Ch 31-33 Flashcards Preview

APUSH > Ch 31-33 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 31-33 Deck (289):
1

Nixon wanted to _______ us involvement in Vietnam.

End

2

Nixons foreign policy brought temporary __________ of soviet tensions

Reduction

3

Who was Nixons aid on foreign affairs and eventual Secretary of State?

Henry Kissinger

4

Kissinger and Nixon played on what rivalry to break down barriers for the US

Chines and soviet

5

Nixon rocked the world when he recognized the communist Chinese regime led by who?

Mao Zedong

6

How did the Soviets react to Nixons visit to China?

They wondered what deals were being made, superstitious of china

7

This was the term for the lessening of tensions between the United States and Soviet Union

Detente

8

Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during Nixons presidency?

Leonid Brezhnev

9

These were treaties between Nixon and Brezhnev that limited military weapons in both countries

SALT treaties

10

What did salt 1 do?

Limited missiles and froze the number of missiles they were producing for five years

11

This was the name of the Israeli and Arab conflict in 1973

October war

12

What was the October war also known as?

Yom Kippur War

13

Why did OPEC countries agree to cut petroleum exports?

Israel had taken land from them

14

What was the main effect of the October war upon the US economy?

Oil and gas prices increase

15

What was the name of Nixons process to get US troops out of Vietnam?

Vietnamization process

16

regarding Vietnam, Nixon wanted Peace with _______

Honor

17

What were the three components of Nixon's Vietnamization process?

1) withdraw US troops and train south Vietnamese to hold there own.
2) Renewed bombing effort, even extending into Cambodia
3) increased bombing ps of Hanoi, take hard line in negotiating with N Vietnam in hopes they would get tired of bombing

18

What was the most controversial part of the Vietnamization process that spurred lots of protest?

Bombing in Cambodia

19

What college had one of the worst protests that firebombed the ROTC building and involved the national guard?

Kent State, Ohio

20

What campus were to African American students killed during protest?

Jackson State

21

Why was Vietnam called the living room war?

Televised and in the public

22

With the help of _______ a truce was finally hammered out between the US and North Vietnam

Kissinger

23

What were the conditions for the US to leave Vietnam within 60 days?

North Vietnam had to turn over all prisoners of war

24

Once the US left _______ eventually fell to communism

Saigon

25

Who was the a Republican candidate in the election of 1968?

Nixon

26

Who was the Democratic candidate in the election of 1968?

Hubert H Humphrey

27

What convention was deeply divided and disrupted by anti war protests?

Democratic National Convention in Chicago

28

What was the result of the chaotic democratic convention?

It opened up the door for Nixon to win the election

29

Nixon shifted responsibilities from the federal government to _______ and ________ govs

Local, state

30

What agency did Nixon create to help the environment?

Environmental Protection Agency

31

Who did Nixon appeal to during the 1968 election?

The silent majority

32

Nixon campaigned that he would restore ________

Law and order

33

This was Nixons economic policy where instead of giving money to specific programs, the federal government would just give money to the states and allow them to decide how to spend it. Attempt to reduce the governments role.

Revenue Sharing

34

Nixon entered the White House at a time when _______ and ________ were growing

Inflation, unemployment

35

As a response to the poor economy, Nixon turned to _____________. Where he would spend more more money in a year that the US got in revenue

Deficit spending

36

Hoping it would stem inflation, Nixon issue two __________. Each lasting several months

Price freezes

37

Who did the US side with during the October war?

Israel

38

Nixon chose to _______ government spending and ____ interest rates

Raise

39

How did Nixons plan to reduce gov spending and increase interest rates do?

Bad

40

What did the democrats call Nixons economic disaster?

Nixonomics

41

Who was the democrat in the election of 1972?

McGovern

42

Watergate dealt with allegations that _______ broke into democratic headquarters

CREEP

43

What was Nixon accused of during watergate?

Trying to cover it up, abusing power

44

There became knowledge that there were ___________ possibly concerning watergate in existence

Tape recordings

45

Who was the special prosecuted who initially demanded that the tapes be turned over, fired by Nixon

Archibald Cox

46

Who did Nix appoint as special prosecuted after firing Cox?

Leon Dworskey

47

What did Dworskey do about the tapes?

He demanded them as well

48

What did the Supreme Court rule in 1974 regarding the tapes?

They must be turned over

49

What was discovered on the tapes?

4.5 minutes had been deleted

50

Nixon becomes only president to _____

Resign

51

Who was Nixons first Vice President?

Spearou Agnew

52

Who came into office after Nixon?

Gerald Ford

53

There was a ___________ in Washington initially after ford came into office

Good feeling

54

What weakened the good feelings in Washington?

Ford Pardons Nixon on all possible crimes he could have committed

55

What was the condition of the economy when ford entered office?

Worst since FDR.

56

What was the new term for economic downfall during fords administration?

Stagflation

57

Why was the nation divided as Nixon entered the White House?

-close election
-Vietnam protests
-civil rights
-war on poverty
-assassinations of Rob Kennedy and MLKJ

58

Why was the economy so bad when ford entered office?

Nixon had neglected it do to watergate

59

This program implemented by ford encouraged people to save money and not spend it, be conscience on fuel spending, and plant vegetable gardens

Win program

60

What did WIN stand for?

Whip inflation now

61

Why was WIN not successful?

It was voluntary, faded away quickly

62

What did Ford move to was the recession worsened?

More direct action

63

What did Ford do as more direct action?

Increase unemployment benefits, tax cuts

64

Did Ford's move to more direct action help?

No

65

Ford considered himself __________ in fiscal affairs, _____________ in domestic affairs, and ______________ in foreign affairs

Conservative, moderate, international

66

Ford _________ increase in defense spending

Supported

67

Ford ____________ Nixons detente policies

Continued

68

Ford looked to restructure the CIA, who did he appoint as the new head?

George Herbert Walker Bush

69

Who was the Republican candidate in the election of 1976?

Ford

70

Who was the democrat in the election of 1976?

Carter

71

Carter was a peanut farmer from what state?

Georgia

72

Why was jimmy carter popular?

People liked his down home approach

73

Jimmy carter was a supporter of _______ rights. He supported the Equal Rights Amendment and affirmative action

Human

74

This was the bright spot of Carter's foreign policy

Presidential retreat in Camp David

75

What happened at Camp David?

Carter met with Egyptian and Israeli leaders to bring peace to the Middle East

76

Who was the Egyptian President?

Sadaat

77

Who was the Israeli Prime Minister?

Baagin

78

What did Carter accomplish at Camp David?

Deal that set the groundwork for eventual withdrawal of Israeli troops from Sinai in return for Egypt opening up the Suez Canal

79

This even signified the failure of Carter's administration

Iran hostages

80

The taking of the Iran hostages was a result of what event?

Iranian revolution of 1979

81

Why was the shah of Iran in the US?

To receive medical treatment

82

Who led a revolt against the shah while he was I'm the US?

Ayatollah Khomenie

83

What did militants storm as a result of Carter's refusal to return the shah?

US embassy of Tehran

84

Where did Carter focus naval forces to try to get the hostages back?

Indian Ocean

85

By April of 1980, carter authorized a __________

Rescue mission

86

Why was the mission called off?

Chaos, helicopters broke down, resulting in death of 8 crew members.

87

The failure of the rescue mission guaranteed what?

Carter would be a one term President

88

Who was the republican in the election of 1980?

Ronald Reagan

89

Who was the democrat in the election of 1980?

Jimmy Carter

90

Who easily won the election of 1989?

Ronald Reagan

91

What victory did Reagan begin his presidency with?

The hostages were freed

92

Carter spoke out strongly against the ________ and their repressive regime

Soviets

93

What country did the Soviets invade in December of 1979?

Afghanistan

94

What strategies did Carter try to get the Soviets out of Afghanistan

-restricted trade
-resumed peace time draft
-boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow

95

Afghanistan was the Soviet Unions _________

Vietnam

96

Who did the US give millions of dollars to to fight the Russians?

Osama Bin Laden

97

Where was the nuclear meltdown that happened during Carter's presidency?

Three Mile Island Pennsylvania

98

Although there were no deaths or injuries from the three mile island incident, what were the consequences?

Stopped future construction of other nuclear power plants

99

The Winter Olympics in _________ helped revive US pride after the USS defeated a strong Soviet team in ice hockey

Lake Placid , New York

100

Who led the five men who broke into the watergate building?

James McCord

101

Nixons presidency was characterized by ___________

Paranoia

102

These were secret diagrams from the Vietnam War leaked to the New York Times

Pentagon Papers

103

Who leaked the Pentagon Papers?

Daniel Elsberg

104

Nixon created a group of his aides called the _________, to stop leaks and to dig up information about people unfriendly to the White House

Plumbers

105

Who did Nixon appoint to head CREEP?

Attorney General John Mitchell

106

In an attempt to get the south to like him more, he shifted ____________ responsibilities to the Supreme Court

Desegregation responsibilities

107

Nixon made the Supreme Court more ____________

Conservative

108

Nixon appointed moderate _____________ to the Supreme Court to replace Earl Warren

Warren Burger

109

Who was Nixon's secretary of treasury?

John Conally

110

In order to be re-elected in 1972, Nixon had to win over __________ and ___________

Southern states, blue collar workers

111

What was John Mitchell's plan to win the south?

-objection to south desegregation
-conservative court

112

After being sentenced to jail after watergate, ________ asked fore leniency, claiming he had been promised money and pardon from the White House

James McCord

113

The oil embargo ended after Kissinger negotiated an Israeli pullback in the ________

Sinai

114

What caused the second oil shock?

Iranian Revolution

115

The environmental movement let to restrictions on industry and the creation of the ___________________

Environmental Protection Agency

116

This act encouraged people to stop using coal

Clean air act

117

What did the republicans want to fix the energy crises?

Increase coal production and nuclear plants

118

What did the democrats want to fix the energy crises?

Price control and conservatism

119

What was the worst consequence of the oil shocks?

Inflation

120

Industrial unions _________ members

Lost

121

Industry moved from the northeast and Midwest to the _________

Sunbelt

122

The majority of households during this period had ________ working parents

Two

123

There was a decline in _________ families

Nuclear

124

Ronald Reagan appointed _________ to the Supreme Court in 1981, making her the first women to serve on the Supreme Court

Sandra Day O'conner

125

Clinton added another woman to the Supreme Court with the appointment of ____________

Ruth Bade Ginsburg

126

This amendment would make it illegal to deny someone rights based on their sex

Equal Rights Amendment

127

Why was the Equal Rights Amendment not ratified in all states?

Some women thought they would lose laws that regulated women's working hours and wages

128

Who led the effort to defeat the ERA? She said it would lead to same sex toilets, homosexual marriages, and drafting women

Phyllis Schafley

129

Many women focused their energy on the right to ___________

Abortion

130

This amendment denied funds to poor women to pay for abortions

Hyde Amendment

131

The ___________ led to protests that sparked the gay lib movement

Stonewall Riots

132

__________ began violent demonstrations to shock the US into doing more about aids

ACT UP

133

Why did Gays strongly support Bill Clinton in the election of 1992?

He said he would end the ban of gays in the military

134

Since Clinton's attempts to end the ban of gays in the armed forces met resistance, he settled for the ________________ policy

Don't ask don't tell

135

This act signed by Clinton said that states did not have to recognize same sex marriages performed elsewhere

Defense of Marriage Act

136

Ford was ________ conservative than Nixon

More

137

Who was Carter's VP?

Walter Mondale

138

This court case outlawed school prayer

Engel v Vitale

139

This is where former liberals advocated a strong stand against communism and free market capitalism; stressed the positive views of life

Neoconservatism

140

Neoconservatism was led by _____________'s magazine ___________

Norman Podhouvet, commentary

141

Reagan called the combination of inflation and unemployment the _________

Misery Index

142

Who was Reagan's running mate?

George Bush

143

What group did Reagan have the most success with?

Blue collar workers

144

What did Reagan blame Carter for?

Allowing the soviets to to get ahead militarily

145

Reagan promised a build up of the ________

Military

146

During the election of 1980, who ran ran as a republican?

Reagan

147

In the election of 1980, who ran as the democrat?

Carter

148

This liberal republican who ran independently in the election of 1980 was _________

John Anderson

149

Who easily won the election of 1980?

Reagan

150

What was the only group that stayed loyal to Carter during the election of 1980?

African Americans

151

This said that tax cuts would stimulate the economy by giving the individuals a greater incentive to earn money

Supply side economics

152

This was the idea do cutting back on the scope of federal agencies and relying on free market to keep prices of goods low; implemented by Reagan

Deregulation

153

Most effective member of the cabinet; relieved car industry of regulations, was a key role in negotiations with Japan to limit car exports to the us for 3 years

Drew Lewis

154

Reagan was __________ legalized abortion

Against

155

Reagan made cuts in __________ and ____________

Gov spending, income taxes

156

What was the result of supply side economics?

Economic chaos, not successful, recession in 1981-1982

157

Although the economy recovered, it was clouded by the growing _________

Deficit

158

This act authorized the president to make cuts on spending in order to meet deficit limits

Gramm-Rudman Balanced Budget Act

159

During Reagan's presidency inequality of _______ grew

Wealth

160

The _________ in 1983 helped Reagan in the election of 1984

Economic boom

161

Who was the democrat in the election of 1984?

Walter Mondale

162

Who was Walter Mondale's running mate ?

Geraldine Ferraro

163

Who won the election of 1984?

Reagan

164

Reagan was determined to achieve ____________

Us greatness and prestige

165

Reagan __________ the hard line Carter had against the soviets

Continued

166

Reagan abandoned the policy of _________ win the Soviet Union

Detente

167

This was an anti missile system to destroy incoming missiles from outer space; it was stepped up by Reagan

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

168

This amendment prohibited US agencies from spending money in Central America

Boland Amendment

169

Success in _________ was Reagan's only clear foreign victory

Grenada

170

This was the affair in which National Security Officer Robert McFarlene proposed trading US missiles to Iran in return for hostages

Iran Contra Affair

171

This was the young marine relied in by McFarlene during the Iran contra affair

Oliver North

172

Who did North rely on?

William Casey

173

Who replaced McFarlene as national security officer in 1986?

John Poindexter

174

Oliver North had the idea to use the money made from the missiles sent to Iran to fund the _________ in Nicaragua

Contras

175

The Iran contra affair was ___________

Kept a secret

176

Reagan's administration learned from watergate and ____________ about the Iran contra affair to the public

Broke the news

177

As a result of the Iran Contra Affair, Reagan's popularity ____________ dramatically

Decreased

178

Eventually, Reagan set out to __________ the bad relationship between The US and the SU

Reverse

179

Who became the leader of the Soviet Union after Leonid Brezhnev died?

Mikhail Gorbachev

180

How willing was Gorbachev to improve relations with the United States?

Very willing

181

His agreement between Reagan and Gorbachiv entailed destroying all intermediate range missiles and permitting on site inspection to verify the process

Intermediate Nuclear Forces Agreement

182

Gorbachev ended the war in _________

Afghanistan

183

Where did AIDS originate?

Africa

184

Who were the first victims of AIDS?

Gay men

185

Reagan was _________ to deal with the AIDS epidemic

Slow

186

Surgeon General ________________ led the fight against AIDS by promoting sex ed, use of condoms, and private blood testing

C Everette Koop

187

Finally, Reagan appointed a _________

Special Presidential Commission For AIDS Research

188

Who head the Commission for AIDS Research?

James Watkins

189

This report term the government's effort as ineffective and recommended anti discrimination legislation and explicit prevention education

Watkins Report

190

The 80's saw a massive growth of the use of which drug ?

Cocaine

191

This cheaper form of cocaine made the drug more available to the poor; popular in ghettos

Crack

192

First Lady Nancy Reagan made ____________ her special project

Drug education

193

Reagan's attempt at stopping the drug problem included:

-sealing of the borders
-wiping out the coca plant in south and Latin america

194

Was bush more successful than Reagan at combating the war on drugs?

No

195

The ___________ strategy pledged US support for anti drug programs in Columbia, Bolivia, and Peru; also unsuccessful

Andean

196

Which country became the new pipeline for cocaine?

Mexico

197

Reagan was very dependent on ______________

Aids and assistants

198

This act cut taxes and kept the deficit from growing during Reagan's Presidency

Tax Reform Act

199

There was controversy when Reagan appointed __________ to replace Thurgood Marshall in the Supreme Court, he was a conservative African American who opposed affirmative action

Clarence Thomas

200

Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1988?

Michael Dukakis

201

Who was the Republican candidate in the election of 1988?

George Bush

202

What did Bush promise?

No new tax cuts

203

Who won the election of 1988?

Bush

204

Bush continued the Republican themes of ____________ the governments role I'm daily life

Limiting

205

This act passed during Bush's presidency prohibited discrimination against the disabled

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

206

In country after country communism gave way to freedom and the __________ faded away quickly

Cold War

207

In May 1989, Chinese students begin a month long protest for democracy in Beijings _________ square

Tiananmen

208

What did the Chinese government do about the student protests?

Sent tanks and troop, killed several hundred

209

Bush responded __________ to the situation in china

Cautiously

210

This policy imposed by Gorbachev said that a East Europe could govern themselves, refused to use arms to keep repressive regimes in power; replaced the Brezhnev doctrine

Sinatra Doctrine

211

Who was the newly elected president on the Russian Republic?

Boris Yeltsin

212

Yeltsin disbanded the ___________ party and continued reform for _________ and a ___________

Democracy, free market

213

Russia formed with ten others to form a loose alignment called the _________________

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

214

Bush offered _______ to Russia and other CIS nations

Aid

215

This agreed to reduce nuclear arms to less than 10,000; signed by Bush and Gorbachev

START 1

216

This agreed to eliminate land missiles and reduce nuclear arms to 3,000 ; signed by Bush and Yeltsin

START 2

217

In Dec of 1989, US troops invaded _________ to instill a government friendly to the US; largest military operation since Vietnam

Panama

218

The invasion of Panama shook Bush's reputation of _________

Caution

219

Who was the dictator of Iraq

Sadam Hussein

220

Hussein stunned the world when he invaded defenseless _________

Kuwait

221

Bush persuaded threatened Saudi Arabia to accept US Troop buildup called ____________

Desert Shield

222

Why did Bush respond so firmly to Hussein

Needed to keep oil reserves away from him

223

Democrats __________ the use of force in the Middle East

Opposed

224

Eventually, Desert Shield gave way to ___________

Desert Storm

225

Who led the ground assault on Iraq?

General H Norman Shwarzkopf

226

Bush _________ the advance, and agreed to and _________ with Iraq

Halted, armistice

227

Who was the federal reserve chairmen who worked with Clinton to bring up the economy?

Alan Greenspan

228

Clinton made _________ the center of his economic policy

Deficit Reduction

229

Clinton wanted to reduce the deficit by cutting ___________ and raising _________

Spending, taxes

230

Clinton's tax reform mainly raised taxes for the __________

Wealthy

231

Clinton continued to ___________ defense spending after the Cold War

Decrease

232

Immigrants in the 90's came mainly from __________ and ___________

Latin America, Asia

233

Immigrants tended to settle in _________ areas

Urban

234

The ____________ was the main reason why Hispanics lagged behind economically

Lack of education

235

Most African Americans were concentrated in _____________

Northern cities

236

____________ became symbol for black struggle after being brutally beat by LA police; spurred in protests that took 53 lives

Rodney King

237

__________ were the fastest growing minority by the end of the century

Asians

238

Where were most Asians from?

China

239

Asians were relatively well ___________

Educated

240

Nearly half of ______________ immigrants came with college degrees

Middle Easter

241

This was he concept of stripping immigrants from their cultural traits and casting them into an Anglo Saxon mold

Melting pot

242

The Democrats moved away from reliance in _________ and chose moderate candidates to appeal to the middle class

Big Government

243

Who was the key figure in the democratic shift from liberal to moderate?

Bill Clinton

244

What was the major political issue in the election of 1992?

Recession that began in 1990

245

Who was the Democrat in the election of 1992?

Bill Clinton

246

Who was Bill Clinton's running mate?

Albert Gore

247

What did Clinton stress during the election of 1992?

Investment in the nations future: internal improvements, healthcare reform, training workers

248

This Texas billionaire ran as an independent candidate, he dropped our of the race unexpectedly in July

H Ross Perot

249

Who was the Republican in the election of 1992?

George Bush

250

Who won the election of 1992?

Bill Clinton

251

Clinton had a sincere devotion to ________ and ________ rights

Women's, civil

252

At first, Clinton ________ to transition from governor to President

Struggled

253

Clinton's economic team was ___________

Conservative

254

Clinton had some serious confrontations with ___________

Congress

255

This was a free trade plan that united the US, Mexico, and Canada into a common market without tariff barriers; Clinton's biggest success in congress

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

256

What did critics say about NAFTA?

It would undermine small business in the US

257

_____________ publicized a major plan for health reform

Hillary Clinton

258

What were the goals of the Clintons healthcare reform plan?

- include those without insurance
- lower healthcare costs
- don't increase taxes or add to deficit

259

What was the the Clinton's solution to the healthcare problem?

Limit medical services each American receives, employers add benefits

260

Did the Clinton health reform plan ever pass congress?

No

261

What was the consequence of the healthcare failure?

Helped fuel a republican resurgence

262

Who led an attack against democratic leadership?

Newton Leroy Genrich

263

Genrich asked all GOP candidates to sing a ______________ for the 1994 elections; consisted of conservative goals

Contract with America

264

Who filed a sexual harassment suit against Clinton?

Paula Jones

265

In the elections of 1994, the ________ took control of both houses

Republicans

266

Clinton's policy where he distanced himself from conservative Republicans and Liberal Democrats

Triangulation

267

Who was the democrat in the election of 1996?

Clinton

268

Who was the Republican Candidate in the election of 1996?

Bob dole

269

Who won the election of 1996?

Clinton

270

Clinton gave top priority to ________ affairs

Domestic

271

What were the two issues that Clinton focused on in the Soviet Union

1) support Yeltsin and his successor Vladimir Putin
2) prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons among former soviet republics

272

Clinton ignored China's bad human rights policies and continued Bush's ______________ status of china

Most favored nation

273

The lowest point of Clinton's foreign policy was in __________

Somalia

274

Muslim, Croat, and Serb delegates met in ___________ to discuss settlement on ending the war in Bosnia

Dayton Ohio

275

What was the real driving force of the economic boom that continued through the 90's

Consumers

276

Eventually, the deficits turned to __________

Surplus

277

What did the government use the surplus for?

Paying off the national debt

278

Clinton's economic success was overshadowed by his affair with ____________

Monica Lewinsky

279

Who was the special investigator who investigated the Lewinsky scandal?

Kenneth Star

280

This was the fear that computers would fail in the new millennium because they were programmed with only the last two digits of a year, could confuse 2000 with 1900

Y2K problem

281

Who was the Democrat in the election of 2000?

Al Gore

282

Who was the Republican in the Election of 2000

George Bush

283

Who won the election of 2000 after several recounts in Florida

Bush

284

Bush convinced congress to cut __________

Taxes

285

Bush's program requiring states to give mandatory testing to elementary schoolers

No child left behind

286

The _________ in 2001 was the worst in 10 years

Recession

287

Large companies were going ________

Bankrupt

288

Bush's National Security Strategy, also called _____________, involved the US accepting their role of global police

Unilateralism

289

Bush was paranoid that Iraq had ________________

Weapons of mass destruction