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Flashcards in Endocrine 2 Deck (57):
1

Growth hormone
Exterts effects __ on almost __ tissues

Increases __ __, __, and __

Directly, all

Cell size, mitosis, differentiation

2

GH
Increases __ __
Increased __ of __ __ for energy
Decreased __ utilization

Protein synthesis
Mobilization, fatty acid
Glucose

3

GH
Enhances body __, uses up __ stores, and conserves __

Protein,
Fat,
Carbs

4

GH
Enhances almost all facets of __ __ uptake and __ synthesis by cells which also reduced the ___ of proteins

Amino acid, protein, breakdown

5

GH protein alteration with __ __ __ has many metabolic actions

Insulin growth factor

6

GH regulation
Peaks when
Drones __% at old age
Stim cased by what: 6

Adolescence
25%
Starvation (esp protein), hypoglycemia/low FA in blood, exercise, excitement, trauma, gherkin hormone secreted before meals by stomach

7

GH reg
Hypothalamus secretes ___ which causes __ __ to make GH
Stomach releases __ which also increases GH

GHRH, pituitary gland
Ghrelin

8

Hypothalamus releases __ which decreases GH output

GHIH/Somatostatin

9

Liver secretes ___ which decreases GH output how

IGF 1, increases GHIH

10

Anti insulin actions: 2

Increased lipolysis

Increased blood sugar (carb metabolism)

11

IGFs by liver has __ actions on skeleton and extraskeletal, what these are

Indirect

Skeletal: inc cartilage and skeletal growth

Extra: inc protein synth, cell growth, proliferation

12

IGFs feedback to __ __ to inhibit __ release and stim ___ release

Overall effect

GHRH, GHGIG, inhibits GH release overall

13

Thyroxine __ %
Triiodothyronine __ %

93
7

14

Most ___ usually converted to ___

Thyroxine, triiodythyronine

15

Triiodothyronine comp to thyroxine: 3 differences

4x as strong
Present in smaller amts
Shorter duration of action

16

Thyroid gland
Lots of __ filled with ___ made of ___

Follicles, colloid, thyroglobulin

17

Thyroid gland
___ contain thyroid hormones
Lined with __ __ cells that secrete into __

Thyroglobulins

Cuboidal epithelial, follicles

18

On entering blood ___% of TH hormones combine w plasma proteins

Proteins synthesized by ___

99

Liver

19

TH
They combine with: 3

Thyroxine binding globulin
Thyroxine binding prealbumin
Albumin

20

TH actions
Receptors attached to __ __ __ or located near them

TH receptor usually forms a __ with __ __ receptor at specific what on dna

DNA genetic strands

Heterodimer, retinoid x

21

Heterodimer binding of TH ___ receptor and initiates __ process
Then large #s of ___ formed then ___ by ribosomes to make new __

Activates, transcription

Mrnas, proteins

22

Thyroid hormones increase __ and __

Trh decreases ___ which decreases __

TRH and TSH

TSH, thyroid hormones

23

Major regulatory step in TH reg

TSH release by anterior pituitary

24

Hypothalamus releases ___ which causes ant pituitary to release ___ which causes thyroid gland to release __ and __

TRH, TSH, T4, T3

25

T4 and T3 reach target tissues, which release what and and how negative feedback works

Releases T3 to target tissues

Releases iodinase which decreases TSH release in ant pituitary through T3

26

Adrenal gland
Has a __ and a __
Medulla makes __

Cortex and medulla
Catecholamines

27

Cortex of adrenal glands makes which 2 major hormones and which minor one

Mineralocorticoids and corticosteroids

Androgenic hormones

28

Main trigger for aldosterone release

Low volume

29

Hypovolemia:
Stim ___ release
Which leads to ____
Which leads to __ rel
Leads to ___ and ___ increase in blood, __ out of blood

Renin
Ang II
Aldosterone
Na and Cl, K back to cell

30

Hyperkalemia:
Leads to ___ release which stim which what

Aldosterone, K back into cell Na back into blood

31

Aldosterone causes __ secreted into tubules in exchange for __ reabsorption into principal cells of renal collecting tubules

K, Na

32

Aldosterone
Causes secretion of __ ions in exchange for sodium in the ___ cells of the __ collecting tubules
This decreases __ concentration in ECF, causing __ __

H, intercalated, cortical

H ion, metabolic alkalosis

33

___ causes release of cortisol. Message comes from ___ r/t stress or circadian rhythm

Its a ___ type of hormone

ACTH
Brain
Catabolic

34

Cortisol feedback:

Long loop negative feedback

35

Cortisol release: circadian and stress: ___ released by hypothalamus. Causes ___ release by ant pituitary. Leads to ___ released by adrenal cortex

CRH
ACTH
Cortisol

36

Cortisol causes what 4 main changes metabolically

Suppresses immune function
Gluconeogenesis in liver
Protein catabolism by muscle
Lipolysis in adipose tissue

37

Cortisol release in blood inhibits __ __ and ___ from releasing ___ hormone

Ant pituitary, hypothalamus

Stimulating

38

How cortisol effects immunity and thermoregulatory centers

Decreases mediators of inflammation
Decreases release of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages (which are the ones that stimulate thermoregulatory centers to cause fever)

39

__-__% of cortisol in plasma binds to plasma proteins

3 proteins it binds to

Half life

90-95%

Cortisol binding globulin, transcortin, to lesser extent albumin

60-90 minutes

40

Aldosterone
__% combines w plasma proteins
Half life

60%
Short, 20 min

41

Aldosterone

How its transported in ECF

Binding of adrenal steroids to plasma proteins serves what purpose

Combined and free forms
(Not all reaches target tissue)

Reservoir to lessen rapid fluctuations in free hormone

42

___% ca ionized, ____% protein bound

50
40

43

Ionized calcium concentration

1.2 mmol/l or 2.4 meq/L

44

Which ca form most important for functions in body (including cardiac, NS, and bone form)

Ionic

45

Calcium drugs are in which form and why

Non ionic in order to cross lipid bilayer of cell membrane

46

Vitamin d converted from ___ in skin to ____ by liver to ___ by kidney

D3, 25, 1,25

47

How vitamin d and calcium linked

Vitamin d helps calcium absorption into intestines

48

PTH effects 3

Causes bone to release Ca
Causes kidneys to conserve Ca
Causes intestines to absorb ca

49

How ca absorbed into intestinal epithelium

Calcium binding protein
Ca stimulated ATPase
Alkaline phosphatase

50

How pth regulates Ca in body (modes) 3

Intestinal reabsorption
Decreases Ca excretion and increases phosphate excretion by kidneys
Causes exchange between ECF and bone of ions

51

Excess activity of PTH causes what

Rapid absorption of ca salts from bones with resultant hypercalcemia in ECF

52

Hypofunction of pth causes what

Hypocalcemia, tetany

53

What is the receptor in parathyroid

Ca sensitive receptor, CaSR

54

Calcitonin
___ hormone secreted by what
Increased what stimulates its release
Opposite effect of what
Role of it is __ than what

Peptide, thyroid gland
Increase plasma Ca conc
PTH
Less than pth

55

ADH
Is a ___
Increases ___ of CD to water
Most water reabsorbed as __ fluid passes ducts
Produces __ urine

Polypeptide
Permeability
Tubular
Concentrated

56

What activates aquaporins, allows what

PKA, allows channel to be permeable to water

57

ADH leads to direct ___ of vessels

What leads to its release

Vasoconstriction

Baroreceptors in brain