Block 54, 55: Lung Flashcards Preview

Uworld Step 2 > Block 54, 55: Lung > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 54, 55: Lung Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1

Causes of hypoxemia?

- reduced inspired oxygen tension
- hypoventilation
- diffusion limitation
- shunt
- V/Q mismatch

2

what is hypoventilation associated

- respiratory acidosis
- normal A-a gradient

3

what is normal A-a gradiant

less than 15

4

equation for A-a gradient

PAO2 - PaO2

PAO2 = 170 - (CO2/.8)

5

what should you worry about a COPD patient given supplemntal oxygen

improves hypoxia but causes CO2 retention

6

hypercapnea causes what in the brain

reflex cerebral vasodilation

7

what clinical feature makes pericarditis feel better for aptient

leaning forward

8

flow-volume curve for fixed upper-airway obstruction

flattening the top and bottom of curve

9

how might an immunocompetent patient get aspergilus

history of pulmonary disease

10

what does CT show for aspergilloma

- cavitary lesion
- pulmonary nodules with surrounding ground-glass opacities ("halo sign")

11

equation for ventilaiton

respiratory rate times tidal volume

12

what metabolic disturbance causes hyperventilation

respiratory alkalosis

13

when do you use incentive spirometry

prevent atelectasis in bed-bound patients

14

most common acid-base disturbance in pulmonary embolism? why?

respiratory alkalosis
- because patient hyperventilates due to decrease O2 and the V/Q mismatch

15

Asbestos exposure increases the risk of what

pulmonary fibrosis and malignancy

16

most common cause of malignancy diagnosed in patients with exposed to asbestos

Bronchogenic carcinoma

17

occupations related to asbestosis exposure

plumber
electrician
carpenter
pipefitters
insulation workers

18

PE exam for asbestosis

bibasilar, end-inspiratory crackles
fingernail clubbing

19

X-ray for asbestosis

babasilar reticulonodular infiltrates
honeycombing
bilateral pleural thickening

20

CT of asbestosis

subplerual linear densities
parenchymal fibrosis
- Plreural plaques are key for asbestosis

21

pulmonary fibrosis does what to forced expiratory volume in 1 second/ forced vital capacity ratio

preserved for increased

22

first-line treatment for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction if only required few times a week?
exercise daily?

short-acting beta-adrenergic agonist
10-20 min before exercise
Daily exercise: inhaled corticosteriods or antileukotriene agents

23

all patients with acute exacerbation of COPD should receive

- inhaled bronchodialater ( B2 agonist and anticholinergic)
- systemic glucocorticoids

24

what is the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in interstitial lung disease?

decreased but normal in extrinsic causes of restrictive pulmonary physiology

25

what are side effects of beta-2 agonists

- hypokalemia ( muscle weakness, arrhthymias, EGK abnormalities)
- tremor
- palpitations
- headache

26

Diagnose asthma in an adult

- reversible airway obstruction ( 12% or more increase in FEV1)
- normal diffusion capacity for CO

27

complications of positive pressure ventillation

- alveolar damage
- pneumothorax
- hypotension

28

best step in management for hyponatermia due to SIADH

Fluid restriction

29

common complication of small cell lung cancer

hyponetremia due to SIADH

30

what lung cancer is the most common cause of SAIDH

small cell lung cancer