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Flashcards in CNS Part 2 Deck (119):
1

Basic functional unit of CNS, how work is done.

Neuron

2

Language of neurons

Action potentials

3

Structural support or CNS

Neuroglia

4

What maintains and buffers ECF, regulates electrolytes, and is involved in signal transmission

Astrocytes

5

What produces myelin

Oligodendroglia

6

What in CNS is involved in Immunity and presents antigen to T cells

Microglia/ latent phagocytes

7

What lines ventricles and produces CSF

Ependymal cells

8

What produces myelin in PNS.

Schwann cells

9

1 Schwann cell per ___. 1 ___ can myelinate several axons in CNS

Axon. Oligodendrocyte

10

What is structural support in PNS

Satellite cells

11

Input directly goes to __ or to __

Dendrites or soma

12

Impulses only travel in one direction because of what

Refractory period

13

Excitatory comes on __, inhibitory mainly on ___. But there are exceptions

Dendrite, soma

14

Axon hillock is dense in __ __. Easier to reach thresholds here than __, which needs more __

Sodium channels, soma, inputs

15

Inter neurons have __ axons

Small

16

Unipolar neurons more common in what

Intervertebrates

17

Pseudo unipolar neurons found in __ __ __, __ neuron. Axon comes straight out and goes to __ __ directions

Dorsal root ganglion, sensory. Two different

18

__ neurons common in nose and eye, sensory organs

Bipolar

19

___ neurons are motor neurons

Multipolar

20

Major neuron types of cerebral cortex: __ cells and __ or __ cells

Pyramidal
Stellar or granule

21

Pyramidal cells are __% of cerebral cortex
__ amino acid: __ or __

75
Excitatory, glutamate, aspartate

22

Stellate or granule cells are __% __
___ amino acid: __ or __
Most are ___: ___

25, interneurons,
Excitatory, glutamate or aspartate
Inhibitory, GABA

23

Anesthetic agents work by enhancing what

GABA

24

GABA works by passing ___, brings __ inside of cell. ___ cell further

Chloride, negative, depolarizes

25

__ ___ get things from cell body to pre-synaptic terminal

Calcium microfilaments

26

__ and __ can move quickly because of microfilaments

Mitochondria and vesicles

27

__ move slowly

Proteins

28

2 major proteins: ___ from spinal cord to foot. __ moves proteins back up from axon terminus to cell body. Both are __ and use __

Kinesins
Dynein
ATP
Microtubules

29

Rely on __ to keep ions and neurotransmitters in balance. ___ critical for normal neuronal function

Neuroglia
Astrocytes

30

___ speed conduction

__ can produce glial scars, which is why people with __ __ __ don't recuperate

Oligodendrocytes

Astrocytes, spinal cord injury

31

RMP __. Depolarize __-__ mV to reach __ mV threshold. __ or __. All action potentials are the same __. Na opens and shuts __. Refractory period __ and depends on __. Need even more __ to achieve hyperpolarization.

-70. 10-20. -50. All or nothing. Size. Fast. Varies, neuron. Depolarization

32

In relative refractory __ channels are open
In absolute refractory __ channels are closed

K
Na

33

__, __, and __ look the same on a chart as a phenomenon

Voltage, conductance, current

34

K stops leaking because of __ gradient

Electrical

35

In unmyelinated have to __ depolarize. Requires a lot of __ and running of __ __ to restore gradient, not efficient

Sequentially, ATP, Na/K

36

Because membrane is thin can lose __ into membrane in unmyelinated. Have to overcome __

Myelinate on decreases __ and increases ___. Use less __

Charge, capacitance

Capacitance, resistance. ATP

37

Myelinate on restricts action potential generation to __ __ __

Nodes of ranvier

38

In local anesthetics unmyelinated nerve will have axon __

In myelinated will only be touched at __ and need to cover __ to have a block

Covered

Node, 3

39

ATP pumps on myelinated found where, on unmyelinated found where

Nodes of ranvier

Along entire length

40

Myelinate on benefits: fast ___, __ __ processing, __ advantage

Reflexes, complex mental, metabolic

41

Withdrawal reflex takes place where

Myelinated axon

42

Oligodendrocytes CNS Schwann cell myelination # of cells

Oligodrendrocytes- myelinates many axons with one cell in CNS

Schwann cells myelinate with one cell per axon in PNS

43

A alpha sensory fiber. Size compared to B and C. Conduction velocity. Supplies receptors: __ __ spindles, __ __ organ. ___ fiber

Bigger than b and c. Fast because big. Primary muscle, Golgi tendon. Motor

44

A beta fiber. __ compared to a alpha. Still ___ in velocity. supplies receptors: __ muscle spindles, skin ___

What kind of fiber

A little slower, fast, secondary, mechanoreceptors

Sensory

45

A delta fiber: __ function. __ pain conducted. Supplies skin ___, __ receptors, and ___. These are myelinated or not. This is the __ surgical pain

Important to who

Sensory, fast, mechanoreceptors, thermal, nociceptors

Myelinated. Initial. CRNA

46

Easiest to block __ and __ fibers

B and c

47

C sensory fibers: __ __ fibers. Myelinated or not. __ pain. Receptors are skin __, __ receptors, and __. On __ of nerve fiber

Slow pain, not, mechanoreceptors, thermal, nociceptors. Outside

48

A alpha motor fiber imp in __ __. Receptors in __ __ muscle fibers

Motor movement, extrafusal skeletal

49

A gamma y motor fibers imp for __ and __. Receptors are __ muscle fibers

Balance and tone. Intrafusal

50

B motor fibers. __myelinated. Receptor on __ __ fibers

Lightly, Preganglionic autonomic

51

C motor fibers. __myelinated. Receptor on __ __ fibers

Not. Postganglionic autonomic

52

__ and __ fibers out outside of nerve fiber. __ __ outside. __ __ and __ __ on inside

B, C. A delta.

A alpha and A beta

53

___ neuron-neuron junction present in __ __ (electrical) and __ mediated (chemical)

Classic, gap junctions, neurotransmitter

54

3 types of synaptic signaling

Neuron neuron
Neuron glial
Extra synaptic

55

In extra synaptic signaling NTs released from synapses act on receptors that are __ of the __ area

Outside, synaptic

56

Gap junctions
- __ __ pathways that allow current to flow
-allows exchange of __ __ between cells
-__ and __

Low resistance

Small molecules

Fast and bidirectional

57

Gap junctions
-__ of network activity and __ __ neurons
-regulated by __, __ __, __, and _ _ coupled receptors

Synchronization, electronically coupled

Voltage, intracellular pH, calcium ion, G protein

58

Gap junctions aren't primary means of ___

Connexons are ___

Communication

Channels

59

Chemical synapses
A lot of __ here to restore ionic gradient. __ going into cell requires removal and a lot of __

Mitochondria, calcium, ATP

60

Chemical synapses
Connections mainly on __ only a few on __ __

Delay when chemicals travel __ __

Dendrites, cell body

Across cleft

61

Synaptic transmission
1. Action potential is propagated to the __ terminal which __
2. __ channels __ in response to depolarization
3. Increased __ conc in presynaptic micro domain promotes __ of vesicles containing neurotransmitter within plasma membrane

Presynaptic, depolarizes

Calcium, open

Calcium, fusion

62

Synaptic transmission
4. NT binds __ __ receptors stabilizing the __ confirmation of the receptor
5. Within __ NT is __ from synaptic cleft

Post synaptic, active

Milliseconds, cleared

63

Synaptic transmission
-ion flow dependent on 2 gradients:
-open or closed confirmation of ion channel results in __ or __

Concentration and voltage

EPSP, IPSP

64

___ of NT is primary, ___ is secondary to reduce NT conc in synaptic cleft

Reuptake, degradation

65

Agonists stabilize __ confirmation channel

Antagonists __ __ from binding and support __ confirmation

Open

Prevent agonists, closed

66

Acetylcholine or cholinergic synapses stopped by ___

Most others such as norepi and glutamate stopped by __

Degradation

Re uptake

67

Gaseous neurotransmitter

NO

68

Fusion of synaptic vesicle that has NT with presynaptic membrane occurs at __ sites called __ __

Specific sites, active zones

69

Active zones rich in calcium channels= micro domain __ in cystolic ca with __ __

Increase, action potential

70

Docking, priming, and fusion process involve ___

SNARE: soluble, n-ethyl, attachment receptor protein

71

V snares: __ __
T snares: target __ __ __

Vesicle membrane

Presynaptic plasma membrane

72

__, __, and __ zip together bringing the vesicle membrane and presynaptic membrane into close proximity

Synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and snap-25

73

___ appears to be the calcium sensor in vesicular release

Synaptotagmin

74

Vesicular release occurs with voltage gated __ channels __. What inhibits these

Calcium, open

Botulism

75

Calcium entry and exit mechanisms: calcium __, __ gated ca __, __gated ca _, __/__ exchanger

Pump, ligand channel, voltage channel, Na/ca

76

Ca has a crucial role as mediator of __. It is at the base of __-__ coupling

Secretion

Excitation secretion

77

Ca concentration gradients are __

Extracellular __-__ milimolar

Intracellular __-__ nanomolar

Huge

1-2

10-50

78

__ gated ca channel can be blocked by different drugs

Ligand

79

Inactivation channel type: inactivation. Speed. L, P, N, T, Q/R

None to little
Slow
Slow
Rapid
Slow

80

Antagonist channel in voltage gated ca channel: l, p, n, t

DHP
DHP and spider venom insensitive
Conotoxin and dhp insensitive
Nickel ions

81

Activation of calcium channels
L
P
N
T
Q/r

Strong depolarization
Strong depolarization
Strong depolarization
Near resting potential
Strong depolarization

82

Location of voltage gated calcium channels
L
P
N
T
Q/r

Skeletal, cardiac, muscle, brain, neuroendo
Presynaptic
Presynaptic
Cardiac muscle and neuron cell body
Cerebellum granule cells

83

Function of voltage gated calcium channels
L
P
N
T
Q/r

Varied
Transmitter release
Transmitter release
Rhythmic potentials
Transmitter release

84

Criteria to be a neurotransmitter:
Present in __ __
Cell must be able to __ the subtance
Released upon __ of presynaptic membrane
Specific __ on postsynaptic membrane with or without __ locations
__ and __ don't follow these rules

Presynaptic terminal
Synthesize
Depolarization
Receptor, extra synaptic
Hormones and peptide transmitters

85

Non peptide transmitters/classic neurotransmitters
-synthesized and packed in __ __
-synthesized in __ form
-usually in __, __ vesicles

Nerve terminal
Active form
Small, clear

86

Non peptide/classic neurotransmitters
-released into __ __
-action of many terminated because of uptake by presynaptic terminals by __ powered __ transport
-action has __ latency and __ duration

-synaptic cleft
-Na, active
-short, short

87

Peptide transmitters
- synthesized and packed in __ __, transported to nerve terminal by __ __ transport
-active peptide formed when it is __ from a much larger __ that contains several neuro peptides
-usually present in __, __ dense vesicles

Cell body, fast atonal

Cleaved, polypeptide

Large, electron

88

Peptide transmitters
-may be released by some __ in the __ cell
-there may be no _- __ synaptic structure
-action terminated by __ or the peptide __ away
-action may have __ latency and may __ for many __

-distance, postsynaptic
-well defined
-proteolysis, diffusing
-long, persist

89

Small molecule/classic NTs
Class I: ___
Class II: __ __, 5

Acetylcholine

Biogenic amines: norepi, epi, dopamine, serotonin, histamine

90

Small molecule NT

Class III: __ __, 4

Amino acids

GABA, glycine, glutamate, aspartate

91

GABA- mostly ___. Most anesthetics __ GABA activity or work on these receptors
Glycine- imp in __ __. __. Not many drugs __ it specifically
Glutamate and aspartate are __

Inhibitory. Increase

Spinal cord. Cotransmitter. Target

Excitatory

92

Neuro peptide/peptide transmitter classes 4

Hypothalamic releasing hormones, pituitary peptides, peptides that act on gut and brain, from other tissues

93

Peptide transmitters: hypothalamic releasing hormones 3

Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Luteinizing hormone
Somatostatin/growth hormone inhibitory factor

94

Peptide transmitters: pituitary peptides
__, __-endorphin, __melanocyte stimulating hormone, __, __ hormone, __, __ hormone, __, __

ACTH
Beta, Alpha
Prolactin, Luteinizing
Thyrotropin, Growth hormone
Vasopressin, oxytocin

95

Peptides that act on gut and brain
__ enkephalin (__ peptide), __ enkephaline (__ peptide), __ __, __, __, __ intestinal polypeptide VIP, __ growth factor, __-derived neurotropic factor, __, __, __

Leucine, opioid
Methionine, opioid
Substance P, gastrin, cholecystokinin
Vasoactive, nerve, brain
Neuro tension, insulin, glucagon

96

Peptides from other tissues: angiotensin __, __, __ peptides, __

II, bradykinin, carnosine, sleep, calcitonin

97

Gaseous NTs
Are not released from __
__ __ and __ __

Vesicles, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide

98

Gaseous NTs released from __ __ __

Pre synaptic cell

99

How gaseous NTs work
__ or __ come into cell and cause __ increase. __ or __ stimulates _ __ coupled receptor. Increases ca release which binds __. Goes to __ __ __. Converts __ to __ __. Converts __ to __. Decreases _ entry.

AP or NT, Ca, ach or bradykinin
G protein, calmodulin, nitric oxide synthase,
GTP to cGMb, calcium

100

Glutamate responsible for __ __
Too much glutamate for too long can cause __. End effect __ or __. Too much __ and no __ to pump it out

NT recycling
Apoptosis. Stroke or ischemia. Calcium, ATP

101

___ takes up glutamate. Sits on __ and __ nerves. Have them on __ cells. __ converts glutamate to glutamine. Transfer glutamine back to neuron without causing __. Rely on __ to keep glutamate levels normal

EAAT. Pre and post synaptic.
Glial. Astrocytes. Cytotoxicity. Astrocytes.

102

Acetylcholine broken down by __ in synaptic cleft

__ transported back to axon terminal and used to __ __ ach

Acetylcholinesterase

Choline, make more

103

EPSP or IPSP occurs when __ binds to a __ __ receptor.
__ __ channel for fast transmitting
__ __ __ __ for slow transmission

NT, post synaptic

Ligand gated

G protein coupled receptor

104

In G protein receptor when alpha beta and gamma are together channel is __

Inactive

105

Post synaptic responses to NT
-ion current flows then the direction of flow depends on __ __ of __ __

Electrochemical gradients, per meant ions

106

Ix= gx X (Vm - Ex)
What I, X, Vm, Ex, and g are

I is current
X is an ion
Membrane potential Vm
Ex is Nernst potential
How channel conducts moving through a membrane

107

Miniature end plate potential: __ depolarizations of postsynaptic membrane. Reflect __ release of a __ synaptic vesicle. Too __ to reach threshold, _ action potential occurs

Small,
Spontaneous, single, small
No

108

EPSP: __ __ flux. Decreased __ influx or __ efflux. Change in receptor __ or enzymatic or metabolic activity (__ effect)

Increased Na. Cl. K.
Expression. Delayed

109

IPSP: __ __ influx or __ efflux. Can be __ or __ __. Change in receptor expression or enzymatic activity w __ effect

Increased Cl, k. Pre or post synaptic
Delayed

110

Spatial summation

Multiple synapses firing causing AP to occur

111

Temporal summation

Same axon firing repeatedly

112

Facilitation

Have some synapses. Not enough to get over threshold. A few more come in and threshold achieved

113

Divergence

Multiple branches come into one single tract

114

Convergence

Single source branches into several branches

115

__ __ helps coordinate motor movements. Releasing __ inhibits it

Reciprocal inhibition

GABA

116

Reverberatory circuits can __ __ on themselves and even __ or __ signal. Imp in __ __ __

Feed back, amplify, inhibit

Short term memory

117

Majority of synapses are ___

Alkalosis in isf __ neuronal ___
Acidosis __ neuronal __

Dendritic

Increases, excitability
Depresses, activity

118

Hypoxia severely __ neuronal __

Drugs can increase and decrease __

Decreases, excitability

Excitability

119

What can increase chances of a seizure

Alkalosis