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Flashcards in Renal Deck (83):
1

Absorption

In gi tract, water into blood

2

Reabsorption

In nephron of kidney, fluid enters back into blood

3

Secretion

Going from blood to filtrate

4

Filtration

Only happens in glomerulus in PCT.

5

Thirst triggered by

Inc ECF osmolality, decreased blood volume

6

Hormones that control fluid excreted in urine

ANP, BNP, ADH, aldosterone

7

5 things that increase ADH secretion

Increased osmolality, decreased blood volume, pain, nausea, physiological stressors

8

What stimulates aldosterone release

Ang II and increased K in plasma

9

Where aldosterone works

Na K ATPase pump on basolateral side of DCT. Increases Na channels to increase Na in blood q

10

NP action and what they oppose

Increase Na in urine to diurese. Oppose aldosterone but not as strong

11

Calcium range

9-11 mg/do or 4.5-5.5 meq/L

12

Mg range

1.5-2.5 meq/l

13

PO4 charge and range adults, children, neonate

-1
2.5-4.5 mg/dl adults
4.5-6.5 kids
4.3-9.3 neonate

14

K range

3.5-5 meq/l, higher neonate

15

Molecules that can pass lipid bilayer easily

Hydrophobic: o2, co2, n2
Uncharged small: h20, urea, glycerol

16

How decreased SNS affects bladder

Relax internal sphincter, open it, urinate

17

How increased pns affects bladder

Contract detrusor muscle, open internal sphincter in urethra

18

How decreased somatic motor neuron activity affects bladder

Relax external urethral sphincter, open external, urinate

19

3 things that promote micturition

Decreased sns, increased pns, decreased somatic motor neuron

20

What are peritubular capillaries

Blood sys that's parallel to tubules to reabsorb and secrete water and electrolytes

21

If something isn't filtered in PCT where does it go

Efferent arteriole to renal vein

22

Role of cilia in nephron

Mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors

23

Which nephrons are deep, superficial, and have long or short loops

Superficial and short loops: cortical
Deep and long: juxtamedullary

24

Vasa recta

Capillaries on juxtamedullary nephrons

25

Glomerulus role

Capillary net that filters plasma and makes UF

26

Glomerulus in cortical nephrons: what efferent arterioles give rise to

Peritubular capillaries

27

Glomerulus in juxtamedullary nephrons: efferent arterioles give rise to what and role

Vasa recta, concentrate urine

28

PCT surface and role

Brush border villi, main site of reabsorption of solutes and water

29

PCT: which nephron allows more solute reabsorption

Juxtamedullary

30

Descending henle loop: what it isn't and is permeable to, what it does

Permeable to water, impermeable to solute. Concentrates fluid.

31

How thin descending loop different in juxtamedullary vs cortical nephrons

Long, have pyramids that concentrate fluid

32

Thick ascending loop: impermeable to what, transporter And what it does

Water. Na K 2CL, reabsorb solutes, dilutes fluid, and concentration gradient set up

33

DCT: role, what acts on it

Electrolyte modifications, aldosterone

34

Collecting ducts: site of what, controlled by what, other role

Water reabsorption in aquaporins through ADH. Acid base balance, a and b cells

35

Mesangial cell: what it does, types

Smooth muscle cell that relaxes/contracts. Secretory and contractile types. Secretes stuff that makes extracellular matrix

36

Pedicel

Cellular process of podocyte wrapped around capillary

37

Bowman space: where, what happens to stuff here

Bw bowman capsule and glomerular capillaries. Goes to PCT and becomes filtrate

38

What outside of glomerulus made from

Endothelial cells, fenestrations allow leak of solute through. Prevents movement of stuff through podocyte

39

Mesangial cell: 4 roles

Structural support for glomerular capillaries, secretes matrix proteins, phagocytosis, regulates GFR

40

Mesangial cells do what by contracting and relaxing

Alter surface area for filtration and GFR

41

GFR determined by what

Filtration pressure in glomeruli and permeable surface of membrane

42

What varies in glomerulus

Filtration pressure from afferrent to efferent end

43

What affects filtration pressure and how

Blood volume. As it increases, gfr increases to excrete more fluid. And autoregulation

44

How you calculate what is excreted

Filtered - reabsorbed + secreted

45

How creatinine is processed

Freely filtered, goes to PCT not reabsorbed and goes to bladder

46

Inulin tests what

GFR

47

How glucose transported

Apical side- cotransporter with na
Basolateral- own concentration gradient

48

Tmax glucose
Conc in plasma
Gfr

375 mg/min
80-100
1.25 dl/min

49

How you calculate tmax
What renal threshold # is

Gfr x renal threshold
300 mg/dl

50

Where most absorption occurs

Pct

51

How much of what is filtered is reabsorbed

99%

52

How most of flow occurs in PCT, what travels

Secondary active cotransporter, glucose, AA, phosphate, organic acids

53

PCT apical transport

Na H antiporter

54

PCT basolateral transport

Na K ATPase 3 Na out 2 K in

55

What stimulates and inhibited reabsorption in PCT

Ang 2 and SNS stim, dopamine inhibits

56

Descending limb permeable and impermeable to what

Water can go out, concentrates. Impermeable to na

57

Where aldosterone works and what it does

Distal tubule and collecting duct, stim reabsorption

58

Ascending limb transport

Apical na k 2 Cl cotransporter, na h antiporter

59

Where thiazide drugs act

Distal tubule

60

Where loop diuretics work

Apical na k 2 cl transporter in ascending limb

61

Distal tubule transport

Na cl cotransporter, apical

62

Collecting duct transport

Na and k channels, both sides. Na k atp on basolateral

63

Bicarb: most reabsorbed where

Pct 80%

64

What happens apical side and basolateral side to bicarb

Apical: reaction CA converts bicarb to co2 and water. Diffuse into cell. Converted back to carbonic acid in cell, bicarb transported out of cell by hco3 cl exchanger or na hco3 cotransporter. H back into lumen to reabsorb more hco 3

65

What stimulates k secretion

Aldosterone and hyperkalemia

66

What stimulates k reabsorption

Low k in diet

67

What alters k secretion

Increased urine flow rate, alkalosis, acidosis

68

What inhibits k secretion

Acidosis

69

How k pumped into cells

Na k atpase

70

How k secreted into CDs

Apical k channels or a intercalated cells, exchange h for k

71

What urea does

Concentrates urine and loop of henle

72

Where and how baroreceptor works

Next to glomerulus. Senses what's going on in DCT, affects renin release, decreased pressure promotes its release

73

Mechanoreceptors, how they work

Increased volume creates pressure, inhibits renin

74

Macula densa- what it senses and what it does

Chemoreceptors, senses NaCl. Senses inc na, inhibits renin

75

What in sns stim renin

Beta 1 adrenergic

76

GFR maintained at what MAP range

80-180

77

What happens when hypovolemic

Stim adh and aldosterone, inhibit anp

78

When using ammonia and phosphate as buffers what happens

Generate more bicarb

79

Ph 7.32 co2 50 hco3 24

Primary respiratory acidosis

80

Ph 7.32, co2 40 hco3 18

Metabolic acidosis

81

7.54, co2 28 hco3 24

Respiratory alkalosis

82

7.54, 40 c02, 34 hco3

Metabolic alkalosis

83

What leads to increased anion gap

Acidosis, acid increases base not lost