Block 61: Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 61: Cardio Deck (33)
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1

Exaggerated fall in systemic blood pressure greater than 10 mm Hg during inspiration

Pulsus Paradoxus

2

when does pulsus paradoxus occur

cardiac tamponade
severe asthma
COPD

3

when does fat embolism occur following an injury

12-24 hours

4

how does patient present with anaphylaxis shock

hypotension
tachycardia
urticarial rash
wheezing
maybe upper airway edema

5

most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in relatively young adults

viral myocarditis

6

what are PE findings that indicated cardiac tamponade

hypotension
tachycardia
distended jugular veins
pulsus paradoxus

7

Mobitz type I AV block

progressive prolongation of PR interval and drop QRS

8

first-degree AV block is

prolonged PR interval

9

initial management of pulmonary hypertension

loop diuretics
ACE inhibitors

10

when is carotid endarterectomy indicated

- symptomatic carotid artery stenosis 70-99%
- men with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60-99%

11

transient loss of consciousness along with loss of postural or motor tone during urination ? what triggers this

situational (postmicturition) syncope
- alteration in autonomic response, lead to cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor or mixed response

12

how do nitrates help the heart

- lower preload
- lower left ventricular end-diastolic vasodilation
- reduce wall stress
-reduce oxygen demand

13

who automatically gets put on statin

diabetic patients age 40-75 years

14

role of fish oil

reduce serum triglycerides

15

initial medical management of patients with acute aortic dissecion

IV beta blockers

16

pulsatile abdominal mall

abdominal aortic aneurysm

17

study of choice for diagnosis and follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysms

Ultrasound

18

patient has systolic-diastolic abdominal bruit, has high specificity for what

reno-vascular hypertension

19

patient with epigastric burning provoked by exertion ( heavy lifting) and relieved over several minutes by rest

atypical angina

20

initial test for suspected stable ischemic heart disease

exercise stress test.

21

what should be obtained in all patients with syncope due to structural heart defect

echocardiogram

22

upright tilt table testing, tests for

vasovagal syncope

23

Dobutamine MOA? effects on heart

strong beta-1 receptor
weak beta-2 and alpha-1

- increase myocardial contractility, better EF
- reduced left ventricular end-sysolic volume
- symptomatic improvement of decompensated CHF

24

electrical alternans (varying amplitude of QRS complexes) with sinus tachycardia is ? treatment?

large pericardial effusion
- pericardiocentesis

25

when is primary percutaneous coronary intervention PCI recommended

within 90 mins.
but can be done 12 hours within onset

26

treatment for acute pericarditis

NSAID

27

renovascular hypertension should be suspected in all patients with resistant hypertension and

1. diffuse atherosclerosis
2. asymmetric kidney size
3. recurrent flash pulmonary edema
4. increase in creatinine great than 30%

28

aortic regurgitation murmur

- high-pitched, blowing
- decrescendo diastolic murmur, begins after A2
- left sternal border between 3rd and 4th intercostal space

29

what type of murmurs are usually due to underlying pathologic cuases

diastolic and continuous

30

treatment for heart block

pacemaker