Biology Exam Chapters 3&4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Exam Chapters 3&4 Deck (60):
1

Lactose intolerance is the ability to

Digest lactose

2

Lactose intolerance

Does not affect the consumption of beverages made from soy or rice

3

Carbon is able to form an immune diversity of organic molecules because of carbon's
A. Tendency to form covalent bonds
B. ability to bond with up to four other atoms
C. Capacity to form single and double bonds
D. Ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or nub ranches "carbon skeletons"
E. all of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct

4

Organic compounds

Always contain carbon

4

Hydrocarbons
A. Are inorganic compounds
B. are composed of carbon atoms that are attached to hydrogen skeletons
C. Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
D. Consist of atoms linked exclusively by single bonds
E. all of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct

5

You now know that the old cliche "oil and water don't mix" is true. Why?

Water exhibits polarity and oil does not

6

A hydroxyl group is

Characteristics of alcohols

7

Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
A. amino acids
B. fats
C. sugars
D. ATP
E. vinegar

A. Aminio acids

8

The results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by

hydrolysis

9

Which list below consists of only polymers?
A. sugars, amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids
B. proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids
C. proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides
D. proteins, lipids, nucleotides, sugars
E. polysaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acids

C. proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides

10

The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of

CH2O

11

A molecule with the formula C55H110O55 is probably a

polysaccharide

12

Many names for sugars end in the suffix

ose,

13

sucrose is formed

from two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis

14

A disaccharide forms when

two join by dehydration synthesis

15

which of the following list contains only polysaccharides?
A. sucrose, starch, and cellulose
B. starch, amino acids, and glycogen
C. cellulose, starch, and glycogen
D. nucleotides, glycogen, and cellulose
E. fructose, cellulose, and glucose

C. cellulose, starch, and glycogen

16

cellulose differs from starch in that

most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested

17

foods that are high in fiber are most likely derived from

plants

18

the storage from of carbohydrates in animals is ____________ an in plants is _____________

glycogen and starch

19

a diet high in animal products may increase the risk for artherosclerosis. This is because

most animals fats are saturated and most animal products contain high levels of trans fat

20

a triglyceride
A. consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
B. is hydrophobic
C. plays a role in energy storage
D. is a type of fat
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

21

fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be

unsaturated

22

if you want to promote the development of atherosclerotic disease, you would eat a diet high in

saturated fats

23

if you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that

was liquid at room temperature

24

a photolipid is composed of

one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids

25

which of the following substances is not a lipid?
A. wax
B. cholesterol
C. cellulose
D. steroids
E. triglycerides

C. cellulose

26

a major type of lipid found in cell membrane is

phosolipids

27

which of the following statements about waxes is false? Waxes are
A. lipids
B. more hydrophobic than fats
C. used by some insects and plants for protection
D. nonpolar
E. used as a starting material for making steroids

E. used as a starting material for making steroids

28

which of the following statements about anabolic steroids is false? Anabolic steroids
A. cause a general buildup of muscle mass
B. often cause the body to reduce its normal output of sex hormones
C. chemically resemble testosterone
D. promote bone growth
E. can stimulate mood swings and violent behavior

D. promote bone growth

29

which one of the following statements is false? Enzymes
A. increase the rate of chemical reactions
B. function as chemical catalysts
C. regulate virtually all chemical reactions in a cell
D. are produced by cells
E. are monomers used to build proteins

E. are monomers used to build proteins

30

which one of the following is not a type of protein?
A. contractile proteins
B. antibodies
C. enzymes
D. signal proteins
E. All of these are types of proteins

E. All of these are types of proteins

31

amino acids can be distinguished from one another by

the chemical properties of their R groups

32

glucose molecules are to starch as ___________ are to proteins

amino acids

33

peptide bonds

link amino acids

34

which of the following factors can results in the denaturation of a protein?
A. heat
B. changes in pH
C. chemicals that destroy hydrogen binds
D. changes in salt concentration
E. All of the choices can result in the denaturation of a protein

E. All of the choices can result in the denaturati
on of a protein

35

The ______________ structure of a protein consists of a chain of amino acids assembled in a specific order

primary

36

the tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to

the overall three-dimensional structure

37

nucleotides
A. contain nitrogenous bases
B. contain sugar molecules
C. contain phosphate groups
D. can be linked together to form nucleic acids
E. all the choices are correct

E. all the choices are correct

38

DNA differs from RNA because DNA

contains thymine in place of uracil

39

genetic information is encoded in the

sequence of nucleotides in DNA

40

which of the following of these is an amino group?
A. -C=O
B. -OH
C. -NH2
D. -COOH
E. -SH

A. -C=O
C. -NH2

41

fatty acids are

hydrophobic

42

structural proteins

anchor cell parts

43

the primary structure of a protein is

the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide

44

which of these is a difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA contains thymine; RNA contains uracil

45

art is important to biology because

biologists use art to illuminate their findings

46

Light microscopes

Use light and glass lenses to magnify an image

47

Which one of the following statements is true about electron microscopes?

Electron beams are focused to create a magnified image of an object

48

A scientist wants to magnify a pollen grain 8,000 times and examine the ridges and pores on its surface. Which one of the following instruments would be best?

A scanning electron microscope

49

A scientist wants to examine living cells lining the respiratory tract to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from the lungs. Which one of the following instruments would be best, and why?

A light microscope, because it allows observations of whole, live cells

50

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines:

Cell theory

51

The diameter of most animal and plant cells ranges from

10 to 100 microns

52

As cell size increase,the

Volume increases faster than the surface area

53

Which one of the following cells would have the greatest surface to volume ratio?

Bacterium

54

Your throat is dry, and you want the last cough drop in the box to last a long time in your mouth. What should you do?

Keep the cough drop whole. This maintains the largest surface to volume ratio, and slows the dissolution of the cough drop

55

Which one of the following is not found in prokaryotic cells?
A. A membrane bound nucleus
B. pili
C. A cell wall
D. A capsule
E. ribosomes

A membrane bound nucleus

56

The nucleotide region of a prokaryotic cell

Contains the cell's DNA

57

Cells that lack a membrane bound nucleus are ____________ cells

Prokaryotic

58

You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane bound organelles. You conclude that the cells

Are plant cells

59

Which one of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false? Cellular metabolism

Occurs in animal but not plant cells