Cardiovascular Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Review Deck (84):
1

Components of blood:

__% RBCs, think layer of ___ called Buffy coat, and over half is __-

43, leukocytes, plasma

2

Plasma
Water ___%
Proteins ___% (what is in this)
Other organic such as amino acids, glucose, hco3 ___%
Electrolytes __%

90
7
2
1

3

Pulmonary circulation steps from RA to pulmonary veins

RA, rt AV (tricuspid), RV, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venues, veins, pulmonary veins

4

Systemic circulation from left atrium to veins of each organ

LA, left AV (bicuspid), LV, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, arteries of each organ, arterioles, capillaries, venues, veins of each organ

5

Endocardium:
made of what kind of endothelium
In contact with what
Sub endocardium is what

Squamous
Blood in blood vessels
CT and purkinje fibers

6

Myocardium
Made of what
What is sub epicardium made of

Cardiac myocytes
Loose CT, veins, arteries, nerves

7

Visceral pericardium
What layer name is, what its made of
Holds what

Epicardium, mesothelia
Heart

8

Parietal pericardium
Made of what
Where it is, what it does

Mesothelia
Outside of visceral pericardium
Vacuum

9

Layers inside to outside of heart

Endocardium
Myocardium
Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
Parietal pericardium

10

What papillary muscles do

In ventricles, contract when ventricles contract and attached to chordae tendinae. Keeps valves from popping open in wrong direction. Failure is regurg

11

All 4 valves can be ___ at once but not ___

Closed, open

12

What is happening when AV valves open but semilunar valves closed

Diastole, ventricular filling

13

What happens when SL valves open and AV valves closed

Systole, ventricular emptying

14

Atrial contraction contributes what to filling

10-15%, not entirely necessary

15

What you hear in heart sounds

Valves closing, not opening

16

Valves do and dont do what at same time

Do contract at the same time but dont close at exactly the same time

17

Conduction through heart

SA, AV, bundle of his, left and right bundle branches, purkinje fibers

18

What is P wave

What is R wave

Depolarization of atria

Depolarization of ventricles

19

What is t wave

What doesnt show up at all on EKG

Ventricular depolarization

SA node

20

Phases of cardiac cycle 5

Atrial systole
Isovolumetric ventricular contraction
Ejection
Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
Passive ventricular filling

21

What does and doesnt make valves open

Open and close because of pressure not because of muscular contraction

22

What happens in isovolumetric contraction, where on EKG

R wave

Ventricles full, contract, volume constant as pressure increases. Valves closed. S1 when AV close

23

What happens in ejection

Semilunar valves open, pressure decreases, relaxation occurs q

24

What happens in isovolumetric ventricular relaxation

Both sets of valves closed, ventricles relax. Semilunar valves close, S2

25

What happens in passive ventricular filling

Pressure in ventricles lower than atria, AV valves open

26

What happens in atrial systole

AV valves open

27

PA pressure
Wont be higher than which pressure
Systole range
Diastole range
Rough mean avg

Right ventricle
15-30
3-12
14

28

Right atrial pressure and mean range

Where CVP measured

0-8
4
Jugular vein

29

Right ventricle systole range and mean

15-28
24

30

Right ventricle end diastolic range and mean

0-8
4

31

If flow in PA same as aorta what is cardiac output

100%

32

Aorta
Systole range
Diastole range
Mean

96-140
60-90
120

33

Which atrial pressure should be higher

Order in utero

Left atrial

Reversed in utero

34

Left atrial pressure and mean range

4-12

8

35

Left ventricle
Systole range
Mean

90-140
130

36

Left ventricle end diastolic range and mean

4-12
7

37

Would prefer clots go where, what aids in this

Go to lungs instead of body.

Higher left atrial pressure

38

End diastolic pressure in RV cant be higher than what

RA

39

S1
S2

AV close (mitral)
Semilunar valves close (aortic)

40

S3
S4

Can hear S3 in who

Rapid flow of blood against empty ventricle
Blood after atrial kick

Kids or in good hearts

41

Where there is a big pressure drop and where there isn't

Pressure drop big in arterioles, decent in capillaries

Low in venous system, bigger tubes

42

Where there is most permeability, where there isn't

Most in capillaries
Almost none in veins or arteries
Small amount in arterioles

43

Most elastic vessels

Large and medium arteries
Venues and veins have some

44

Most muscle in vessels where

In arterioles

45

Innermost layer of arteries and veins
What it is made of

Tunica intima
Endothelial and internal elastic lamina

46

Middle layer of arteries and veins
What it is, what its made of

Tunica media
Smooth muscle, elastic and reticular fibers, external elastic lamina

47

Outermost layer of arteries and veins, what its made of

Tunica adventitia
Collagen I, elastic fibers, vasa vasorum (blood supply to larger vessels like aorta)

48

Characteristics of layers in large elastic artery

Mainly elastic fibers and some smooth muscle in media

Thick and well developed adventitia with blood supply

49

Characteristics of medium muscular artery

Mostly smooth muscle and some elastic in media

Thin adventitia, needs less blood flow

50

Characteristics of layers in arterioles

No internal elastic lamina in intima

Thin layer of muscle and little or no elastic media, no external elastic lamina

Think or absent adventitia

51

Only vessel with no external elastic lamina in tunica media

Arteriole

52

Tunica media in medium arteries versus large arteries

In medium arteries more smooth muscle, changes size based off of told what to do

More elastic

53

Almost no what in small arteries and arterioles

Adventitia

54

Difference between arterioles and precapillary sphincers

Arterioles dont see what is being emitted in blood by capillary bed, precapillary sphincter does and can be told to open or close

55

Size of lumen vs size of walls in arteries and veins

Veins are bigger, but wall of artery is thicker

56

Most common form of capillaries

Continuous. Have membrane around lumen

57

Fenestrated capillaries

Have windows for rapid exchange, in kidneys and intestines

58

Sinusoidal capillaries

Wide lumen and discontinuous endothelial layer

Allows proteins through. In liver, bone marrow, and spleen

59

How to calculate arterial capillary pressure

Capillary hydrostatic pressure minus ISF hydrostatic pressure

Minus: capillary oncotic pressure minus ISF oncotic pressure

60

How to calculate venous capillary pressure

Capillary hydrostatic pressure minus ISF hydrostatic pressure

Minus capillary concotic minus ISF oncotic

61

Lymph where, where it brings blood to

In capillaries, brings to venous system

62

How to calculate stroke volume. Normal number

LVEDV- LVESV ml/beat

70 ml

63

How to calculate CO and normal number

SV (ml/beat) x heart rate

5 LPM

64

How to calculate EF and normal range

SV/LVEDV

55-70%

65

How to calculate PP and normal

SBP-DBP
40

66

How to calculate MAP (3 ways)

Normal

CO X SVR (flow times resistance)
1/3 SBP + 2/3 DBP
DBP + 1/3PP

93

67

How to calculate SVR

MAP / CO

68

What identifies heart failure

CO

69

Heart rate = ____
If it increases what 2 things also change

Chronotropic

CO and BP increase

70

Contractility= ____
If it increases what also is affected 3

Inotropic

EF increases which leads to increased CO and BP

71

SVR

If it increases what two things change and how

CO decreases but BP increases

72

CVP

If it increases leads to change in what

Increased LVEDV, leads to increased SV, which leads to increased CO and BP

73

What 5 things affect heart rate

CNS
ANS
Neural reflexes
Atrial receptors
Hormones

74

What 3 things affect contractility

EDV
SNS stim
Myocardial oxygen supply

75

What 2 things affect afterload

Aortic pressure and aortic valvular function

76

What 2 things affect preload

Venous return and end systolic volume

77

What 3 things affect stroke volume

Preload, afterload, contractility

78

Blood pressure regulated by two things

CO and peripheral resistance

79

Preload affected by

Volume and venous constriction

80

CO affected by 2

Preload and contractility

81

Peripheral resistance affected by 2

Arteriolar vessel diameter and blood viscosity (hct)

82

Vessel diameter impacted by 3

SNS stim (constrict w alpha, dilate w beta)
Ion factors
Humoral regulation (vasodilator or vasoconstrictors)

83

3 vasodilator

Prostaglandins
Kin is
Endothelial derived factors like NO

84

4 vasoconstrictors

Angiotensin
Epi
Calcium
Endothelial derived factors