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Flashcards in Pancreas Deck (57)
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1

Head of pancreas has more of a ___ function, near which organ

Tail of pancreas has more __ function, near what

What is present throughout

Exocrine, duodenum

Endocrine, spleen

Endo and exo function

2

Pancreas is anatomically ___ in abdomen

Retroperitoneal

3

Islets of langerhands
____ cells
3 types, which most prevalent, what they produce

Endocrine
Alpha, glucagon
Beta, insulin, 75%
Delta, somatostatin

4

Insulin secretion stimulated by what

Glucagon secretion inhibited by what

Glucose

Insulin

5

Glucagon producing cells have high conc of what if beta cells secreting insulin

Insulin

6

Glucose does not control what

Alpha cells that make glucagon

7

Beta cells respond to changes in what

Bg to release insulin

8

Overall effect of insulin is ___

Promotes synthesis of what

Anabolic

Carb, fat, protein

9

____ is cleave to form insulin

C peptide

10

Synthesis of insulin:
____ to ___ to __ and __

Preproinsulin
Proinsulin
Insulin and c peptide

11

Insulin leads to __ hormone composed of __ and ___, linked by ___

Peptide
A and b chains
Disulfide (strong)

12

__ and __ __ are stored and released together

Insulin and c peptide

13

Insulin circulates in __ form, half life of what, degraded by what

Free
3-8 min
Liver and kidney

14

What is measured as an index of endocrine capacity of pancreas

C peptide

15

Physiologic effect of c peptide

Decreases gfr to uptake more glucose by body

16

Glucose uptake is by ___ transporter which leads to cell depolarization, ca influx, and release of insulin from storage

Glut 2

17

What happens if drug blocks atp sensitive k channel

Cell stays depolarized (no k leaving), more insulin release

18

If drug makes atp sensitive k channel more sensitive to being blocked what happens

Quicker insulin release when bg rises

19

What happens if born w less sensitive k channel

Need more atp to block channel, need more glucose before insulin will be realeased. Higher bg set point, 150-170

20

What happens to bg after bolus dose of insulin

Bg rises, stored insulin was used and body has to make more

21

Limiting factor for glycolysis, in which cells

Glucose, beta

Not in cardiac cells or neurons

22

Glucagon increases what 3 things in blood

Glucose, FA, ketoacids

23

Glucagon

Structure
Synthesized as what, then what happens to it

Straight chain polypeptide

Preproglucagon, cleaved to glucagon and stored in secretory vesicles

24

Glucagon release increased when

Main target organ of glucagon

Fasting, when insulin levels low

Liver

25

Receptor of glucagon, stimulated what, increases what, __ to phosphorylate target proteins

GPCR (Gs)
Adenylyl cyclase, cAMP
PKA

26

Liver functions to increase BG 3

Glycogenolysis (breakdown glycogen)
Gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis)
Synthesis of ketoacids from fatty acids

27

Cant convert __ into glucose but can convert fat into __ __

Fat
Ketone bodies

28

What two things are antagonists

Glucagon and insulin

29

Transporter that moves to cell surface, always open, when glucose high on outside

Glut 4

30

What enhances glucose response and does what

AA plus glucose, enhances protein synthesis and muscle growth