Biology Exam Chapter 1&2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Exam Chapter 1&2 Deck (84):
1

Which one of the following statements about brown pelicans is false?a) are scavengers, feeding slowly by skimming up floating remains of fishb) can nest on the ground or in treesc) feed primarily on fishd) were greatly affected by human use of pesticides

Are scavengers, feeding slowly by skimming up floating remains of fish

2

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which one of the following sequences illustrates that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?

Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, population, community, ecosystem

3

The tree in your backyard is home to two cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp's nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all of these organisms represent

A community

4

If you eat a hamburger, you're mainly eating ground up beef muscle. what levels of organization are represented in this ground up muscle?

Organism, population, and community

5

Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false?

Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem

6

The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is

Sunlight

7

A consumer eating a producer represents

A transfer of chemical nutrients and energy

8

Which of the following, if any, is not a common cellular activity?a) cells respond to the environmentb) cells develop and maintain complex organizationc) cells take in and use energyd) cells regulate their internal environmente) all of the choices are common cellular activities

All of the choices are common cellular activities

9

The formation of systems typically results in the appearance of novel characteristics called

Emergent properties

10

Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that

Has a membrane

11

Which of the following is/are properties of life?a) a complex organizationb) the ability to take in energy and use itc) the ability to respond to stimuli from the environmentd) the ability to reproducee) all of the choices are correct

All of the choices

12

Which of the following statements is correct?a) Genes are proteins that produce DNAb) Each organism has its own unique DNA codec) Differences among organisms reflect different nucleotide sequences in their DNAd) Each DNA molecule is a single strand of nucleotides

Differences among organisms reflect different nucleotide sequences in their DNA

13

Which of the following is false? Living systemsa) are composed of two or more cellsb) maintain a relatively consistent internal environmentc) respond to changes in the environmentd) encode their genetic information in DNAe) grow and develop

Are composed of two or more cells

14

Members of the Kingdom Animalia

Are composed of cells that lack a cell wall

15

Organisms that are not prokaryotes are in the domain

Eukarya

16

Which of the following is a kingdom within the Domain Eukarya?

Fungi

17

Organisms belonging to the Kingdom Plantae

are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls

18

Members of the Kingdom Fungi

include the mushrooms and yeasts, and decompose the remains of dead organisms and absorb nutrients from the leftovers

19

Which of the following statements is true of Domain Bacteria?a) All bacteria are "animal-like" in that they eat other organismsb) all bacteria have a membrane-bound nucleusc) all bacteria are multicellular organsimsd) all bacteria lack a nucleuse) all bacteria are "animal-like" in that they eat other organisms and all bacteria have a membrane-bound nucleus

All bacteria lack a nucleus

20

A scientist examining a group of cells under the microscope notices the presence of nuclei within these cells. Chemical tests reveal that each cell is surrounded by a wall composed of cellulose. These cells must come from an organism that is a member of the Kingdom

Plantae

21

Which of the following observations would provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?

They all have the same common ancestor

22

The teeth of grain-eating animals (such as horses) are usually braod and ridged. This makes them suitable for grinding and chewing. Meat-eating animals (such as lions) have pointed teeth that are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. This illustrates

a result of natural selection and the connection between form and function

23

Which one of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's mechanism of natural selection?a) individuals in a population exhibit variations, some of which are heritableb) individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environmentc) factors in the environment result in some organisms with better reproductive success than othersd) natural selection is based in part on the overproduction of offspringe) natural selection can lead to the appearance of new species

Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment

24

Evolution by natural selection relies upona) heritable variationb) overproduction of offspringc) a struggle for existenced) individual variatione) all of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct

25

An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria

to be more resistant to that antibiotic

26

Which of the following is/are true?a) individuals evolveb) organisms evolve structures because of needc) evolution is deliberate and purposefuld) evolution is a passive processe) all of the choices are true

Evolution is a passive process

27

Consider the following statement; "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of

deductive reasoning

28

A hypothesis is

a tentative answer to some question

29

If a light switch is moved from the "off" to the "on" position, then the light will go on. This statementa) is the result of deductive reasoningb) is a conclusionc) can be testedd) can be falsifiede) all of the choices are correct

all of the choices are correct

30

You notice that over the past month, many students have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself, maybe the bookstore recently stated selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is

an example of a hypothesis

31

The role of a control in a experiment is to

provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group

32

To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be

testable and falsifiable

33

A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that

two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable

34

Which of the following best represents an example of technology?a) figuring out what mountain gorillas eatb) sequencing the human genomec) testing for genetic diseasesd) comparing the structure of a human and gorilla arme) identifying the cause of new contagious disease

testing for genetic diseases

35

Added to water in some communities to reduce tooth decay

fluoride

36

commonly added to table salt to prevent the formation of goiters

iodine

37

contains two or more elements in a fixed ratio

compound

38

the nucleus of an atom contains

protons and neutrons

39

electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in the same way that

insects fly around a bright lamp at night

40

the sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, and twelve neutrons. What is the mass number of sodium

23 (electrons + neutrons)

41

the atomic number is

the number of protons in the atom

42

Typically, nitrogen atoms are composed of seven electrons, seven protons, and seven neutrons. An isotope of nitrogen could

have more than seven neutrons

43

can be use in conjunction with PET scans to diagnose a patient

radioactive isotopes

44

When full, the innermost electron shell of an atom contains __________ electrons, and the outermost shell contains _____________ electrons

2 and 8

45

The farther an electron is from the nucleus, the

greater its energy

46

forms when two atoms share electrons

covalent bond

47

what is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding

in covalent bonding, both partners end up with filled outer electron shells, in ionic bonding, one partner captures an electron from the other

48

the oxygen atom of a water molecule

is more electronegative than the hdrogen atoms

49

What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons

12

50

an uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have?

5

51

a hydrogen atom has 1 electron. How many bonds can hydrogen form?

1

52

in a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(n) __________ bond

hydrogen

53

water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its

hydrogen bonds

54

the tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as

cohesion

55

when water dissociates, what is transferred from one water molecule to form a hydronium ion?

OH-

56

Why is biology important to me?

Biology is very important as it strives to tell us about the natural world around us. Biology can tell us about the physical makeup of our bodies, which enables us to develop cures and treatments for many diseases. It can also tell us about the bodies of other animals so we can provide clinical treatments for pets and farm animals.

Biology can also tell us about plants and how they can be beneficial to our bodies. Biology has given us ways to classify different animals and helps us to understand what they [animals] do to help and hurt our planet. Biology can help us know more about the organisms in our bodies. It can also tell us why humans and animals act the way they do. These are just a few reasons why biology is important.

57

a water molecule (H-O-H) is held together by

a single covalent bond

58

weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bridges between molecules

hydrogen bonds

59

the substance that is dissolved in a solution

a solute

60

donate OH- ions to solutions

bases

61

a solution with a pH of 7 is

neutral

62

a base that is used to offset overly acidic conditions in the body

buffer

63

What can each of us do to decrease the production of acid precipitation? We can

a) drive more fuel-efficient automobiles
b) decrease our consumption of coal-generated electricity
c) encourage the use of alternative energy resources such as solar, wind, and geothermal energy
d) whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of driving a car
e) all of the choices are ways to decrease the production of acid precipitation

all of the choices are ways to decrease the production of acid precipitation

64

living organisms are composed of about ____ chemical elemments

25

65

how many naturally occuring elements are there

92

66

the four main elements of the body
(name them and tell the percentage)

CHON
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
96.3%

67

How much sodium do we need?

0.2

68

are essential in minute quantities for proper biological functioning

trace elements

69

smallest unit of an element

atom

70

occupy the central region (nucleus) of an atom

protons and nuetrons

71

has a single positive charge

proton

72

electrically neutral

neutron

73

surrounds the nucleus

electrons

74

single negative charge

electron

75

number of protons; defines the element's unique properties

atomic number

76

an atoms mass number; is the sum of its protons and neutrons

atomic mass

77

atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses (different number of neutrons)

isotopes

78

two major types of chemical bonds between atoms form compounds

ionic and covalent bonds

79

occurs in many biologically important compounds (water, DNA, proteins)

hydrogen bonding

80

explain why ice is less dense than liquid water

because it has fewer molecules in the same volume

81

the solvent of life

water

82

a compound that releases H+ ions in a solution is an

acid

83

a compound that accepts H+ ions in a solution is a

base

84

how is acidity measured on a pH scale?

from 0-14
0 most acidic
14 most basic