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Flashcards in CNS Part 3 Deck (62):
1

Special senses vs somatosensory differences in receptors

Special- high density of receptors in target organ, discrete travel and bundle processing

Somatosensory- diffuse pattern, covers a large field

2

Same second messengers can have __ responses based on cell

Different

3

Sensory receptors transduce enviro changes into electronic signals. Connect to __ __ neurons which relay info via __ __ to brain and spinal cord. __ __ neuron cell bodies housed in __ __ and __ __ __

Primary afferrent
Action potentials
Primary afferrent, dorsal root, cranial nerve ganglia

4

Cranial nerve ganglia have a __ process that extends dismally within a __ __ to sensory receptors, and a __ __ that enters the spinal cord or brain through a __ __ or __ __

Peripheral, peripheral nerve
Central process, dorsal root or cranial nerve

5

Each __ __ __ has a specific cutaneous field

T4 Dermatome innervated by

DRG

T4 DRG

6

Exteroceptive info: interaction of __ with the __

2 types

Skin, enviro

Fine discriminatory touch and pain/temp

7

Fine discrim touch powered by 2

Pain and temp powered by 2

A alpha and a beta

A delta and c (fast and slow pain )

8

Proprioceptive info: body and limb position informing ___

Receptors in __, __, and __

Movement

Joints, muscles, tendons

9

Enteroceptive info: __ __ of the body. Ex __ in __ or __

Internal status

Stretch, bladder, gut

10

One thing all sensory receptors (thermal, chemical, pain, etc) is stimuli causes what

Changing membrane permeability to get action potential

11

Receptor potentials can change by 5

Mechanical, chemical, temp, electromagnetic radiation, pain

12

Process same for all receptor potentials when get to what level

Action potential

13

Sensory receptors will adapt either __ or __ to __ stimulation by a variety of mechanisms

Partially or completely, constant

14

Mechanosensitive afferrent fibers __ __ __ or __ __

Tactile fibers fast
Slow adaptation

15

Type I mechanoreceptive afferrent fibers have __ receptive field. Higher density of these fibers leads to better __ __ discrimination
Type II fibers have a ___ receptive field

Small, two point

Large

16

If a pin pricks finger what would type I vs type II tell you

Type I- exactly where prick is
II- something stabbing your finger but can't tell where

17

Fast adapting: get message __ at first and stop __ with time
Slow adapting is ___

Loudly, firing
Opposite

18

What kind of fibers are:
Meisner corpuscles
Pacinian corpuscles

Fast adapting 1
Fast adapting 2

19

What kind of fibers are merkels disks and ruffini endings

Slow adapting 1 and slow adapting 2`

20

More receptors leads to a ___ image

Clearer

21

Receptor potential vs stimulus intensity is a ___ patterned chart because can't sense change above ___

Curved not linear

100%

22

Spatial location: __ of neurons within a __ __

Population, receptive feel

23

Stimulus intensity: frequency of __, __ of sensory receptors involved

Action potential, number

24

Stimulus frequency: ___ interval

Inter stimulus

25

Each nerve tract ___ at a specific point in the CNS and carries a selective sensory modality. (Pain and mechanoreceptors not carried by same tract)

Terminates

26

Sensation is perceived when a specific stimulated __ leads to specific __ in the CNS. Ex separate dedicated cell populations in __ and __ __

Nerve, areas

Thalamus, somatosensory cortex

27

Alteration of the specific nerve tracts activity will only change the __ of the stimulus (___) vs changing the __ of stimulus perceived (__)

Intensity, quantitative, type, qualitative

28

Dorsal column medial leminiscal
1. Highly __ touch
2. __ sensations (__ gradation of intensity)
3. __ sensations (__)
4. __ contact sensation
5. __ position
6. __ sensations

1. Localized
2. Touch, fine
3. Phasic, vibratory
4. Skin
5. Joint
6. Pressure

29

DCML
Composed of __ __ fibers transmitting signals at __-__m/sec
__ spatial orientation

Large myelinated, 30-110, more

30

Anterolateral (spinothalamic) system
1. __
2. ___ sensations
3. __ touch and ___
4. __ and __
5. ___ sensations

Pain
Thermal
Crude, pressure
Tickle and itch
Sexual

31

Spinothalamic system composed of ___ __ fibers carrying signals at __m/sec

__ spatial orientation

Smaller myelinated, 40

Less

32

DCML
Transmits signals __ to the __ via the __ columns in the spinal cord.

Signals synapse in __ __ nuclei

Upward, medulla, dorsal

Dorsal column

33

DCML
Where lower body and leg synapses

Where upper body and arm synapses

Nucleus gracilis

Nucleus cuneatus

34

DCML steps
1. Transmits signal to ___
2. Signals synapse in __ __ __
3. 2nd order neuron axons then __ __ side of medulla and project to the __ via the __ __ (__, __)

1. Medulla
2. Dorsal column nuclei
3. Cross opposite, thalamus, medial lemniscus (pons, midbrain)

35

Spinothalamic
1. Enters the spinal cord from the __ __ __ _ and synapses in the __ __
2. Cross to the __ cord
3. Travel upward through __ and __ __ columns
4. Tracts terminate at all levels of __ __ __ and __

1. Dorsal spinal nerve roots, dorsal horns
2. Contra lateral
3. Anterior and lateral white
4. Lower brain stem, thalamus

36

Which can be modulated by anesthesia more, DCML or spinothalamic

Spinothalamic

37

Somatosensory pathways in __ __ are where signals help us determine __ signal is __ __

Some areas have a __ field and many signals, __ space dedicated to them in ___

Post central gyrus, where, coming from

Large, larger, trunk

38

___ pathway allows us to have conscious awareness of body movements and local ___

These pathways carry both __ and __ info to __ and __ __

Spine cerebellar, reflexes

Cutaneous, proprioceptive, cerebellum, spinal cord

39

A delta (__, __ __ pain) and C fibers (__, __, __ localized) synapse in the __ matter of the __ __ of spinal cord

Fast, well localized
Slow, dull, less
Gray
Dorsal horn

40

A delta synapses at lamina __, __, and __

C synapses at lamina __ and __

I, V, X

I, II

41

Central pain pathways 3

Spinothalamic
Spinoreticular
Spinomesencephalic

42

Dorsal column nuclei: __ order neurons
In the __. The dorsal column __ contain these neurons.

Second
Medulla, nuclei

43

Diff between dorsal column neurons and primary afferrent neurons:
- receptive fields yield __ area (__ primary afferrent fibers synapse on__ dorsal column neuron)
-several types of __ __ neurons (diff modalities) __ on the __ __ __ allowing greater __ in sensory responses
-dorsal column neurons often modulated by __ __ that provide __ to the served receptive fields

-Greater, multiple
-primary afferrent, converge, second order neurons, diversity
-adjacent interneurons, inhibition

44

Thalamus: __ order neurons
-these project to __ __
-__ receptive field
-__ and __ circuits
-__ __ cycle and __ influence excitability
-__ and __ have high somatotopic organization

Third
-somatosensory cortex
-small
-inhibitory and excitatory
- sleep wake, anesthesia
-Vpl, vpm

45

Behavior (reflective and voluntary muscle movement or glandular secretion) is triggered by ___ neurons which activate __ neurons

Central, motor

46

Upper motor neurons __ synapse on lower motor neurons __ __ or __ __ whose axons leave CNS to affect periphery

Brain, spinal cord or anterior root

47

Supplementary motor areas help with what

Fine coordinated movements, complex and require more stim

Posture, vocalization, bilateral movements

48

Premotor area involved in __ __ and have __ neurons which help do what

Complex movement
Mirror neurons- mimic what you see someone else doing

49

Consulate motor areas. __ stimulus needed, imp in __

Stronger, coordination

50

Cerebellum: essential for __, highly __ muscle movements. And for __ of movement. Makes __ adjustments to movement. ___ __, learns from mistakes

Complex, coordinated
Sequencing, corrective
Muscle memory

51

Basal ganglia include __ __, __, __ __, __ __, and __ nucleus

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Substantia Nigra
Subthalamic nucleus

52

Basal ganglia don't receive input from _ _ but do receive direct input from __ __ via the __

Spinal cord
Cerebral cortex, thalamus

53

Basal ganglia: lesions here produce __ __ and __

Abnormal movement and posture

54


Motor neurons controlling somatic musculature form a column of cells in the __ __ of spinal cord

Ventral horn

55

Interneurons communicating between __ __, descending motor axons from brain, and primary ___ are located __/__ horn unless they supply axial muscles then __ ventral horn

Motor neurons
Affarents, intermediate/lateral
Medial

56

Corticospinal tract
__ cells send signals at __m/sec

Betz, 70

57

Upper motor neurons propagate in __ parts of brain depending on __

Different, tract

58

Memory storage via increased __ of synapses between neurons following previous neural activity

Habituation is what

Sensitivity

How we forget things

59

What is facilitation

What is declarative and skill memory

Keeping memories

Memory of time and place, interactions

Muscle memory

60

Short term memory
Lasts a few __ to __
Reverberating circuit- __ circuit if awareness not __ on it

Seconds, minutes

Lose, focused

61

Intermediate long term memory
Lasts __ to __
Habitiuation: progressive __ __ closure
Facilitation: __ released, activates receptor, activates second messenger __, activates a __ that Inactivates a __ channel in min to weeks, prolonged __ __ with large amounts of __ released

Minutes to weeks
Calcium channel
Serotonin,
Camp, kinase, k
Action potential, calcium

62

Long term memory
__ strengthening
1. Increase in vesicle __ sites for secretion of __
2. Increase in number of __ __ released
3. Increase in number of __ __
4. Changes in structures of __ __ that permit transmission of __ signals
__ of memory

Synaptic
Release, transmitter
Transmitter vesicles
Presynaptic
Dendritic spines, stronger
Consolidation