Block 59, 60: Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 59, 60: Cardio Deck (50)
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1

what drugs should be withheld for at least 48 hours prior to cardiac testing? when should you not withhold 48 hours prior?

beta blockers
calcium channel blockers
nitrates

CAD is present

2

how do you screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm

- male active or former smokes ages 65-75 with one-time US

3

what has a high sensitivity for diagnosis for CHF

brain natriuretic peptide
BNP

4

What improves cardiovascular and overall long-term mortality in patients with ST-elevation MI

restoration of coronary blood with primary percutaneous intervention or fibrinolysis

5

Patients with persistent tachyarrythmia ( narrow - or wide-complex) causing hemodynamic instability should be managed how

immediate synchronized cardioversion

6

what is a regular-narrow-complex tachycardia called

supraventricular tachycardia

7

what is cor pulmonale

impaired function of the right ventricle due to pulmonary hypertension, usually due to chronic lung disease

8

long-term tobacco use, chronic cough, barrel-shaped chest, elevated jugular venous pressure, and enlarged liver

COPD with cor pulmonale

9

S4 sound indicates

left ventricular hypertrophy from prolonged hypertension

10

what nonpharmacologic interventions has greatest impact on high blood pressure

DASH diet

11

when do you use an Holter monitor

oupatient, identify intermittent arrhythmias in patients with symptoms

12

how are patients with persistent symptomatic PACS be managed

low-dose beta blocker

13

what is the most common primary cardiac tumor? where is it mostly located

Myxomas
left atrium

14

3 types of clinical features of cardiac myxoma

- constitutional
- cardiovascular
-embolization

15

what electrolyte abnormalities in CHF patients parallels the severity of heart failure

Hyponatremia

16

what heart arrhythmias is specific for digtialis toxcity

atrial tachycardia with AV block

17

clinical features of cyanide toxicity

- altered mental status
- lactic acidosis
- seizures
- coma

18

when does seizure occur in alcohol withdrawl

12-48 hours

19

what can norepinephrine do to the fingers/toes

ischemia of distal fingers and toes secondary to vasospasm

20

young patient from a developing country, has progressive dyspnea, nocturnal cough, and hemoptysis has

rheumatic

21

abdominal pain and nausea/vomiting are atypical presentations of what

acute coronary syndrome

22

who are more likely to have atypical symptoms of acute coronary artery disease

women
elderly
diabetics

23

what is the mainstay therapy in patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy

complete cessation of alcohol

24

main reason for orthostatic hypotension in elderly

decreasing baroreceptors sensitivity and defects in myocardial response to this reflex

25

patient with muscle weakness, recurrent nephrolithiasis, neuropsychtiatric symptoms, hypercalcemia

primary hyperparathyroidism

26

significant hypertension with primary hyperparathyroidism suggests a possbile

multiple endocrine neoplasma MEN 2
with pheochromocytoma

27

what are some studies you can do for venous thrombosis

D-dimer levels
venous doppler study

28

management of acute limb ischemia after MI with possible arerial embolus from LV thrombus

1. anticoagulation
2. vascular surgery consultation
4. TEE

29

Cutaneous flushing and intensive generalized pruritus are well known side effects of what? why? antidote?

niacin: prostaglandin-induced peripheral vasodilation
- low dose aspirin

30

why do you do adrenal veins sampling

differentiates between adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma , both are causes of primary hyperaldosteronism