Flashcards in Ch 27-28 Deck (199):
How did the treaty of Versailles punish Germany?
-limited German military
In 1931, Japan invaded __________ for its natural resources
Japan dropped out of the _____________ and avoided treaties
League of Nations
Who came to power in Italy?
What did Mussolini seek for Italy?
Imperialism (Mediterranean), to revive roman greatness
Who rose to power during the Spanish Civil War?
What countries sent supplies to Spain in support of Francisco Franco?
Germany and Italy
This painting was inspired by the Spanish Civil War, it depicted the destruction of war
Who painted Guernica?
Demilitarized zone between France and Germany, Hitler began to re-arm it and send troops there in 1936
What did Hitler think was happening to Germans in other countries?
They were being mistreated, he said he would do what he could to liberate them
In September of 1938 Hitler took ____________ without firing a single shot
This was the border of Germany and Czechoslovakia. Hitler eventually sent his eyes on it.
Pact between Great Britain, France, and Germany. Hitler agreed to keep the land he had without taking more.
Who was the British Prime Minister that appeased hitler in the agreement of the Munich Pact?
How long was it until hitler broke the terms of the Munich Pact?
Hitler broke the Munich Pact by taking the rest of ___________. This was the final step before war.
Chinese was in a ____________ when Japan overtook it in 1937
What did the Neutrality Acts say?
-US citizens shouldn't travel on ships of warning nations
- Forbid loans and sales of war goods to nations at war
This was created to investigate the causes of WWI.
What did the Nye Committee blame for WWI?
Merchants of Death (banks and ammunition factories)
At the begging of WWII America and FDR pushed for....
This was a group that wanted to do more to keep the United States out of war. They didn't like the increase in wartime spending or the peacetime draft.
America First Committee
FDR got around the neutrality acts by implementing a _____________ to aid allies.
Cash and Carry Policy
Who made up the axis powers?
Germany, Italy, and Japan
This was signed between the Soviets and Germany so Germany could avoid a two front war.
The war began with Hitlers invasion of _________
Hitlers method in running over all of Europe- lightning warfare
In the blitzkrieg method, Hitler used the ___________ to clear the path for tanks.
What is the German name for Air Force?
Hitler knew WWII would be a war of _____________
Frances original plan of defense was inspired by _______________ of WWI
This was the French system of defense that spanned French and German borders
Why was the Maginot Line ineffective?
German troops just went through Belgium and through Paris to overrun France
This was a port towns along the English Channel where British and French soldiers were held
This was an arial assault on England where German plains bombed military targets and eventually civilian centers
The Battle of Britain
What was the Battle of Britain also known as?
This was the name of the British Air Force. Some Americans even volunteered for them
The Royal Air Force
What did the RAF use to foresee German planes and meet them in battle?
Prime Minister of Great Britain after Neville Chamberlain.
How did the Blitz affect the UK?
Trouble meeting production needs, desperately in need of war materials
This act repealed the cash and carry policy. It made it easier for allies to get supplies that they needed.
Lend Lease Act
Why did Hitler invade Russia in 1941?
What were the Russians plan of attack against Germany?
Don't fight back until German troops were deep into Russia
Where was the turning point of the German campaign in Russia? This is when Russia began fighting back
Where did Japan invade to expand into the pacific?
Who were the big three?
Stalin, Churchill, and FDR
Was the United States closer to Russia or the UK?
Where did US troops first fight Germans?
Where did Stalin want US troops to first fight Germans?
The main American General who fought in North Africa
Who was the main German General fighting in North Africa
What was General Romal's also known as?
The desert fox
This was the turning point in North Africa. German troops tried to head toward Egypt in pursuit of oil fields but were repelled by American and British troops.
Battle of El Alamein
US troops fighting in Germany were under command of ___________.
Mussolini was eventually captured and _________.
D-day took place on the beaches of ___________
D-day was also known as ____________
Who was the commander in D-day?
Dwight D Eisenhower
Hitler tried to defend paris by building the _______
This was a Germany's last offensive counterattack
Battle of the Bulge
Where did The Battle of the Bulge take place?
War ended in Europe on __________
What day did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
This ship still rests at the bottom of Pearl Harbor.
These were the first air race strikes against Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Doolittle Raids were more of a _______ victory than a military victory , for little damage was done on Japan
Thousands of American and Filipino soldiers were marched dozens of miles without food or water in the ___________
Bataan Death March
This was the US plan of attack against Japan
This battle marked the turning point in the pacific front. Dissolved the threat of Japanese attack on US mainland.
USA had been almost sure that Japan was planning an attack on _________
This General returned to take back the Philippines, he continued the strategy of island hopping
General Douglas McArthur
As the US continued its strategy of island hopping, the found it very ________ to get the Japanese out of the islands
The US famously raised a flag on _________
Where was Mt Suribachi located?
Where did the US move onto after Iwo Jima?
Japanese pilots that would fly planes loaded with bombs into ships
This was the United States project to create three atomic bombs
The Manhattan Project
Where was the first atomic bomb successfully tested?
Los Alamos, New Mexico
Who replaced FDR after his death?
What was Truman's final decision on dropping the atomic bombs?
He wanted to end the war as soon as possible- gave an okay
What was the name of the B-29 that delivered the first bomb on Hiroshima?
The Enola Gay
Who was the pilot of the Enola Gay?
What was the bomb dropped on Hiroshima nicknamed?
Where was the final atomic bomb delivered?
What was the name of the bomb delivered on Nagasaki?
How did the Japanese military and government react to the bombing on Nagasaki?
They agreed to end the war
Victory over Japan day is known as____
Where was the agreement to end war with Japan signed?
Who accepted Japanese signatures aboard the USS Missouri?
General Douglas Mccarthur
____________ took place of drafted men in factories
Women and minorities
Americans had to use _________ to make purchases
Half of the money to fight in the war was borrowed the other half was raised through _________
WWII saw a mass migration if ________ to the north to take factory jobs
Blacks and Whites served in __________ units
What battle did most African Americans actually see battle?
Battle of the Bulge
What unit of the military did most blacks see battle?
African Americans were fighting a ___________ because they were fighting abroad and at home for civil rights
They banned unfair employment in the war industry therefore increasing African American employment
Fair Employment Practice Committee
These were created for Japanese Americans after Pearl Harbor
Most of the Japanese prisoners were ___________
What were Japanese told was the reason for the camps?
Their safety, Americans may retaliate at them
What was the real reason for the camps?
US feared Japanese spies
This was an all Japanese unit who fought for the US in WWII
What was the 442nd nicknamed?
When did the attack on Jews in Germany begin? Germans attacked synagogues and Jewish businesses
________ against Jews convinced Germans that they could not be trusted
What was hitlers final solution for the destruction if Jews?
Death and Internment Camps
Parts of cities that were walled off, heat and electricity was cut off. The people were left to starve
What did the big three decide at Yalta?
-put Japanese and German leaders on trial for war crimes
-divide Germany into 4 sectors to try to rebuild it
What was decided at Potsdam?
-take reparations from sides each country controlled
-Japan needs to surrender or suffer prompt and abrupt destruction
Who was replaced at Potsdam?
FDR and Churchill
This pact outlawed war, signed by the US, France, and 12 other nations
Kellog Briand Pact
This statement repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary
This policy declared the United States to be cooperative with Latin America
Good Neighbor Policy
Why was Japan determined to expand into Asia?
They lacked natural resources
This was the first attempt for the settlement of the situation in Asia
Washington Disarmament Conference
This treaty limited capital ships
Five power treaty
This treaty said all countries must uphold the open door policy
Nine power treaty
This treaty replaced the Anglo Japanese alliance with a new pacific security act
4 Power treaty
The National Socialist party in Germany was also known as the ______
The Axis alliance was aimed towards the ______
The ________ movement swept college campuses
Who did Roosevelt run against in 1940?
The Soviet Union dominated the _______ block of Europe
The US dominated the _______ block of Europe
This was the idea that the US would do everything in its power to keep communism from spreading
Who developed the idea of containment?
Who said that an iron curtain had descended upon Europe?
The United States and Soviets were in an _______ race
The Soviet Union was set in developing ______ weapons
The United States _________ defense spending
Both the Soviets and the US were set on creating a __________ bomb, which was supposed to be much stronger than an atomic bomb
_____________ were found guilty of giving weapon secrets to soviets and executed
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Where Truman obtained a huge sum of money to give to Greece and Turkey to help against communist advances
What did the National Security Act create?
- Department of Defense
- Secretary of Defense
- National Security Council
What does the National Security Council do?
Advise the president on security issues
This advocated a massive expansion of the military
What wing of the military did most money go to?
This plan named after the SOS gave relief to nations devastated by WWII, even the Soviet Union
How did Stalin Respond to the Marshall Plan?
He denied any aid
What was the main soviet response to Americans containment policy?
How did Truman help the people in Berlin?
Organized a massive air lift
What happened to the Chinese Civil war after WWII?
It flared back up
Which Chinese leader had US support?
Chiang Kai Shek
Who was the communist leader in china?
Who gained control of China?
Who led the second red scare?
Mccarthey was the senator of _________
This committee tried to look for spies in the US
House Un-American Activities Committee
The formation of _________ formed a new alliance system with countries looking for collective security. Expanded the us atomic bomb shield to other countries
National Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
This created the Soviet Union alliance system. Result of the creation of NATO
Did the SU actually have any interest in spreading communism west?
The Korean War was also known as ________
The Forgotten War
What was the communist side of Korea?
Who lead North Korea?
Kim II Sung
Who lead the democratic South Korea?
What triggered the Korean War?
North Korea invades South without warning
What line divided N and S Korea?
The South Korean Capitol of ________ fell quickly to North Korea
Who led the defense of South Korea?
McArthur and NATO
NATO forces led a charge out of Pusan to invade _______, largest attack since D-day
The invasion of Inchon was ___________
Border between China and North Korea
Why did the Chinese launch a counterattack?
South Korea had pushed North Korean forces too close to the Yalu River
The Chinese drove _______ passed the 38th parallel and took control of Seoul again
What did McArthur suggest to Truman?
Drop atomic bombs through china
How did Truman respond to Mccarthurs proposition?
He said no and fired him
Mccarthur returned from Korean War a ________
The Korean War ended with a ________ at the 38th parallel
Who was the republican candidate in the election of 1952?
Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1952?
Who won the election of 52?
What campaign did Eisenhower run on?
Ending war in Korea and Communism
Who signed the armistice the ended conflict in Korea
What was the biggest affect of the Korean War?
Massive American Re-armament
As he left office, what did Eisenhower warn about?
Military industrial complex (money being spent on military)
The first satellite launched into space. Launched by the Russians
Sputnik created a fear that Soviets would develop ________
International Ballistic Missiles
How did congress react to Sputnik?
Increase education spending, especially in math and science
He succeeded Stalin as the Soviet leader, he warned US that he would crush us
US was flying _____ planes over Russia
What plane was shot down by soviet missiles ?
U-2 spy plane
Who was the pilot of the U-2 plane?
Colonel Francis Gary Powers
Powers was put on trial for______
Eisenhower at first _______ using planes for espionage
Idea created by Eisenhower's SOS the we would use any measure necessary to keep US interests safe, even atomic warfare
Who created the policy of massive retaliation?
John Foster Dollos
What was the name for the soviet army?
How did the Soviets learn about the Manhattan project during WWII?
How did the soviets react to the Manhattan Project?
They started their own nuclear program
This was the US's plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons
The United States wanted ___________ of nuclear weapons
Inspection and control
The Soviets wanted __________ of nuclear weapons
Who was Marshall's undersecretary of state?
Who headed the policy planning staff?
This was a defense treaty signed by England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
This was a broader defense treaty signed by the US, Canada, and 10 European nations. It signified the US's departure from isolationism
North Atlantic treaty