Chapter 1 Fluid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Fluid Deck (33):
1

What moves through membrane easily (2) and what moves slowly (1)

Oxygen and co2

Water

2

How to calculate total body water

Weight in kg times 0.6= L

3

How much of TBW is intracellular

2/3, 40% of body weight

4

Of TBW how much is extra cellular

1/3 or 20%

5

What comprises extra cellular fluid, and what proportions

Interstitial fluid (75% of ECF, 15% TBW)

Plasma/intravascular fluid (25% ECF, 5% TBW)

6

Half of body weight is

Water inside cells

7

Red blood cells represented by

ICF

8

Plasma/extra cellular cations (2) and anions (3)

Na (140), K (5)

Cl- (104), HCO3- (24), A- (14)

A- refers to proteins that are anions

9

Interstitial fluid cations (2) and anions (2)

Na (145) and K (5)

Cl- (117), HCO3- (27)

10

Intracellular fluid cations (2) and anions (4)

K (135) Na (11)

Misc/phosphates (80), A- (54), HCO3- (10), Cl- (8)

11

Primary ECF cation, primary ICF cation

Sodium, potassium

12

Difference in cations between compartments maintained by what

Sodium (3) potassium (2) ATPases. Sodium out potassium in

13

At arterial end of capillary net force is what, and what happens

Higher net hydrostatic pressure +10, pushing out

14

What happens at venous end of capillary, net filtration

Pressure drops, higher net oncotic pressure -8, more pressure pulling back in

15

Conditions that cause edema

-high hydrostatic pressure venous end that won't pull solutes back in (CHF-lungs, liver-spleen), right sided HF (feet)
-decrease oncotic pressure (portal hypertension in liver pts, not making albumin)
-damage to vessel lining- protein leak
-anaphylaxis (fluid from ICF to ISF leads to hypotension from vascular volume decrease)
-can't drain interstitial fluid- lymph obstruction

16

Osmotic pressure in mmHg equals

Mosmoles/L X 19.3

17

Effect of adding water to ECF

ECF osmolarity dilutes, water moves to ICF (cells swell), overall osmolality decreases and volume increases by same amount

18

What happens when adding isotonic saline to ECF (plasma)

Osmolality stays the same, fluid stays in ECF, volume of ECF increases

19

What happens when adding hypertonic saline to ECF

ECF osmolality increases, fluid flows into ECF. Cells shrink in ICF. Volume of ECF increases and overall osmolality of both increase

20

How to calculate total number of solutes

Volume times osmolarity

21

How body generates intake of fluid on its own

Glucose plus oxygen makes water (burning fat or carbs) through oxidation

22

RAA System
1. ___ ____ cells sense a decrease in BP and release ___
2. __ converts ____ to Angiotensin I
3. Angiotensin I converts to Angiotensin II via the __ __ __ in ___
4. Angiotensin II promotes ___ and stimulates____ secretion from adrenal cortex resulting in
5. __ ___ and ___ retention and an increase in BP

1. Renal juxtoglomerular, renin
2. Renin, angiotensinogen
3. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), lung
4. Vasoconstriction, aldosterone
5. Renal sodium, water

23

Need ____ to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

Angiotensin I converted to II by ___

Renin

ACE enzyme

24

RAA system: _____ solves pressure issue, ____ solves volume issue

Angiotensin II

Aldosterone

25

High plasma osmolality stimulates ____ secretion. This leads to ___ water ___. This leads to water ____. This ends up with a higher fluid ____ and decreased ____. ____ decreases.

ADH
Decreased excretion
Retention
Volume, osmolarity
ADH

26

Increase in plasma volume leads to ____ ____ detected by atrial ____ cells. Leads to ____ release. This leads to decrease in ___ system, increase ___, and action on proximal tubule to decrease ___ __.

Atrial stretching

Endocrine

ANH/ANP

RAA, glomerular filtration rate, decrease Na reabsorption (pee out sodium)

27

What indicator measures compartment of:

TBW

ECF

Plasma volume

Antipyrine or tritiated h20, diffuses through all compartments

Insulin, diffuses through plasma and ISF (large molecule can't cross cell membrane)

Evans blue dye (binds to plasma proteins)

28

Simple squamous found in : 3

Blood vessels (endothelium)

Lymph vessels (endothelium)

Body cavities (mesothelium)

29

Keratinized stratified squamous cells found in 2

Skin and masticatory oral mucosa

30

Non-keratinized stratified squamous cells found in: 3

Esophagus, non-masticatory oral mucosa, vagina

31

Simple cuboidal ex

Stratified cuboidal only in what

Thyroid follicles

Sweat ducts

32

Simple columnar: 2

Pseudo stratified: 1

Stratified columnar:

Intestine and kidney

Lung

Submandibular gland ducts

33

Connective tissue ex 4

Cartilage, bone, vascular, adipose