Chapter 3 Molecular Biology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Molecular Biology Deck (20):
1

mRNA role

Carries genetic code to cytoplasm for controlling type of protein formed

2

Transfer RNA role

Transports activated amino acids to the ribosomes to be used in assembling the protein molecule

3

Ribosomal RNA role

Forms ribosomes, in which protein molecules are assembled.

4

Micro RNA miRNA role

Single stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides that can regulate gene transcription and translation

5

DNA strand that is the opposite of mRNA transcript

DNA template strand

6

DNA strand that is the same as the mRNA strand we get

Nontemplate or coding strand

7

Parts of DNA that are used, parts we will splice

Exons

Introns

8

Poly A tail

Longer the tail is the longer it will keep functioning. RNAse chews it up, once A's are done and stuff codes for protein it's done

9

MiRNA looks for what to cut out

Introns

10

How free ribosomes and bound ribosomes differ

Free ones have proteins that remain in cytoplasm. Cells that synthesize proteins are to remain here

Segregated in rough ER. Proteins produced here are injected into interior of organelle through its membrane. Way of separating undesirable effects from reaching cytoplasm

11

What a signal peptide does

Binds to a signal recognition particle. Ribosomes bind to RER by interacting with SRP and a ribosomal receptor. These interactions cause opening of a pore through which protein moves into RER

12

How we regulate gene expression

Promoter elements allow us to find basal promoter containing TATA box (where Ts and As are) and easier to cut proteins we want to make

13

What to activators to

What do depressors do

Protein that binds to DNA and allows polymerase to bind to it and gets polymerase to where it needs to be to start its job

Prevents RNA polymerase from expressing a gene

14

What do zinc fingers do

Bind protein to a DNA. They are part of activator that binds to a specific piece of DNA and goes between base pairs

15

What do leucine zippers do

Have hydrophobic leucine residues on one side that allows them to align with each other. Another way of binding protein to DNA

16

What identical in DNA

What's different

How to tell difference between

Phosphates

Nucleotides in middle

Get in middle of base pair and probe it

17

Glutamine side chain forms ____ bonds with ___. ___ form with other base pairs

Hydrogen
Adenine
Won't

18

Arginine forms ___ bonds with ____

Hydrogen
Guanine

19

Role of steroid hormone receptors

Binds to binding site and makes activator work or not work.

20

Steroid receptors have 3 important parts of the protein:

Hormone bonding domain (binds steroid)
DNA binding site
(Specific part of DNA)
Transcription activator that binds to RNA polymerase
(Attracts RNA polymerase)