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Flashcards in Sex Deck (73):
1

What is SRY

Sex region of the Y chromosome. Codes for anti mullerian hormone

2

Mullerian ducts give rise to what

Uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix

3

Wolffian ducts give rise to what

Epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles

4

What determines if you are a male

Sry, not y chromosome itself

5

External tissue starts out as what

Homologous tissue

6

Labia minors is what on penis

Shaft

7

Head of penis is what on female

Clitoris

8

Labia majora is what on male

Scrotum

9

Paramesonephric and mesonephric suggest what

Tissue starts out next to kidney, where ovaries and testes start before descent

10

Auxiliary organs to what in male tract, what they are

Contribute to seminal fluid but semen doesnt go through them

Prostate, seminal vesicle, bulbourethral gland/calpert

11

Sperm produced where

Where they are brought to

Seminiferous tubule

Rete testis

12

Sperm maturation occurs where

Ductus efferentes to ductus epididymis

13

What lines testes, what is in between them

Seminiferous tubules (sertoli cells and spermatagonia)

Interstitial leydig cells

14

Intratesticular ducts

3 parts

Within what

Rete testes and ductuli efferentes and Tubuli recti

Testes

15

Excretory ducts
3

Where they are considered

Ductus epididymis
Vas deferens urethera

Outside of testes

16

What is in between seminiferous tubules, what they have, role

Leydig cells
White fat where testosterone made from (uses cholesterol from fat)

17

Role of myoid cells in seminiferous tubule

Move sperm along

18

Sertoli cell role

Maturation of germ cells to become sperm, have growth factors

19

Spermatagonia role

Germ cell, gives rise to sperm cells

20

Testes do not have what occurring inside

B or T cells, immune privileged

21

How many chromosomes sperm and egg have

23

22

How many chromosomes in spermatagonia

46

23

Role of tight junctions in spermatocytes

Keep b and t cells out

24

Sperm cells have how many chromosomes

23

25

Progression of germ cell

Primordial germ cell
Spermatagonia
Division, mitosis
Primary spermatocyte
Meiotic division I
Secondary spermatocytes
Meiotic division II
Spermatids
Differentiation
Mature sperm

26

When males get mature sperm

Puberty, spermatagonia proliferate by mitosis. Begin meiosis to become primary spermatocytes and continue through meiotic division I to become secondary. Then division II, spermatids, then spermatozoa mature form

27

When mixture of chromosomes occurs

Prophase I separation of homologous pairs, then first meiotic division

28

Have chromosome I genes from who

Some from mom and some from dad. How we get genes from all 4 grandparents

29

Structure of sperm

Packed dna in acrosome head, then mitochondria for power, then principle and end piece in tail

30

How sperm get fiel

Glut 5 transporter, gets fructose in from seminal fluid outside of sperm

31

What stimulates release of LH and FSH

Anterior pituitary by GnRH

32

LH stimulates what, leads to making what

Leydig cell, testosterone

33

FSH stim which cell, leads to making what

Sertoli, sperm production

34

How negative feedback works in make system

LH and FSH feeds back to make less gnrh in hypothalamus and less release of lh and fsh by anterior pituitary

35

In male fsh receptors increase
___ __ __ which leads to

Androgen binding protein

Testosterone plus ABP

36

In females

LH increases __ __ in ___ cell

FSH increases ____ which develops ___ from androgen in ___ cell

Androgen synthesis
Thecal

Aromatase
Estrogen from androgen
Granulosa

37

Testosterone levels in males through life

High in fetal development for differentiation (m or f)

Low until puberty

Increases at puberty until decrease of 50% in old age

38

Sperm production starts when, highest when, decreases when

Starts puberty, highest at adult age, decreases in old age to about 50% but still present

39

Development of ovarian follicle

4 stages

Primordial follicle
Primary follicle
Secondary follicle
Graffian follicle

40

Age of eggs vs sperm

Eggs- as hold as female plus a few months

A few days or weeks, constantly making

41

In primordial follicle ___ __ grows to ___ cells. Which grow to ___ __ of these cells with a ___ ___

Granulosa precursors
Granulosa
Multiple layers
Theca externa

42

Suppressed follicles become what

Artretic follicle

43

After ovulation graffian follicle becomes what

What it makes

Corpus luteum

Progesterone

44

Layers of follicle

Theca externa, theca interna, antrum innermost

45

Ovaries filled with what at baseline

Primordial follicles

46

Oocyte makes lots of what and why

Proteins
No access to nutrients for a week when egg released, week until implantation

47

Theca interna makes what

Androgens, testosterone precursor

48

Granulosa layer does what

Converts androstein dion from theca interna into estrogen

49

Weak androgens

Dhea and androstenedione

50

Strong androgens

Testosterone, DHT

51

Reserve of sex hormones is in what

DHEA, can be converted into estrogen or stronger androgens

52

Pathway of sex hormones in blood
___ to ___ to __ or __ to ___ converted by ___ to 3

Cholesterol
Pregnenolone
17 a hydroxypregnenolone
DHEA or androstenedione
Testosterone
Converted by aromatase
Estradiol, estrone, estriol

53

Phases in ovary before and after ovulation

Follicular phase
Luteal phase

54

Phases in uterus before and after ovulation

Proliferative phase
Secretory phase

55

Which phase in uterus prepares for next cycle

Ischemic phase

56

Follicular phase= __ phase
Luteal phase= ___ phase

Proliferative
Secretory

57

What leads to egg release

Positive feedback cycle, estrogen triggers more LH and FSH. Spike in estrogen causes follicle to rupture and egg to release

58

Follicle becomes __ __ which produces ___

Corpus luteum
Progesterone

59

What supports uterus after implantation

Progesterone

60

What happens in proliferative phase

Uterus becomes thicker and thicker. Vascularized tissue for egg to land on. If doesn't happen progesterone falls because LH and FSH fall and then endometrium sloughs

61

Follicle of the month becomes what

Corpus luteum

62

Estrogen peaks during which phases

End of proliferative phase, between secretory and ischemic phase

63

Progesterone peaks during which phase

Secretory to ischemic phase

64

What controls negative or positive feedback in female

Estrogen has negative feedback until mid cycle then positive

65

Luteal phase mainly has which hormone

LH, some fsh but not as much

66

End of follicular phase which hormone stim

Fsh

67

Membrane that separates fetus from uterus

Chorion

68

Why you dont menstruate if you have implantation

HCG binds to LH receptor. HCG binds to corpus luteum which makes progesterone, ant pituitary stops making progesterone

69

In pregnancy testing for what

Beta chain of HCG

70

How to test for thyroid issue in pregnant women

TSH decreases because HCG supplements it by binding to TSH receptors. Have to test T3 or T4 because TSH will be low

71

TSH, FSH, LH, and HCG have what in common

Same alpha subunit

72

What happens to FSH throughout life

High in fetus, low at birth, high in infant, cycles until menopause and will stay high

73

LH fluctuation throughout life in female

Peaks in fetus, low at birth, high in infant, low until reproductive years when it fluctuates. Baseline high in menopause