Block 49,50: GI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 49,50: GI Deck (77)
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1

how can you clinical determine lactose intolerance

1. positive hydrogen breath test
2. positive stool test for reducing substances
3. low stool pH
4. increased stool osmotic gap

2

typical clinical features of Carcinoid syndrome

- episodic flushing
- secretory diarrhea
- wheezing
- murmur of tricuspid regurgitation

3

diagnostic tool for Carcinoid syndrome

elevated 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

4

"pounding" sensation in neck and lower extremity edema is what type of clinical symptoms

flushing

5

First step in management of oropharyngeal dysphagia

videofluoroscopic modified barium swallow
- evaluate swallowing mechanics
- degree of dysfunction
- severity of aspiration

6

what is oropharyngeal dyspagia

difficulty initiating swallowing

7

Spontaneous rupture of esophagus

Boerhaave syndrome

8

X-ray of Boerhaave syndrome

- unilateral pleural effusion with or without penumothorax
- subcutaneous or medatstinal emphysema
- widened medastinum

9

pleural fluid analysis for boerhaave syndrome

- low pH
- high amylase

10

chronic GERD and new dysphagia and symmetric lower esophageal narrowing suggests

esophageal peptic stricture

11

What can cause pellagra

niacin deficiency
- prolonged isoniazid therapy can interfere with niacin metabolism

12

clinical features of pellagra

- dermatitis
- diarrhea
- dementia

13

Niacin can be synthesized endogenously from what

tryptophan

14

Associated skin findings for UC

- erythema nodosum
- pyoderma gangrenosum

15

diagnosis and treatment for Zenker's diverticulum

Contrast esophagram
surgery

16

Most common malignancy of liver

metastasis from another primary source

17

who usually gets hepatic adenoma

- benign liver tumors in young women
- associated with OCP use

18

Diagnosis for esophageal cancer

esophageal endoscopy with biopsy

19

where does esophageal adenocarcinoma occur? Risks for getting it

area of barrett esophagus
- smoking and GERD

20

where does esophageal squamous cell carcinoma occur? risks for it?

- anywhere
- alcohol

21

2 common causes of ascities

1. cirrhosis due to alcoholic liver
2. chronic viral hepatitis

22

who develops hepatic hydrothorax and what is it

- cirrhosis and portal hypertension who have abdominal ascites and peripheral edema
- pleural effusion

23

how are hepatic hydrothorax created

small defects in the diaphragm
- more common on right side due to less muscular hemidiaphragm

24

clinical feature of hepatopulmonary syndrome

- platypnea: increased dyspnea while upright
- orthodeoxia: oxygen desaturation while upright

25

2 causes of acute pancreatitis

gallstones
chronic alcohol abuse

26

first step in diagnosis for gallstone-indueced pancreatitis

abdominal ultrasound

27

patient with acute pancreatitis with no alcohol history and no gallstones presents but had a recent heart cath. had what to cause the acute pancretitis

cholesterol emboli

28

management of uncontrollable cause of acute pancreatitis

supportive care

29

drugs that are most common causes of pill esophagitis

tetracyclines
potassium chloride
bisphosphonates
NSAIDS

30

clinical feature of pill esophagitis

sudden-onset odynophagia and retrosternal pain
- difficult swallowing