Ch 27-28 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 27-28 Deck (199):
0

How did the treaty of Versailles punish Germany?

-reparations
-redistributed land
-limited German military

1

In 1931, Japan invaded __________ for its natural resources

Manchuria

2

Japan dropped out of the _____________ and avoided treaties

League of Nations

3

Who came to power in Italy?

Benito Mussolini

4

What did Mussolini seek for Italy?

Imperialism (Mediterranean), to revive roman greatness

5

Who rose to power during the Spanish Civil War?

Francisco Franco

6

What countries sent supplies to Spain in support of Francisco Franco?

Germany and Italy

7

This painting was inspired by the Spanish Civil War, it depicted the destruction of war

Guernica

8

Who painted Guernica?

Pablo Picasso

9

Demilitarized zone between France and Germany, Hitler began to re-arm it and send troops there in 1936

Rhineland

10

What did Hitler think was happening to Germans in other countries?

They were being mistreated, he said he would do what he could to liberate them

11

In September of 1938 Hitler took ____________ without firing a single shot

Austria

12

This was the border of Germany and Czechoslovakia. Hitler eventually sent his eyes on it.

Sudetenland

13

Pact between Great Britain, France, and Germany. Hitler agreed to keep the land he had without taking more.

Munich Pact

14

Who was the British Prime Minister that appeased hitler in the agreement of the Munich Pact?

Neville Chamberlain

15

How long was it until hitler broke the terms of the Munich Pact?

6 months

16

Hitler broke the Munich Pact by taking the rest of ___________. This was the final step before war.

Czechoslovakia

17

Chinese was in a ____________ when Japan overtook it in 1937

Civil War

18

What did the Neutrality Acts say?

-US citizens shouldn't travel on ships of warning nations
- Forbid loans and sales of war goods to nations at war

19

This was created to investigate the causes of WWI.

Nye Committee

20

What did the Nye Committee blame for WWI?

Merchants of Death (banks and ammunition factories)

21

At the begging of WWII America and FDR pushed for....

Neutrality

22

This was a group that wanted to do more to keep the United States out of war. They didn't like the increase in wartime spending or the peacetime draft.

America First Committee

23

FDR got around the neutrality acts by implementing a _____________ to aid allies.

Cash and Carry Policy

24

Who made up the axis powers?

Germany, Italy, and Japan

25

This was signed between the Soviets and Germany so Germany could avoid a two front war.

Non-Aggression Pact

26

The war began with Hitlers invasion of _________

Poland

27

Hitlers method in running over all of Europe- lightning warfare

Blitzkrieg

28

In the blitzkrieg method, Hitler used the ___________ to clear the path for tanks.

Air Force

29

What is the German name for Air Force?

Luftwaffe

30

Hitler knew WWII would be a war of _____________

Movement

31

Frances original plan of defense was inspired by _______________ of WWI

Trench warfare

32

This was the French system of defense that spanned French and German borders

Maginot Line

33

Why was the Maginot Line ineffective?

German troops just went through Belgium and through Paris to overrun France

34

This was a port towns along the English Channel where British and French soldiers were held

Dunkirk

35

This was an arial assault on England where German plains bombed military targets and eventually civilian centers

The Battle of Britain

36

What was the Battle of Britain also known as?

The blitz

37

This was the name of the British Air Force. Some Americans even volunteered for them

The Royal Air Force

38

What did the RAF use to foresee German planes and meet them in battle?

Radar

39

Prime Minister of Great Britain after Neville Chamberlain.

Winston Churchill

40

How did the Blitz affect the UK?

Trouble meeting production needs, desperately in need of war materials

41

This act repealed the cash and carry policy. It made it easier for allies to get supplies that they needed.

Lend Lease Act

42

Why did Hitler invade Russia in 1941?

Natural Resources

43

What were the Russians plan of attack against Germany?

Don't fight back until German troops were deep into Russia

44

Where was the turning point of the German campaign in Russia? This is when Russia began fighting back

Stalingrad

45

Where did Japan invade to expand into the pacific?

Pearl Harbor

46

Who were the big three?

Stalin, Churchill, and FDR

47

Was the United States closer to Russia or the UK?

UK

48

Where did US troops first fight Germans?

North Africa

49

Where did Stalin want US troops to first fight Germans?

Europe

50

The main American General who fought in North Africa

General Montgomery

51

Who was the main German General fighting in North Africa

General Romal

52

What was General Romal's also known as?

The desert fox

53

This was the turning point in North Africa. German troops tried to head toward Egypt in pursuit of oil fields but were repelled by American and British troops.

Battle of El Alamein

54

US troops fighting in Germany were under command of ___________.

General George

55

Mussolini was eventually captured and _________.

Executed

56

D-day took place on the beaches of ___________

Normandy

57

D-day was also known as ____________

Operation overlord

58

Who was the commander in D-day?

Dwight D Eisenhower

59

Hitler tried to defend paris by building the _______

Atlantic Wall

60

This was a Germany's last offensive counterattack

Battle of the Bulge

61

Where did The Battle of the Bulge take place?

Belgium

62

War ended in Europe on __________

V-E Day

63

What day did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

December 7, 1941

64

This ship still rests at the bottom of Pearl Harbor.

USS Arizona

65

These were the first air race strikes against Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Doolittle Raids

66

The Doolittle Raids were more of a _______ victory than a military victory , for little damage was done on Japan

Moral

67

Thousands of American and Filipino soldiers were marched dozens of miles without food or water in the ___________

Bataan Death March

68

This was the US plan of attack against Japan

Island Hopping

69

This battle marked the turning point in the pacific front. Dissolved the threat of Japanese attack on US mainland.

Midway Island

70

USA had been almost sure that Japan was planning an attack on _________

California

71

This General returned to take back the Philippines, he continued the strategy of island hopping

General Douglas McArthur

72

As the US continued its strategy of island hopping, the found it very ________ to get the Japanese out of the islands

Hard

73

The US famously raised a flag on _________

Mt Suribachi

74

Where was Mt Suribachi located?

Iwo Jima

75

Where did the US move onto after Iwo Jima?

Okinawa

76

Japanese pilots that would fly planes loaded with bombs into ships

Kamikazes

77

This was the United States project to create three atomic bombs

The Manhattan Project

78

Where was the first atomic bomb successfully tested?

Los Alamos, New Mexico

79

Who replaced FDR after his death?

President Truman

80

What was Truman's final decision on dropping the atomic bombs?

He wanted to end the war as soon as possible- gave an okay

81

What was the name of the B-29 that delivered the first bomb on Hiroshima?

The Enola Gay

82

Who was the pilot of the Enola Gay?

Paul Tibetts

83

What was the bomb dropped on Hiroshima nicknamed?

Little Boy

84

Where was the final atomic bomb delivered?

Nagasaki

85

What was the name of the bomb delivered on Nagasaki?

Fat man

86

How did the Japanese military and government react to the bombing on Nagasaki?

They agreed to end the war

87

Victory over Japan day is known as____

V-J day

88

Where was the agreement to end war with Japan signed?

USS Missouri

89

Who accepted Japanese signatures aboard the USS Missouri?

General Douglas Mccarthur

90

____________ took place of drafted men in factories

Women and minorities

91

Americans had to use _________ to make purchases

Ration books

92

Half of the money to fight in the war was borrowed the other half was raised through _________

Taxes

93

WWII saw a mass migration if ________ to the north to take factory jobs

African Americans

94

Blacks and Whites served in __________ units

Segregated

95

What battle did most African Americans actually see battle?

Battle of the Bulge

96

What unit of the military did most blacks see battle?

Air Force

97

African Americans were fighting a ___________ because they were fighting abroad and at home for civil rights

Double V

98

They banned unfair employment in the war industry therefore increasing African American employment

Fair Employment Practice Committee

99

These were created for Japanese Americans after Pearl Harbor

Internment camps

100

Most of the Japanese prisoners were ___________

American Born

101

What were Japanese told was the reason for the camps?

Their safety, Americans may retaliate at them

102

What was the real reason for the camps?

US feared Japanese spies

103

This was an all Japanese unit who fought for the US in WWII

442nd

104

What was the 442nd nicknamed?

Gopher Broke

105

When did the attack on Jews in Germany begin? Germans attacked synagogues and Jewish businesses

Krestalnaiht

106

________ against Jews convinced Germans that they could not be trusted

Propaganda

107

What was hitlers final solution for the destruction if Jews?

Death and Internment Camps

108

Parts of cities that were walled off, heat and electricity was cut off. The people were left to starve

Ghettos

109

What did the big three decide at Yalta?

-put Japanese and German leaders on trial for war crimes
-divide Germany into 4 sectors to try to rebuild it

110

What was decided at Potsdam?

-take reparations from sides each country controlled
-Japan needs to surrender or suffer prompt and abrupt destruction

111

Who was replaced at Potsdam?

FDR and Churchill

112

This pact outlawed war, signed by the US, France, and 12 other nations

Kellog Briand Pact

113

This statement repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary

Clark Memorandum

114

This policy declared the United States to be cooperative with Latin America

Good Neighbor Policy

115

Why was Japan determined to expand into Asia?

They lacked natural resources

116

This was the first attempt for the settlement of the situation in Asia

Washington Disarmament Conference

117

This treaty limited capital ships

Five power treaty

118

This treaty said all countries must uphold the open door policy

Nine power treaty

119

This treaty replaced the Anglo Japanese alliance with a new pacific security act

4 Power treaty

120

The National Socialist party in Germany was also known as the ______

Nazis

121

The Axis alliance was aimed towards the ______

Soviets

122

The ________ movement swept college campuses

Pacifism

123

Who did Roosevelt run against in 1940?

Wendell Wilkie

124

The Soviet Union dominated the _______ block of Europe

Eastern

125

The US dominated the _______ block of Europe

Western

126

This was the idea that the US would do everything in its power to keep communism from spreading

Containment

127

Who developed the idea of containment?

George Keenan

128

Who said that an iron curtain had descended upon Europe?

Winston Churchill

129

The United States and Soviets were in an _______ race

Arms

130

The Soviet Union was set in developing ______ weapons

Atomic

131

The United States _________ defense spending

Increased

132

Both the Soviets and the US were set on creating a __________ bomb, which was supposed to be much stronger than an atomic bomb

Hydrogen

133

_____________ were found guilty of giving weapon secrets to soviets and executed

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

134

Where Truman obtained a huge sum of money to give to Greece and Turkey to help against communist advances

Truman Doctrine

135

What did the National Security Act create?

- Department of Defense
- Secretary of Defense
- CIA
- National Security Council

136

What does the National Security Council do?

Advise the president on security issues

137

This advocated a massive expansion of the military

NSC-68

138

What wing of the military did most money go to?

Air Force

139

This plan named after the SOS gave relief to nations devastated by WWII, even the Soviet Union

Marshall Plan

140

How did Stalin Respond to the Marshall Plan?

He denied any aid

141

What was the main soviet response to Americans containment policy?

Berlin Blockade

142

How did Truman help the people in Berlin?

Organized a massive air lift

143

What happened to the Chinese Civil war after WWII?

It flared back up

144

Which Chinese leader had US support?

Chiang Kai Shek

145

Who was the communist leader in china?

Mao Zedong

146

Who gained control of China?

Mao Zedong

147

Who led the second red scare?

Joseph Mccarthey

148

Mccarthey was the senator of _________

Wisconsin

149

This committee tried to look for spies in the US

House Un-American Activities Committee

150

The formation of _________ formed a new alliance system with countries looking for collective security. Expanded the us atomic bomb shield to other countries

National Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

151

This created the Soviet Union alliance system. Result of the creation of NATO

Warsaw Pact

152

Did the SU actually have any interest in spreading communism west?

No

153

The Korean War was also known as ________

The Forgotten War

154

What was the communist side of Korea?

North

155

Who lead North Korea?

Kim II Sung

156

Who lead the democratic South Korea?

Syngman Rhee

157

What triggered the Korean War?

North Korea invades South without warning

158

What line divided N and S Korea?

38th parallel

159

The South Korean Capitol of ________ fell quickly to North Korea

Seoul

160

Who led the defense of South Korea?

McArthur and NATO

161

NATO forces led a charge out of Pusan to invade _______, largest attack since D-day

Inchon

162

The invasion of Inchon was ___________

Successfully

163

Border between China and North Korea

Yalu River

164

Why did the Chinese launch a counterattack?

South Korea had pushed North Korean forces too close to the Yalu River

165

The Chinese drove _______ passed the 38th parallel and took control of Seoul again

NATO

166

What did McArthur suggest to Truman?

Drop atomic bombs through china

167

How did Truman respond to Mccarthurs proposition?

He said no and fired him

168

Mccarthur returned from Korean War a ________

Hero

169

The Korean War ended with a ________ at the 38th parallel

Stalemate

170

Who was the republican candidate in the election of 1952?

Eisenhower

171

Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1952?

Adlai Stevenson

172

Who won the election of 52?

Eisenhower

173

What campaign did Eisenhower run on?

Ending war in Korea and Communism

174

Who signed the armistice the ended conflict in Korea

Eisenhower

175

What was the biggest affect of the Korean War?

Massive American Re-armament

176

As he left office, what did Eisenhower warn about?

Military industrial complex (money being spent on military)

177

The first satellite launched into space. Launched by the Russians

Sputnik

178

Sputnik created a fear that Soviets would develop ________

International Ballistic Missiles

179

How did congress react to Sputnik?

Increase education spending, especially in math and science

180

He succeeded Stalin as the Soviet leader, he warned US that he would crush us

Nikita Krushcher

181

US was flying _____ planes over Russia

Spy

182

What plane was shot down by soviet missiles ?

U-2 spy plane

183

Who was the pilot of the U-2 plane?

Colonel Francis Gary Powers

184

Powers was put on trial for______

Espionage

185

Eisenhower at first _______ using planes for espionage

Denied

186

Idea created by Eisenhower's SOS the we would use any measure necessary to keep US interests safe, even atomic warfare

Massive retaliation

187

Who created the policy of massive retaliation?

John Foster Dollos

188

What was the name for the soviet army?

Red army

189

How did the Soviets learn about the Manhattan project during WWII?

Espionage

190

How did the soviets react to the Manhattan Project?

They started their own nuclear program

191

This was the US's plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons

Burach Plan

192

The United States wanted ___________ of nuclear weapons

Inspection and control

193

The Soviets wanted __________ of nuclear weapons

Immediate disarmament

194

Who was Marshall's undersecretary of state?

Dean Acheson

195

Who headed the policy planning staff?

Kennan

196

This was a defense treaty signed by England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

Brussels treaty

197

This was a broader defense treaty signed by the US, Canada, and 10 European nations. It signified the US's departure from isolationism

North Atlantic treaty

198

Who was the supreme commander of NATO?

Eisenhower