8#

8#/2.2kg=3.6kg
3.6kg x 0.02mg=0.072mg
0.072mg/0.3ml=0.24ml

266

1 mcg=_____mg

1,000

267

Dose: 20mg/kg q 6-8 hrs IV
30#
concentration: 250mg/ml

30#/2.2kg=13.6kg
13.6kg x 20mg=272mg
272mg/250ml=1.1ml

268

Atropine dose 0.04 mg/kg
concentration: 15mg/ml
30kg

30kg x 0.04mg=1.2mg
1.2mg/15ml=0.08ml

269

Whenever there is a % what does that mean? ex. Lasix 5%

g/100ml
1g=1,000mg
5g/100ml x 1,000/1g=5,000/100
=50mg/ml
(move one decimal place over-2.5%=25mg/ml 5%=50mg/ml)

270

Ivermectin 1%

g/100ml
1g=1,000mg
1g/100ml x 1,000mg/1g=1,000mg/100ml
=10mg/ml

271

Albon concentration is 250 mg/5ml
weight: 2#
dose: 25mg/# SID 1d
12.5mg/# SID 9d
how much drug are you giving in total?

250/5=50mg/ml
1d=2# x 25mg=50mg/50ml=1ml
9d=2# x 12.5=25mg/50=0.5mls
total: 4.5(0.5 x 9) + 1=5.5 total

272

This class of drugs stimulate receptor sites mediated by acetylcholine

cholinergic

273

Benzodiazeprine drug used to treat seizures, behavioral disorders, sedation, relief of anxiety and as an injectable agent for anesthesia.

daizepam/valium

274

This drug is used to control prolonged seizure activity and as a euthanasia agent

pentobarbital

275

Adverse side effects of this drug class causes bradycardia, hypotension, lacrimination, diarrhea, increased intestinal activity

cholinergic

276

Class of drugs whose effects resemble those produced by stimulating the parasympathetic nerves

parasympathomimetic

277

This is a long acting barbiturate used primarily as an anticonvulsant

phenobarbital

278

Phenothiazine tranquilizer

acepromazine

279

This class of drug if given extravascularly can cause necrosis

barbiturate

280

In general alpha receptors cause ____ and beta stimulation _____ response. The one exception is heat.

excite, inhibit

281

Adverse side effect of phenothiazine tranquilizer

hypotension and hypothermia because of vasodilation

282

The drug class produces sedation, muscle relaxation, antiseizure and appetite stimulant in cats.

benzodiazepine

283

Cyclohexyalmine family-this drug type cause muscle rigidity, amnesia, pharyngeal/laryngeal reflexes are maintained.

dissociative

284

This drug is a cholinergic used as a antiemetic, it promotes gastric emptying

metoclopramide (reglan)

285

Ultrashort-acting barbitruate

thiobarbituartes(thiopental or pentothal)

286

Adreneric drug used to treat shock and congestive heart failure

dopamine

287

This class of drug brings about action at the receptors meditated by epinephrine, norepinephrine

adreneric (sympathomimetic)

288

Primarily used as a preanesthetic to prevent bradycardia, it is longer acting than atropine

glycopyrrolate (robinul-v)

289

This class of drugs is used as a sedative, anticonvulsant, general anesthetic, and euthanasia agent

barbiturates

290

Yohimbine is a reversal for what drug?

xyzaline

291

Overdose of this class of drugs causes drowsiness, tachycardia, constipation

anticholinergic

292

Adenergic agents (sympathomimetics) can be further classified as

catecholamines or noncatecholamines

293

This class of drugs blocks the action of acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors of the parasympathetic NS

anticholinergic

294

This class has significant cardiac and respiratory depression

barbiturate

295

This drug stimulates all receptors to cause in a increase in heart rate, cardiac output, constriction of the blood vessels of the skin

epinephrine (adrenalin)

296

This class of drugs is used to simulate the heart to beat during cardiac arrest, reverse hypotension and bronchoconstriction, causes vasoconstriction

adenergic

297

This class of drugs stimulates GI motility, used to control vomiting, reduce intraocular pressure

cholinergic agents/parasympathomimetic

298

Drugs that affect the CNS generally cause ____ or ____

depression or stimulation

299

This type of tranquilizer produces sedation, decreases fear and anxiety without analgesia

phenothiazine

300

This tranquilizer is an alpha 2 agonist that produces sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation. It can cause vomiting.

xyzaline (rompun)

301

This drug is often part of a preanesthetic protocol, it dries salivary secretion and prevents bradycardia, an antidote organphosphate poisoning

atropine

302

Basic unit of the nervous system=

neuron

303

Sensory carries impulses ____ the CNS, motor carries impulses ___ from CNS.

toward, away

304

Parts of the neuron:
cell body:
dendrite:
axon:

1) all nucleated
2) projection-like fingers
3) long, connects to other neuron and transmits info

305

Three functions of the NS:

sensory, integrating(analysis), motor(action)

306

Afferent carries nerve impulses from _______ to CNS

peripheral receptors

307

Efferent carries nerve impulses to ______

muscle/glands

308

Somatic:
1) made of ______
2) voluntary or involuntary?
3) how many neurons carry impulses?

1) efferent
2) voluntary
3) 1

309

Automatic:
1) made of ____
2) voluntary or involuntary?
3) how many neurons carry impulses?

1) efferent
2) involuntary
3) 2

310

2 subdivisions of the ANS:
sympathetic-which is the ______ response
parasympathetic-which ___ heart rate

flight or fight, slows

311

Which system is cholinergic? Adrenergic?

parasympathetic, sympathetic

312

Axions of the first neuron are _____ and the second neuron are called ____

preganglionic, postgranglionic

313

Short end adjacent to spinal cord, what system is this seen in?

preganglion, sympathetic NS

314

Fibers that are long; post short, what system is this seen in?

preganglionic, parasympathetic NS

315

Primary adrenergic/system:

epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine (sympathetic)

316

Primary cholinergic/system:

acetylcholine (parasympathetic)

317

0.1%

0.1g/100ml x 1,000mg/1g
100mg/100ml=1mg/ml

318

35%

35g/100ml x 1,000mg/1g
35,000mg/100ml=350mg/ml

319

Dr orders 0.2mg/kg of Dexamethasone SQ; Patient weighs 48#, drug concentration is 2mg/ml (round to 10th)

483/2.2kg=21.8kg
21.8kg x 0.2mg=4.36mg
4.36mg/2ml=2.18ml=2.2ml

320

Dr orders 0.5mg/kg of Famotidine (Pepcid) SQ; Patient weighs 36#, drug concentration is 10mg/ml (round to 100th)

36#/2.2kg=16.36kg
16.36kg x 0.5mg= 8.18mg
8.18mg/10ml=0.818ml=0.82ml

321

Rimadyl dose is 1mg/#, patient weighs 50kg, concentration of drug is 50mg/ml (round to 10th)

50kg x 2.2#= 110#
110# x 1mg=110mg
110mg/50ml=2.2ml

322

3.5 Penthal is being used as an injectable anesthetic agent. The Dose is 10mg/kg IV and the weight is 55lbs. How much Penthal needs to be drawn up (round to 10th)

3.5g/100ml x 1,000mg/1g
3,500mg/100ml=35mg/ml
55#/2.2kg=25kg
25kg x 10mg=250mg
250mg/35ml=7.142=7.1ml

323

What part of the brain serves as the primary mediator between the nervous system and the endocrine system?

hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

324

What part of the PNS carries impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles?

somatic NS

325

What are the neurotransmitters for the sympathetic NS?

noepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine

326

Neurotransmitters for the parasympathetic NS?

acetylcholine

327

List 4 primary ways in which drugs affect the ANS.

1) inhibits neurotransmitters
2) mimics neurotransmitters
3) blocks neurotransmitters from receptor attachment
4) inhibits re-uptake breakdown of neurotransmitters in synapse

328

Most CNS drugs act by _____ or ____ of the neurotransmitters.

mimic, inhibitory

329

The sympathetic NS affects the following how?
___ HR & RR
____ GI activity
pupil ____
____ blood vessels to smooth
____ of bronchioles

increases, decreases, dilatation, constricts, vasodilatation

330

What are the receptors for the sympathetic NS?

alpha 1-2, beta 1-2, and dopaminergic

331

What are the receptors for the parasympathetic NS?

nicotinic and muscarinic

332

A drug is influenced by what two things?

1) number of receptors
2) specificity of receptors

333

Term that describe an action or receptor that is stimulated by the neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic NS is

cholinergic

334

Term that describes an action or receptor that is stimulated by the neurotransmitter for the sympathetic NS is

adenergic

335

How long do you leave shampoo on for?

5-10mins

336

T/F A patient with dermatitis can be cause of a systemic illness.

true

337

How many mls are in a tuberculin syringe?

1 ml

338

T/F Only score tablets can be divided.

true

339

What is known as the joint space?

intraarticular

340

What separates?

suspension

341

What are the slowest routes?

SQ and intraperitoneal

342

What dip is used to treat demodex?

Amitraz

343

Baytril 22.7mg 68mg 136mg
final dose:10mg BID 14d

22.7mg/2=11.35 (closest to 10mg)
0.5 x 2 x 14=14tab

344

68mg, 22.7mg, 136mg
final dose: 72mg SID 30d
BID 15d?

1 tab 68mg, 1 tab a day for 30d=30tab
15 x 2= 30tab

345

Dextrose always comes at ____%

50%

346

5% Dextrose

dextrose-50% 1l=1,000ml
amt desired/amt avail = need/total volume
5/50=x/1,000
50x=5,000ml/50
x=100ml
1,000ml-100ml=900ml fluid

347

Stock solution 9% NaCL need 6 liters at 0.9%

1,000ml=1L
0.9/9%=x/6L
9x=5.4L
x=0.6L (600mls)
6L-0.6L=5.4 Liters of H2O
0.6L NaCL

348

Formalin 100% need 10%

1 cup=240mls
10/100=x/240ml
100x=2,400ml
x=24ml
240-24=216mls H2O
24mls 100% Formalin

349

Alcohol 100%, 70%, 20L

70/100=20L/x
70x=2,000
x=28.57=28.5L
28.5L-20L=8.5L H2O
20L 100% alcohol

350

Short periods of noisy respiratory effort seen in dogs (aspiration reflex)

reverse sneeze

351

Brand name is Heartgard/Heartgard plus, generic name?

Ivermectin

352

Treatment for respiratory dz is divided into three general categories..they are?

control secretion, control reflexes, maintain normal airflow

353

Passageway that leads to the lungs is called?

upper respiratory system

354

What type of muscle is found in the walls of the bronchioles?

smooth muscle

355

Maintaining normal airflow to the alveoli is accomplished by?

reversing bronchoconstriction, alleviating edema/mucus from alveoli and air passage

356

Several synthetic narcotic drugs are used as antitussives-what class are they?

Opoid (butorphanol, hycodan, codeine)

357

4 types of drugs that can cause bronchodilation

anticholinergics, antihistamines, beta2-adrenergic agonist, methylxanthines

358

How does stimulation of the parasympathetic system effect the respiratory system?

increased secretion mucus and constriction smooth muscle (bronchoconstriction)

359

CNS stimulant used as a resp stimulant

doxapram (dopram)

360

A nonproductive cough can be suppressed by what type of resp drug?

bronchodilators

361

Example of a expectorant drug

Guaifesen (Robitussin-AC or Triaminic Expectorant)

362

What class of resp drugs would make secretions less viscid?

expectorants and mucolytics used in nebulization

363

This drug is a potent bronchodilator and vasoconstrictor used in life threatening situations

epinephrine

364

How does the sympathetic NS effect the respiration system?

decreased production of mucus and relaxation of smooth muscle(bronchodilation)

365

3 reflexes of the respiratory system in which respiratory drugs help to control

coughing, sneezing, bronchospasms

366

Cholinergic effects for treating protozoan

Imidiocarb

367

Brand name is Sentinel: Generic name?

Milbemycin and Lufenuron

368

What is the generic name for Advantage?

Imidacloprid

369

Alveoli are lined with a substance called

surfactant

370

Acetylcysteine is what type of resp drug?

mucolytic

371

Corticosteroids are primarily used in the respiratory system in treatment for?

allergies

372

What is the generic name for Frontline?

Fipronil

373

Amt ____ _____
________ = _____
Amt ___ ____ volume

amount desired, amount available
need, total volume

374

What is an expectorant?

Drug that enhances the expulsion of secretions from the respiratory tract

375

What is an antitussive?

A drug that inhibits or suppresses the cough reflex

376

What is a mucolytic?

A drug that has the ability to break down mucus

377

What is a decongestant?

A substance that reduces the swelling of the mucous membranes

378

Process of converting liquid medications into a ____ that can be carried into the respiratory system. What is this?

aerosal, nebulization