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Flashcards in Endocrine 1 Deck (38):
1

Neurotransmitters
Released from what and act where and ex

From axon, locally, NPY

2

Endocrine hormones: released by what into what, act where, example

Glands/cells into blood, target cells away, GH

3

Neuroendocrine hormones: released where by what, act where, ex

Secreted by neurons into blood, act at target away cells, ADH

4

Paracrine
Released by what into where, act where

Secreted by cells into EF and affect neighboring target cells that are different than themselves

5

Autocrine
Secreted by what into where, act where

Cells into EF, affect same cells/self

6

Cytokines can be what, ex

Autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine hormones. Leptin

7

Chemical structures
3, ex

Proteins and polypeptides: insulin
Steroids: cortisol
AA tyrosine derivative: NE/epi

8

Polypeptides and proteins
Produced where, tend to be what
Process of activation

Produced in ER, preprohormones

Cleaved to prohormone, golgi apparatus packages into secretory vesicles, exocytosis due to Ca

9

What kind of release is required of polypeptides and proteins

Immeadiate

10

Steroids
Synthesized from what
Storage
Soluble in what
Structure
Have large amount of what

Cholesterol
Not stored
Lipids
3 cyclohexyl rings and 1 cyclopentyl ring
Cholesterol, ready to mobilize in vesicles

11

4 hormones that are chronic and aren't needed emergently

Cortisol, testosterone, aldosterone, estradiol

12

What structure do cortisol, estradiol, aldosterone, and testosterone have

3 cyclohexyl rings and 1 cyclopentyl

13

Amine hormones
Derived from what
Where they are
2 ex and ratio
Stored where

Tyrosine
Adrenal medulla
Epi and norepi, 4:1
Vesicles until exocytosis

14

Thyroid hormones
Synthesized and stored where
Stored w what, how they get into blood, how they get to tissues

Thyroid gland
W globulins, split and become free hormone in blood. Bind to plasma proteins which release hormone to target tissues slowly

15

Negative feedback prevents what

Over secretion of hormone or over activity at target tissue

16

How target organ responds, process

Long feedback.
Target organ to hypothalamus, to anterior pituitary, back to target organ

17

Short feedback loop

Hypothalamus communicates w anterior pituitary to release something, once released it stops hypothalamus from telling it to release more

18

Ultra short feedback loop

Hypothalamus communicates with itself

19

Which hormones are water soluble, dissolved in what

Peptides and catecholamines. Plasma

20

Which hormones bound to plasma proteins

Steroid and thyroid

21

Clearance

Metabolism, bind to tissues, excreted by liver or kidneys

22

Hormone receptors
Bind where 3 and ex

In or on surface of cell membrane (proteins and catecholamines)

In cytoplasm (steroids)

Nucleus (thyroid)

23

Increased hormone will do what to receptors

Down regulate them

24

Ways of down regulating receptors

Inactivating molecules
Inactivate protein signaling molecules
Sequester receptor away from site of action
Destroy receptors w lysosomes
Decrease production of receptors

25

Intracellular signaling
1st forms what
Process

Hormone receptor complex
Ion channel linked receptors stim by NT, causes ion channel linked receptor to open or close for ions. Ion changes cause postsynaptic cell effects

26

G protein linked hormone receptors
Mechanism of what
How many transmembrane seg
G proteins include what
How to cause change

Intracellular signaling
7
Trimeric subunit: alpha, gamma, beta
Conformational changes

27

How g protein activated/inactivated

Activated by GTP, inactivated by GDP

28

How enzyme linked hormones work. Example

Proteins pass membrane w enzyme binding site on inside. Binding hormone causes enzyme activ or inactiv.
Leptin signals via tyrosine and JAK2, activate signal transducer and activate transcription of STAT proteins, downstream Fx

29

How ca calmodulin works

Ca binds to calmodulin once it enters cell, calmodulin changes shape and activates or inhibits protein kinases

30

How IP3 second messenger works

Activates phospholipase c, catalyzes breakdown of PIP2 into IP3 and DAG. IP3 mobilizes Ca (also acts as 2nd messenger), DAG activates PKC, works for local hormones

31

How steroid hormones work on cells

Increase protein synthesis: enter cell, bind to receptor protein, bind to dna and form mrna, mrna diffuses to cytoplasm to promote translation at ribosomes, new proteins made

32

Thyroid hormones do two things to cells

Activate genetic mechanism and increase metabolic activity

33

Pituitary gland
Connected to what
5 types

Hypothalamus
Somatotropes- hgh
Corticotropes-acth
Thyrotropes- tsh
Gonadotropes- fsh and lh
Lactotropes- prl

34

Parts of pituitary, do what, connected by what, controlled by what

Anterior and posterior, both make different hormones, hypophysial stalk, hypothalamus

35

Anterior pituitary hormones: 6

Thyrotropin, GH, corticotropin, FSH, LH, prolactin

36

Hypothalamic hormones stim 6 which lead to which 6 ant pituitary hormones and act where

CRH- ACTH- adrenal
TRH- TSH- through
GnRH- FSH-ovary.teste
GnRH- LH- ovary.teste
PIH/PRH- PRL- mammary
GHRH/SS-GH-skeletal muscle and bone

37

Posterior pituitary hormones
Controlled by what
Make what

Hypothalamus
ADH and oxytocin

38

Control of pituitary secretion
Which vessels
Process

Hypothalamic and hypohysial portal vessels
Hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting. Receives NS signals, reacts by controlling hormones.