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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (46):
1

Thrombosis

Thrombotic event

Formation of an inappropriate clot

Reason for forming a clot other than something from intravascular space moving to extra vascular space

2

Hypoxia vs ischemia

Hypoxia is decreased o2 tension in tissue

Ischemia is decreased o2 tension in vessel

3

Half of blood is what

Plasma

4

Plasma mostly what

7% is what

1% what

Water

Plasma proteins

Solutes

5

Plasma proteins

60%-

35%- and kinds/what they do

4%-

1%

Albumin (oncotic pressure)

Globulins (IGG, IGM, IGA), transfer ions/hormones/lipids/immunity

Fibrinogen, essential clotting factor (I)

Regulatory proteins

6

How much of blood sample is actually blood

What is in Buffy coat/percent

45%

1%, platelets and WBC

7

RBC

__-___ million
____ day life cycle
Shape

4.2-6.2
120
Non-uncleared cytoplasmic disc

8

Leukocytes

Have ___ unlike red cells
___-___ mm3
___ ___ ___ are ___ in structure even though they are immunocytes

Nucleus 5-10,000
Natural killer cells, granular

9

Growth factor that controls process of differentiation

G-CSF

10

PSC releases what for self renewal

Allows it to what

SCF, not rely on environment

11

Where hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis occurs in

Adults

Embryo

Red marrow in bone marrow

Spleen and liver

12

Multi lineage cytokines 3

Single lineage cytokines 3

SCF
GM-CSF
IL-6


G/M-CSF
EPO
TPO

13

Treating with SCF, GM CSF, IL 3, or IL 6 makes a PSC ___ or ___

Myeloid or lymphoid

14

GM CSF, IL 6, IL 3 lead to 3 kinds of stem cells

Granulocytes-macrophage stem cells

Megakaryocytic stem cells

Erythropoietic stem cells

15

GM CSF, G CSF, M CSF lead to 2

Granulocyte stem cells

Monocytic stem cells

16

GM CSF and g CSF LEAD TO 4

Neutrophil
Eosinophils
Basophils/mast cells

17

GM CSF and M CSF lead to 2

Monocytes and macrophages

18

TPO leads to 2

Megakaryocytes and platelets

19

IL 3 and IL 6 lead to 1

Lymphocytes

20

PSC to erythrocyte

1. PSC
2. Add ___
3. Committed proeryhtrocyte
4. Normoblast: ___shrinks/reabsorbed
5. ____: leaves marrow and enters blood. No ___
6. Erythrocyte

EPO

Nucleus

Reticulocyte, nucleus

21

Increase in hemoglobin= decrease in ____

Nucleus

22

Increased reticulocyte % could mean

Destroying cells to quickly

23

Which vitamin plays role in DNA synthesis and maturation. What deficiency leads to

B12, non functional red cells

24

___ ___ needed to make HGB

Amino acids

25

O blood has what on it

Create antibodies against what

H antigen

Blood type that you don't have

26

Which blood type doesn't make antibodies

AB

27

RH - means what
Rh + means what

No d protein
D protein

28

Granulocytes mature where

Agranulocyte mature where

Kinds of a granulocytes:
___ leads to ___. ___ leads to __ and __ cells

Bone marrow

Blood stream

Monocytes, macrophages

Lymphocytes, b and T cells

29

Thrombocytes

7-10 ___ life span

__-___ mm/3

___ can be used to make them, but ___ essential

Day

140,000-340,000

IL6, TPO

30

Platelets have ___ occurring in cell. Why ___ needed

Has ___ granules and ___ granules

Granules contain functional units for __ ___, active units, and ___ factors

Functions, mitochondria

Alpha, dense

Growth factors, clotting factors

31

___ granule release has to occur to form a clot

What layer is called to prevent platelet activation

Alpha

Calyx

32

____ used as indicator in anemia

MCV

33

Aspiration

Doesn't indicate ___ of ___

Can dx 4

Efficiency of activity

Anemia, leukemia, platelet disorders, immunoglobulin disorders

34

Biopsy

Maintains ___ ___

When ___ suggested, ___ marrow, more than 1 __ __ reduced

Cell structure

Tumors, fibrotic, cell type

35

Pets

Blood cell count compared to adults

__ml/kg full term neonate vs ___ml/kg adult

Higher

85 vs 75

36

Aged RBC

Life span:

Replaced more ___ because of ___

WBC

___ function decreases with age, due to 2

Platelets are more ____

Normal

Slowly, iron depletion/less absorp/less binding capacity

Lymphocyte, less T cell function and less responsive humoral system

Sticky

37

Exposure to ___ ___ activates ___

Basement membrane, platelets

38

___ stick to ___, how we get adhesions (platelets sticking to ___)

GP, VWF, wall

39

VWF released from where

Subendothelial matrix

40

Primary hemostasis

2 steps

Platelet plug and vasoconstriction

41

Secondary hemostasis

Why goes on here, ___ activated

Coagulation cascade, Roman numerals/clotting factors

42

___ __ formed at end of secondary hemostasis

Tertiary hemostasis

What happens

Blood clot

Fibrinolysis to break down clot

43

Thrombin starts as ____
Which form in secondary hemostasis, because it is __ by an enzyme

Prothrombin, thrombin, cleaved

44

Need __ __ to make clotting factors

What affects this

What heparin does

Vitamin k

Warfarin

Blocks factor 10, needed to form clots

45

Intrinsic arm 4

Extrinsic arm

Endothelium and subendothelial matrix, platelets, clotting factors

Anything released out of this system. Smooth muscle cell damage

46

___ breaks down ___. Makes ___ which breaks down clot

___ is product of breaking down clot, can be inhibited by ___-1

What shuts down process of plasmin

Tpa, fibrin. Plasmin

FDP, PAI-1

Anti plasmin