Flashcards in Ch 31-33 Deck (289):
Nixon wanted to _______ us involvement in Vietnam.
Nixons foreign policy brought temporary __________ of soviet tensions
Who was Nixons aid on foreign affairs and eventual Secretary of State?
Kissinger and Nixon played on what rivalry to break down barriers for the US
Chines and soviet
Nixon rocked the world when he recognized the communist Chinese regime led by who?
How did the Soviets react to Nixons visit to China?
They wondered what deals were being made, superstitious of china
This was the term for the lessening of tensions between the United States and Soviet Union
Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during Nixons presidency?
These were treaties between Nixon and Brezhnev that limited military weapons in both countries
What did salt 1 do?
Limited missiles and froze the number of missiles they were producing for five years
This was the name of the Israeli and Arab conflict in 1973
What was the October war also known as?
Yom Kippur War
Why did OPEC countries agree to cut petroleum exports?
Israel had taken land from them
What was the main effect of the October war upon the US economy?
Oil and gas prices increase
What was the name of Nixons process to get US troops out of Vietnam?
regarding Vietnam, Nixon wanted Peace with _______
What were the three components of Nixon's Vietnamization process?
1) withdraw US troops and train south Vietnamese to hold there own.
2) Renewed bombing effort, even extending into Cambodia
3) increased bombing ps of Hanoi, take hard line in negotiating with N Vietnam in hopes they would get tired of bombing
What was the most controversial part of the Vietnamization process that spurred lots of protest?
Bombing in Cambodia
What college had one of the worst protests that firebombed the ROTC building and involved the national guard?
Kent State, Ohio
What campus were to African American students killed during protest?
Why was Vietnam called the living room war?
Televised and in the public
With the help of _______ a truce was finally hammered out between the US and North Vietnam
What were the conditions for the US to leave Vietnam within 60 days?
North Vietnam had to turn over all prisoners of war
Once the US left _______ eventually fell to communism
Who was the a Republican candidate in the election of 1968?
Who was the Democratic candidate in the election of 1968?
Hubert H Humphrey
What convention was deeply divided and disrupted by anti war protests?
Democratic National Convention in Chicago
What was the result of the chaotic democratic convention?
It opened up the door for Nixon to win the election
Nixon shifted responsibilities from the federal government to _______ and ________ govs
What agency did Nixon create to help the environment?
Environmental Protection Agency
Who did Nixon appeal to during the 1968 election?
The silent majority
Nixon campaigned that he would restore ________
Law and order
This was Nixons economic policy where instead of giving money to specific programs, the federal government would just give money to the states and allow them to decide how to spend it. Attempt to reduce the governments role.
Nixon entered the White House at a time when _______ and ________ were growing
As a response to the poor economy, Nixon turned to _____________. Where he would spend more more money in a year that the US got in revenue
Hoping it would stem inflation, Nixon issue two __________. Each lasting several months
Who did the US side with during the October war?
Nixon chose to _______ government spending and ____ interest rates
How did Nixons plan to reduce gov spending and increase interest rates do?
What did the democrats call Nixons economic disaster?
Who was the democrat in the election of 1972?
Watergate dealt with allegations that _______ broke into democratic headquarters
What was Nixon accused of during watergate?
Trying to cover it up, abusing power
There became knowledge that there were ___________ possibly concerning watergate in existence
Who was the special prosecuted who initially demanded that the tapes be turned over, fired by Nixon
Who did Nix appoint as special prosecuted after firing Cox?
What did Dworskey do about the tapes?
He demanded them as well
What did the Supreme Court rule in 1974 regarding the tapes?
They must be turned over
What was discovered on the tapes?
4.5 minutes had been deleted
Nixon becomes only president to _____
Who was Nixons first Vice President?
Who came into office after Nixon?
There was a ___________ in Washington initially after ford came into office
What weakened the good feelings in Washington?
Ford Pardons Nixon on all possible crimes he could have committed
What was the condition of the economy when ford entered office?
Worst since FDR.
What was the new term for economic downfall during fords administration?
Why was the nation divided as Nixon entered the White House?
-war on poverty
-assassinations of Rob Kennedy and MLKJ
Why was the economy so bad when ford entered office?
Nixon had neglected it do to watergate
This program implemented by ford encouraged people to save money and not spend it, be conscience on fuel spending, and plant vegetable gardens
What did WIN stand for?
Whip inflation now
Why was WIN not successful?
It was voluntary, faded away quickly
What did Ford move to was the recession worsened?
More direct action
What did Ford do as more direct action?
Increase unemployment benefits, tax cuts
Did Ford's move to more direct action help?
Ford considered himself __________ in fiscal affairs, _____________ in domestic affairs, and ______________ in foreign affairs
Conservative, moderate, international
Ford _________ increase in defense spending
Ford ____________ Nixons detente policies
Ford looked to restructure the CIA, who did he appoint as the new head?
George Herbert Walker Bush
Who was the Republican candidate in the election of 1976?
Who was the democrat in the election of 1976?
Carter was a peanut farmer from what state?
Why was jimmy carter popular?
People liked his down home approach
Jimmy carter was a supporter of _______ rights. He supported the Equal Rights Amendment and affirmative action
This was the bright spot of Carter's foreign policy
Presidential retreat in Camp David
What happened at Camp David?
Carter met with Egyptian and Israeli leaders to bring peace to the Middle East
Who was the Egyptian President?
Who was the Israeli Prime Minister?
What did Carter accomplish at Camp David?
Deal that set the groundwork for eventual withdrawal of Israeli troops from Sinai in return for Egypt opening up the Suez Canal
This even signified the failure of Carter's administration
The taking of the Iran hostages was a result of what event?
Iranian revolution of 1979
Why was the shah of Iran in the US?
To receive medical treatment
Who led a revolt against the shah while he was I'm the US?
What did militants storm as a result of Carter's refusal to return the shah?
US embassy of Tehran
Where did Carter focus naval forces to try to get the hostages back?
By April of 1980, carter authorized a __________
Why was the mission called off?
Chaos, helicopters broke down, resulting in death of 8 crew members.
The failure of the rescue mission guaranteed what?
Carter would be a one term President
Who was the republican in the election of 1980?
Who was the democrat in the election of 1980?
Who easily won the election of 1989?
What victory did Reagan begin his presidency with?
The hostages were freed
Carter spoke out strongly against the ________ and their repressive regime
What country did the Soviets invade in December of 1979?
What strategies did Carter try to get the Soviets out of Afghanistan
-resumed peace time draft
-boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Afghanistan was the Soviet Unions _________
Who did the US give millions of dollars to to fight the Russians?
Osama Bin Laden
Where was the nuclear meltdown that happened during Carter's presidency?
Three Mile Island Pennsylvania
Although there were no deaths or injuries from the three mile island incident, what were the consequences?
Stopped future construction of other nuclear power plants
The Winter Olympics in _________ helped revive US pride after the USS defeated a strong Soviet team in ice hockey
Lake Placid , New York
Who led the five men who broke into the watergate building?
Nixons presidency was characterized by ___________
These were secret diagrams from the Vietnam War leaked to the New York Times
Who leaked the Pentagon Papers?
Nixon created a group of his aides called the _________, to stop leaks and to dig up information about people unfriendly to the White House
Who did Nixon appoint to head CREEP?
Attorney General John Mitchell
In an attempt to get the south to like him more, he shifted ____________ responsibilities to the Supreme Court
Nixon made the Supreme Court more ____________
Nixon appointed moderate _____________ to the Supreme Court to replace Earl Warren
Who was Nixon's secretary of treasury?
In order to be re-elected in 1972, Nixon had to win over __________ and ___________
Southern states, blue collar workers
What was John Mitchell's plan to win the south?
-objection to south desegregation
After being sentenced to jail after watergate, ________ asked fore leniency, claiming he had been promised money and pardon from the White House
The oil embargo ended after Kissinger negotiated an Israeli pullback in the ________
What caused the second oil shock?
The environmental movement let to restrictions on industry and the creation of the ___________________
Environmental Protection Agency
This act encouraged people to stop using coal
Clean air act
What did the republicans want to fix the energy crises?
Increase coal production and nuclear plants
What did the democrats want to fix the energy crises?
Price control and conservatism
What was the worst consequence of the oil shocks?
Industrial unions _________ members
Industry moved from the northeast and Midwest to the _________
The majority of households during this period had ________ working parents
There was a decline in _________ families
Ronald Reagan appointed _________ to the Supreme Court in 1981, making her the first women to serve on the Supreme Court
Sandra Day O'conner
Clinton added another woman to the Supreme Court with the appointment of ____________
Ruth Bade Ginsburg
This amendment would make it illegal to deny someone rights based on their sex
Equal Rights Amendment
Why was the Equal Rights Amendment not ratified in all states?
Some women thought they would lose laws that regulated women's working hours and wages
Who led the effort to defeat the ERA? She said it would lead to same sex toilets, homosexual marriages, and drafting women
Many women focused their energy on the right to ___________
This amendment denied funds to poor women to pay for abortions
The ___________ led to protests that sparked the gay lib movement
__________ began violent demonstrations to shock the US into doing more about aids
Why did Gays strongly support Bill Clinton in the election of 1992?
He said he would end the ban of gays in the military
Since Clinton's attempts to end the ban of gays in the armed forces met resistance, he settled for the ________________ policy
Don't ask don't tell
This act signed by Clinton said that states did not have to recognize same sex marriages performed elsewhere
Defense of Marriage Act
Ford was ________ conservative than Nixon
Who was Carter's VP?
This court case outlawed school prayer
Engel v Vitale
This is where former liberals advocated a strong stand against communism and free market capitalism; stressed the positive views of life
Neoconservatism was led by _____________'s magazine ___________
Norman Podhouvet, commentary
Reagan called the combination of inflation and unemployment the _________
Who was Reagan's running mate?
What group did Reagan have the most success with?
Blue collar workers
What did Reagan blame Carter for?
Allowing the soviets to to get ahead militarily
Reagan promised a build up of the ________
During the election of 1980, who ran ran as a republican?
In the election of 1980, who ran as the democrat?
This liberal republican who ran independently in the election of 1980 was _________
Who easily won the election of 1980?
What was the only group that stayed loyal to Carter during the election of 1980?
This said that tax cuts would stimulate the economy by giving the individuals a greater incentive to earn money
Supply side economics
This was the idea do cutting back on the scope of federal agencies and relying on free market to keep prices of goods low; implemented by Reagan
Most effective member of the cabinet; relieved car industry of regulations, was a key role in negotiations with Japan to limit car exports to the us for 3 years
Reagan was __________ legalized abortion
Reagan made cuts in __________ and ____________
Gov spending, income taxes
What was the result of supply side economics?
Economic chaos, not successful, recession in 1981-1982
Although the economy recovered, it was clouded by the growing _________
This act authorized the president to make cuts on spending in order to meet deficit limits
Gramm-Rudman Balanced Budget Act
During Reagan's presidency inequality of _______ grew
The _________ in 1983 helped Reagan in the election of 1984
Who was the democrat in the election of 1984?
Who was Walter Mondale's running mate ?
Who won the election of 1984?
Reagan was determined to achieve ____________
Us greatness and prestige
Reagan __________ the hard line Carter had against the soviets
Reagan abandoned the policy of _________ win the Soviet Union
This was an anti missile system to destroy incoming missiles from outer space; it was stepped up by Reagan
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
This amendment prohibited US agencies from spending money in Central America
Success in _________ was Reagan's only clear foreign victory
This was the affair in which National Security Officer Robert McFarlene proposed trading US missiles to Iran in return for hostages
Iran Contra Affair
This was the young marine relied in by McFarlene during the Iran contra affair
Who did North rely on?
Who replaced McFarlene as national security officer in 1986?
Oliver North had the idea to use the money made from the missiles sent to Iran to fund the _________ in Nicaragua
The Iran contra affair was ___________
Kept a secret
Reagan's administration learned from watergate and ____________ about the Iran contra affair to the public
Broke the news
As a result of the Iran Contra Affair, Reagan's popularity ____________ dramatically
Eventually, Reagan set out to __________ the bad relationship between The US and the SU
Who became the leader of the Soviet Union after Leonid Brezhnev died?
How willing was Gorbachev to improve relations with the United States?
His agreement between Reagan and Gorbachiv entailed destroying all intermediate range missiles and permitting on site inspection to verify the process
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Agreement
Gorbachev ended the war in _________
Where did AIDS originate?
Who were the first victims of AIDS?
Reagan was _________ to deal with the AIDS epidemic
Surgeon General ________________ led the fight against AIDS by promoting sex ed, use of condoms, and private blood testing
C Everette Koop
Finally, Reagan appointed a _________
Special Presidential Commission For AIDS Research
Who head the Commission for AIDS Research?
This report term the government's effort as ineffective and recommended anti discrimination legislation and explicit prevention education
The 80's saw a massive growth of the use of which drug ?
This cheaper form of cocaine made the drug more available to the poor; popular in ghettos
First Lady Nancy Reagan made ____________ her special project
Reagan's attempt at stopping the drug problem included:
-sealing of the borders
-wiping out the coca plant in south and Latin america
Was bush more successful than Reagan at combating the war on drugs?
The ___________ strategy pledged US support for anti drug programs in Columbia, Bolivia, and Peru; also unsuccessful
Which country became the new pipeline for cocaine?
Reagan was very dependent on ______________
Aids and assistants
This act cut taxes and kept the deficit from growing during Reagan's Presidency
Tax Reform Act
There was controversy when Reagan appointed __________ to replace Thurgood Marshall in the Supreme Court, he was a conservative African American who opposed affirmative action
Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1988?
Who was the Republican candidate in the election of 1988?
What did Bush promise?
No new tax cuts
Who won the election of 1988?
Bush continued the Republican themes of ____________ the governments role I'm daily life
This act passed during Bush's presidency prohibited discrimination against the disabled
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
In country after country communism gave way to freedom and the __________ faded away quickly
In May 1989, Chinese students begin a month long protest for democracy in Beijings _________ square
What did the Chinese government do about the student protests?
Sent tanks and troop, killed several hundred
Bush responded __________ to the situation in china
This policy imposed by Gorbachev said that a East Europe could govern themselves, refused to use arms to keep repressive regimes in power; replaced the Brezhnev doctrine
Who was the newly elected president on the Russian Republic?
Yeltsin disbanded the ___________ party and continued reform for _________ and a ___________
Democracy, free market
Russia formed with ten others to form a loose alignment called the _________________
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Bush offered _______ to Russia and other CIS nations
This agreed to reduce nuclear arms to less than 10,000; signed by Bush and Gorbachev
This agreed to eliminate land missiles and reduce nuclear arms to 3,000 ; signed by Bush and Yeltsin
In Dec of 1989, US troops invaded _________ to instill a government friendly to the US; largest military operation since Vietnam
The invasion of Panama shook Bush's reputation of _________
Who was the dictator of Iraq
Hussein stunned the world when he invaded defenseless _________
Bush persuaded threatened Saudi Arabia to accept US Troop buildup called ____________
Why did Bush respond so firmly to Hussein
Needed to keep oil reserves away from him
Democrats __________ the use of force in the Middle East
Eventually, Desert Shield gave way to ___________
Who led the ground assault on Iraq?
General H Norman Shwarzkopf
Bush _________ the advance, and agreed to and _________ with Iraq
Who was the federal reserve chairmen who worked with Clinton to bring up the economy?
Clinton made _________ the center of his economic policy
Clinton wanted to reduce the deficit by cutting ___________ and raising _________
Clinton's tax reform mainly raised taxes for the __________
Clinton continued to ___________ defense spending after the Cold War
Immigrants in the 90's came mainly from __________ and ___________
Latin America, Asia
Immigrants tended to settle in _________ areas
The ____________ was the main reason why Hispanics lagged behind economically
Lack of education
Most African Americans were concentrated in _____________
____________ became symbol for black struggle after being brutally beat by LA police; spurred in protests that took 53 lives
__________ were the fastest growing minority by the end of the century
Where were most Asians from?
Asians were relatively well ___________
Nearly half of ______________ immigrants came with college degrees
This was he concept of stripping immigrants from their cultural traits and casting them into an Anglo Saxon mold
The Democrats moved away from reliance in _________ and chose moderate candidates to appeal to the middle class
Who was the key figure in the democratic shift from liberal to moderate?
What was the major political issue in the election of 1992?
Recession that began in 1990
Who was the Democrat in the election of 1992?
Who was Bill Clinton's running mate?
What did Clinton stress during the election of 1992?
Investment in the nations future: internal improvements, healthcare reform, training workers
This Texas billionaire ran as an independent candidate, he dropped our of the race unexpectedly in July
H Ross Perot
Who was the Republican in the election of 1992?
Who won the election of 1992?
Clinton had a sincere devotion to ________ and ________ rights
At first, Clinton ________ to transition from governor to President
Clinton's economic team was ___________
Clinton had some serious confrontations with ___________
This was a free trade plan that united the US, Mexico, and Canada into a common market without tariff barriers; Clinton's biggest success in congress
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
What did critics say about NAFTA?
It would undermine small business in the US
_____________ publicized a major plan for health reform
What were the goals of the Clintons healthcare reform plan?
- include those without insurance
- lower healthcare costs
- don't increase taxes or add to deficit
What was the the Clinton's solution to the healthcare problem?
Limit medical services each American receives, employers add benefits
Did the Clinton health reform plan ever pass congress?
What was the consequence of the healthcare failure?
Helped fuel a republican resurgence
Who led an attack against democratic leadership?
Newton Leroy Genrich
Genrich asked all GOP candidates to sing a ______________ for the 1994 elections; consisted of conservative goals
Contract with America
Who filed a sexual harassment suit against Clinton?
In the elections of 1994, the ________ took control of both houses
Clinton's policy where he distanced himself from conservative Republicans and Liberal Democrats
Who was the democrat in the election of 1996?
Who was the Republican Candidate in the election of 1996?
Who won the election of 1996?
Clinton gave top priority to ________ affairs
What were the two issues that Clinton focused on in the Soviet Union
1) support Yeltsin and his successor Vladimir Putin
2) prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons among former soviet republics
Clinton ignored China's bad human rights policies and continued Bush's ______________ status of china
Most favored nation
The lowest point of Clinton's foreign policy was in __________
Muslim, Croat, and Serb delegates met in ___________ to discuss settlement on ending the war in Bosnia
What was the real driving force of the economic boom that continued through the 90's
Eventually, the deficits turned to __________
What did the government use the surplus for?
Paying off the national debt
Clinton's economic success was overshadowed by his affair with ____________
Who was the special investigator who investigated the Lewinsky scandal?
This was the fear that computers would fail in the new millennium because they were programmed with only the last two digits of a year, could confuse 2000 with 1900
Who was the Democrat in the election of 2000?
Who was the Republican in the Election of 2000
Who won the election of 2000 after several recounts in Florida
Bush convinced congress to cut __________
Bush's program requiring states to give mandatory testing to elementary schoolers
No child left behind
The _________ in 2001 was the worst in 10 years
Large companies were going ________
Bush's National Security Strategy, also called _____________, involved the US accepting their role of global police