Block 58: Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 58: Cardio Deck (50)
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1

Intermittent claudication and positive ankle-brachial index indicates what disease

peripheral arterial disease

2

most useful intervention to improve functional capacity and reduce claudication in PAD patients

supervised graded exercise program

3

what medications can you start with a patient with peripheral artery disease

aspirin and statin

4

when does ventricular aneurysm occur in MI ? EKG show?

Late complication
- persistent ST-segment elevation along with deep Q waves

5

when does papillary muscle rupture occur after an MI

2-7 days post MI

6

important factors in improving patient survival in sudden cardiac arrest ar

- adequate bystander compression only CPR
- prompt rhythm analysis
- defibrillation

7

most common cause of mitral regurgitation in developed countries

Mitral valve prolapse

8

Displaced apical impulse, holosystolic murmur and 3rd heart sound, diagnosis

severe mitral regurgitation

9

what does mild mitral regurgitation cause

mid-systolic click
mid-to-late systolic murmur

10

what does severe mitral regurgitation cause

holosystolic murmur

11

what does chronic severe mitral regurgitation cause

- left arterial and ventricular enlargement leading to a-fib
- left ventricular dysfunction
- CHF

12

transient loss of consciousness accompanied by loss of postural or motor tone with a spontaneous return to baseline neurologic function

syncope

13

orthostatic (postural) hypotension

dpop in systolic blood pressure greater than 20 or diastolic greater than 10 within 2-5 min of standing from a supine position

14

Difference between arrhythmic cause of syncope and vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope

- arrhythmic: no prodromal

15

immediate effects of cocaine on the heart

sympathomimetic
- hypertension
- tachycardia
- pupillary dilation
- psychomotor agitation

16

doing cocaine puts at risk for

causes coronary vasoconstriction
promotes thrombus formation
increases risk of MI and infarction

17

EKG for acute pericarditis

diffuse ST-segment elevation
PR-segment depression

18

intermittent claudication, diminished pulses and abnormal (<1) ankle brachial index suggests

peripheral artery disease

19

what is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with peripheral artery disease

cardiovascular disease

20

RA pressure
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
Cardiac index ( pump function)
Systemic vascular resistance
Mixed venous oxygen saturation

cardiogenic shock

RA: increased
PCWP: Increased
CI: Decrease decease
SVR: Increase
MvO2: decrease

21

RA pressure
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
Cardiac index ( pump function)
Systemic vascular resistance
Mixed venous oxygen saturation

hypovolemic shock

RA: decrease
PCWP: decrease
CI: decrease
SVR: increase
MvO2: decrease

22

RA pressure
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
Cardiac index ( pump function)
Systemic vascular resistance
Mixed venous oxygen saturation

septic shock

RA: normal or decrease
PCEP: normal or decrease
CI: increase
SVR: decrease
MvO2: increase

23

how does CHF impact kidney

preferential vasoconstriction of efferent renal arterioles which increases intraglomerular pressure in order to maintain adequate glomerular filtration rate

24

wide-complex tachycardia with 2 fusion beats is diagnostic for

sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia

25

treatment for sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia

IV amiodarone

26

carotid sinus massage is useful vagal maneuver to terminate

paroxysmal supra ventricular tachycardia

27

what is esmolol and what is it used for

ultra-short-acting beta blocker
- rapid rate control in atrial flutter or fibrillation

28

symptomatic sinus bradycardia should be treated how? patients with inadequate response with sinus bradycardia should further be treated with

IV atropine
- IV epinephrine and dopamine or transcutaneous pacing

29

Holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex with radiation to the axilla

mitral regurgitation

30

how does inelastic pericardium cause right sided heart failure

prevents venous return to the right heart during inspiration