Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (111):
1

Branch of PNS that has motor and sensory pathways regulating voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle

Somatic nervous system

2

Branch of PNS (that is centrally located) that regulates body's internal environment through involuntary control of organ systems, and it's subdivisions (__ __, __ muscle, and __)

Can be controlled ___ to some extent

Autonomic nervous system

Smooth muscle, cardiac, glands. Parasympathetic and sympathetic

Voluntarily

3

ANS
Located in __ and __

Neurons are pre___ and post___

PNS and CNS

Ganglionic, ganglionic

4

Preganglionic neurons: cell body is in __ (myelinated __ fibers)

CNS, myelinated B

5

Postganglionic neurons: cell body is in __ __ (___ __ fibers)

Autonomic ganglia, unmyelinated C

6

Two divisions of autonomic subs classified __

Often but not always physiologic ___

Anatomically

Antagonists

7

Postganglionic fibers generally __ of CNS

Outside

8

ANS has a __ neuron system except for __ __, somatic system has __ neuron system

2, adrenal medulla, 1

9

Pre and post ganglionic are different from

Pre and post synaptic

10

Activation of ANS by centers in 3

Hypothalamus, brain stem, spinal cord

11

2 subdivisions of brain stem

Medulla and Pons

12

3 of medulla a jobs

Airway tone, vascular tone, and respiratory drive

13

ANS has partial control over 4

Systemic BP
GI motility/secretion
Urinary bladder emptying
Sweating and body temp

14

SNS
Innervation is located in ___ region of spinal cord, Preganglionic neuron cell bodies in __-__/__

In __ horn of __ Matter

Thoracocolumbar, T1-L2/3

Intermediolateral, grey

15

SNS
Post ganglionic neuron cell bodies in ___
___ chains on either side of spinal column
___ ganglia in celiac, superior, inferior mesenteric ganglia in abdomen

Ganglia
Paravertebral
Prevertebral

16

SNS has ___ Preganglionic neurons and __ post

Synapse ___ after leaving CNS in general

Short, long, quickly

17

SNS
___ energy stores
Nerve fibers leave spinal cord __ via __ rami then travel to __ __ ganglia

Mobilizes

Ventrally, white, 22 paravertebral

18

SNS
From paravertebral ganglia nerve fibers can synapse with postganglionic neuron at __ __ or move __ or __ to synapse at another __. Pass ganglia without synapsing to __ ganglia surrounding __ __ (__ ganglia)

Same level, caudad or cephalad
Level
Collateral, abdominal aorta, paravertebral

19

Prevertebral surrounding abdominal aorta are: __, __ __, and __ __

Some ganglia have __ __ as well

Celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric

Inhibitory interneurons

20

Thoracocolumbar
Post ganglionic nerve cell bodies found in ganglia of __ __ exit to travel to __ __
Return to spinal nerves via __ __, travel with these nerves to __ __, __ __, and __ __

Paravertebral chains, peripheral organs

Gray rami, blood vessels, piloerector muscles, and sweat glands

21

Distribution of SNS fibers based on __ __ not __ __

Embryonic development, spinal segments

22

T1 SNS fibers go to paravertebral sympathetic chain to __
T2 to __
T3-6 to __
T7-11 to __
T12-L2 to __

Head
Neck
Chest
Abdomen
Legs

23

What part of SNS innervates
Head
Neck
Chest
Abdomen
Legs

T1
T2
T3-6
T7-11
T12-L2

24

Parasympathetic innervation
Preganglionic neurons arise in:
Cranial medullary CN 4
Sacral spinal cord __-__ regions

CN 3, 7, 9, 10

S2-4

25

PNS
Post ganglionic neuron cell bodies located in __ __ and in __ and __

__ Preganglionic neurons, ___ post

Target organs, head and neck

Long, short

26

PNS craniosacral division goal to:

Receives innervation from cell bodies located where. 75% where

Conserve and restore energy

Cranial nerve nuclei (3, 5, 7, 9, 10). 75% in X passing to abdominal and thoracic areas. Also sacral region of spinal cord

27

Preganglionic neurons of PNS travel to ganglia where

Close to organs they innervate

28

PNS
Vagus innervation to 9 organs

Heart, lungs, esophagus, stomach, SI, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, upper uterus

29

PNS
CN III where and does what
CN V where and does what

3- keeps eye focused

5- submandibular gland, secretions

30

CN 7 where is nucleus and which glands

CN 9 where is nucleus and which gland

7- superior salvitory nucleus, lacrimal, nasal, submaxillary glands

9- inferior Salvitory nucleus parotid gland

31

PNS
S2-3 (sometimes 1-4) innervates what (5)

Distal colon, rectum, bladder, lower uterus, external genitalia

32

Postganglionic neurons in __ ganglia including:
___ ganglion, Preganglionic input is from Edinger Westphal nucleus

Cranial

Ciliary

33

Postganglionic neurons
__ and __ ganglia have input from superior salivatory nucleus
__ ganglion has input from inferior salivatory nucleus
Others are located __ or __ walls of visceral organs in thoracic, abdo

Pterygopalatine, submandibular

Otic

In or near

34

ANS function
SNS and PNS actions often __ __ __ antagonistic

SNS: __ __, maintenance of __ __
PNS: ___, but __ __ __

But not always

Self preservation, vasomotor tone
Rest, excitatory visceral functions (digestion)

35

SNS effects in
Eyes
Salivary glands
Blood vessels

Dilate
Stop making saliva
Want brain flow, constricted on skin, want skeletal muscle flow, gut/kidneys don't need flow, heart and lungs need flow

36

SNS effects on
Lungs
Heart
Adrenal medulla

Bronchodilation for gas exchange
Want heart to beat fast and contract strong using ATP
80% epi 20% norepi

37

SNS effects on
Liver
Pancreas
GI

Release glucose. Use blood from liver for other places
Release insulin to skeletal muscle, uses glucose
Want it to be relaxed, divert blood from it

38

SNS effects on
Bladder
Sweat glands

Relaxed, sphincter tight
Sweat, want it to cool us off

39

PNS effect on
Eye
Lacrimal gland
Salivary gland

Constricted
Can cry or be active
Active, digests food

40

PNS effect on
Heart
Lung
Upper and lower GI

Want it slow, some affect in contractility

Some constriction

Active, secretions in upper

41

PNS effect on
Bladder
Genitals

Contracts, sphincters able to relax

Active

42

SNS ___ response with ___ innervation
3 uses

Amplification, diffuse

Exercise, postural changes, emergency massive response (fight or flight)

43

PNS: ___ and __ targeted responses

Both systems exhibit __ __ at rest

Heart rate has __ predominance. Blood vessels has __ tone.

Discrete, narrowly

Baseline tone

Vagal. SNS.

44

Affect of vagus on heart rate

Why SNS tone in blood vessels important

Lowers heart rate

To get blood to brain

45

Somatic efferent system
How many synapses
Releases __ on a __ receptor

1
Acetylcholine on a nicotinic

46

Sympathetic system
Has __ synapses on blood vessel, releases __ on __ receptor

2, acetylcholine on a nicotinic receptor then norepi on a blood vessel

47

SNS
__ receptors release onto sweat glands. First __ on a __ receptor then __ on a __ receptor

2. ACh on nicotinic, ACh on muscarinic

48

SNS __ receptor in adrenal medulla. __ on a __ receptor

1. ACh on a nicotinic

49

PNS
__ receptors on salivary glands. First __ on __ receptor then __ on __ receptor

2. ACh on nicotinic, ACh on muscarinic

50

Sympathetic Preganglionic fibers
NT- secrete what
Receptor is what

Acetylcholine, cholinergic (nicotinic n type)

51

Sympathetic postganglionic fibers
NT=
Receptor type=

Norepi
Adrenergic

52

Parasympathetic pre and post ganglionic fibers
NT= secrete what
Receptor type

Acetylcholine
Cholinergic. Nicotinic at ganglia, muscarinic at organ

53

3 exceptions to NT/receptor rules

Adrenal medulla (releases NE and epi as hormones)
Sweat glands (sympathetic cholinergic fibers)
Blood vessel- muscarinic ACh receptors but no PNS innervation

54

Adrenal medulla anomaly: acts as __ built releases what as what

Proportions

Only place we get what from

Ganglia, releases epi and norepi as hormones. Released systemically not just at synapse

20%norepi 80%epi

Epi

55

Point of having epi and norepi

Epi hits beta 1 and 2, norepi just beta 1

56

Sweat gland anomaly:

What it's called and how it's different

Innervated by SNS, post ganglionic nerve releases ACh on a muscarinic ACh receptor

Sympathetic cholinergic fiber

57

Blood vessel

Almost no innervation by what

But there are what receptors on them which do what

PNS

Muscarinic ACh receptors, activate NO and vasodilation if you have circulating ACh

58

ACh needs to be released where and why

Close to where it's going to be used because degrading quickly, doesn't go systemic

59

Cholinergic receptors PNS

Nicotinic:
Muscarinic:

NMJ and nn.

M1-5 (CNS and ganglia)

60

PNS adrenergic receptors: 5

Alpha 1 and 2

Beta 1, 2, 3

61

Mechanism of action of neurotransmitters: 1. Activation of what 2. Cascade has effect on what 3. Receptor type does what

1. G protein coupled receptor
2. Positive or negative effect on intracellular calcium which has a physiologic effect (inc- constriction, dec- dilation)
3. Receptor type dictates activity of G protein

62

Different parts of body have different __ and __ of receptors

Specific effect depends on 3

Types and densities

Type of receptor stimulated, receptor density in given tissue, what the second messengers activate at a molecular level in the cell

63

Epi effect on vasculature and skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle has a lot of ___. Effect of epi

Skin and GI have a lot of __. Effect of epi.

Constricts, dilates
Beta 2. Epi goes to it and dilates
Alpha 1. Vasoconstriction from epi

64

Receptors will do what based on plasma concentrations of catecholamines (__ or __)

Up or down regulate

Endogenous or exogenous

65

Adenylate cyclase activates ___= smooth muscle __

Increased=

Decreased=

CAMP, dilation

Vasodilation, increased strength of contraction/heart rate

Vasoconstriction

66

Camp effect on
Heart
Bronchioles
GI

Increases contractility
Dilates
Relaxes

67

PLC activates __ and __ resulting in increased __ and __. Leads to what

IP3 and DAG, PKC, increased calcium. Vasoconstriction

68

M1 ACh
G protein:
Signal:

G alpha q

Excitatory CNS modulatory at ganglia

69

M1 ACH

2nd messengers/output: 3

1. PLC activated
2. IP3 and DAG
3. PKC and increased free calcium

Decreased K conductance makes cell more excitable

70

M2 ACh
G protein
Signal:

Gai

Inhibitory cardiac (SA node)

71

M2 ACH

2nd messengers: 3 steps

Physiologic response

1. Inhibit Adenylate cyclase 2. Decrease cAMP 3. Increase K conductance

Slows heart rate and decrease k conductance

72

M3 ACH

G protein
Signal:

Gaq

Excitatory smooth muscle and glands (GI)

73

M3

2nd messengers: 3 steps

Physiologic response

1. PLC activated 2. IP3 and DAG 3. PKC increased and free calcium

Smooth muscle contraction. Peristalsis and secretion from a gland

74

Nn ACH

G protein
Signal

Ligand gated ion channel

Excitatory ganglia in CNS

75

Nn ACh

2nd messenger output

Physiologic response

Increased Na and K perm

Depolarization

76

Nm AcH
G protein
Signal

Ligand gated ion channel

Excitatory NMJ

77

Nm ACh

Physiologic response

Depolarization

78

Alpha 1 epi/norepi
G protein

Signal

Gaq

Excitatory blood vessels on veins and skin

79

Alpha 1 epi and norepi

2nd messengers and output 3

Physiologic response

1. PLC activated
2. IP3 and DAG
3. PKC and increased free calcium

Smooth muscle vasoconstriction

80

Alpha 2 epi and norepi

G protein

Signal

G alpha I

Inhibitory blood vessels pre synaptic
CNS post synaptic

81

Alpha 2 epi and norepi

2nd messengers 3

Physiologic response

1. Inhibit Adenylate cyclase 2. Decrease cAMP 3. Increased K conductance

Decreased cAMP increased smooth muscle contraction, increased K hyper polarizes

82

B1,2,3 epi and norepi
G protein

Signal

G alpha s

Excitatory or inhibitory depending on cAMP actions

83

B 1,2,3

2nd messengers 2

Physiologic response

Activate Adenylate cyclase

Increased cAMP relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac contractility and rate

84

Muscarinic receptors (g protein coupled:
M1,3,5:
M2,M4:

Inositol phosphate pathway

Inhibit adenylyl cyclase reduce camp

85

Nicotinic receptors 2 types

Nm at NMJ in skeletal muscle

Nn autonomic ganglia in adrenal medulla, CNS

86

Don't have drugs that can target which Ms specifically

Downside to this

M1,M2,M3

If you effect one, effect all of them

87

Acetylcholine
Synthesis:
Choline (what brings it into cytoplasm) and acetyl coA (formed from what) form acetylcholine under influence of what

Active transport
Mitochondria
Enzyme choline acetyltransferase

88

Acetylcholine
Storage
When released

Stored in synaptic vesicles, released in response to an action potential

89

Acetylcholine
Metabolism
__ effect. How broken down
Cholinergic is transported where for what

Brief. Hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase to choline and acetate

Nerve endings for synthesis of a new acetylcholine

90

SNS neurotransmitter selectivity
Norepi:

A1= a2, B1. Not much B2

91

SNS NT selectivity

Epi

A1= a2. B1=b2.

92

SNS NT selectivity

Dopamine

D1=D2. B, A.

93

Norepinephrine
How it's formed

Dopamine formed in cytoplasm, dopamine enters synaptic vesicle, converted to norepi in vesicle

94

Norepi

Storage

Release

Stored in vesicle until action potential

With action potential it's released from postganglionic SNS nerve ending into ECF via exocytosis

95

Norepi
Termination of action
1. ___ back into postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings (__%)
2. ___ from receptors by diffusion
3. ___ by enzymes MAO and COMT

Reuptake, 80

Dilution

Metabolism

96

Epinephrine
Formation

Synthesized in medulla of adrenal glands by chromaffin cells, in same pathway that converts amino acid tyrosine into NE and dopamine (epi is final step)

97

Epi

Storage and release

Released after simulation of adrenal medulla by pre ganglionic sympathetic neurons by ACh

98

Epi termination of action

Look for what in urine as dx tool

COMT and MAO

VMA, in sympathetic pathway. Dx of pheochromocytoma

99

Alpha 1 action on
Most vascular smooth muscle
Iris
Pilomotor smooth muscle

Contraction
Contraction- dilates pupils (mydriasis)
Erects hair

100

Alpha 1 action on
Prostate and uterus
Heart- which is more important
Pancreas- opposite of what

Contraction
Increases force of contraction, B1
Decrease insulin secretion, b2

101

Alpha 2 effects on
Platelets

Adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals (presynaptic)

Aggregation

Inhibits transmitter release, decreases BP and HR

102

Alpha 2 effects on

Vascular smooth muscle

GI tract

Contraction (post synaptic) or dilation (presynaptic or CNS)

Relaxation (presynaptic)

103

Alpha 2 effects on

CNS

Sedation and analgesia via decreased SNS flow from brain stem

104

3 places alpha 2 can exist

CNS (sedation), pre synaptic terminal (hyper polarizing, decrease NT release), post synaptic (contraction and vasoconstriction)

105

Beta 1 effect on

Heart

Kidney

Increases force and rate of contraction through SA and AV nodes

Stimulates renin release, BP drops

106

Beta 2 effects on

Respiratory, uterine, vascular, GI, detrusor of bladder

Mast cells

Promotes smooth muscle relaxation

Decreases histamine release

107

Beta 2 effects on skeletal muscle

Potassium uptake, dilation of vascular beds, tremor, increases speed of contraction

108

Beta 2 effects on

Liver
Pancreas
Adrenergic nerve terminals

Glycogenolysis,
Gluconeogenesis,
Increases insulin secretion

Increases release of norepinephrine

109

Beta 1 and beta 3 effects on fat cells

Activates lipolysis, thermogenesis

110

D1 effect on smooth muscle

Post synaptic location, dilates renal, mesenteric, coronary, and cerebral blood vessels

111

D2 effect on nerve endings

Pre synaptic, modulates transmitter release, nausea and vomiting