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What is Hypnosis?

Hypnosis is the state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion. The four elements of hypnosis are 1. person told to focus on what is being said, 2. Person told to relax and feel tired, 3.Person told to accept suggestions, and 4. Person told to use vivid imagination.


What are the possible uses of hypnosis?

Some possible use of hypnosis are Relaxation, Pain control, Reducing food cravings or quit smoking ( difficult), Not appropriate for recovering “repressed memories.”


Who responds to hypnosis?

80% of people have some response, 40% of people are “good” subjects. Some predictors could be the hypnotic susceptibility scale and the absorption scale.


What is the first theory of hypnosis?

The theory of Hypnosis as disassociation states the subject has a split awareness: one stream communicates with the hypnotist and external world, while the other is the “hidden observer.” The evidence is like what can happen when you drive someplace familiar, the Ice water experiment, or press a button feel pain.


What is the second theory of hypnosis?

The second theory of Hynosis is the Social cognitive Theory of hypnosis, this theory assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation. Does not mean people are faking it. The evidence; Playing an expected role, social role. Participants are unaware of role playing. “Authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people-hypnotized or not to perform some unlikely acts.” (Milgram, 1974)


What is physical dependence, drug tolerance and drug withdrawal?

Physical dependence is condition where a person’s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug.
Drug Tolerance is when a person finds that they need larger and larger dosages of the drugs to feel the same effect they received the first time they used.
Withdrawal are symptoms that begin to occur when lack of the drug is present. Body is adjusting to the absence of the drug.


What is a psychological dependence?

Psychological dependence is a belief that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well being.


What are stimulants and some of their examples?

Stimulants are Drugs that increase the activity in the central nervous system and/or sympathetic nervous system, suppress appetite, cause people to feel more awake/alert and energetic.


What are amphetamines?

Amphetamines are drugs that include Methylphenidate (Ritalin) which is used for ADHD treatment and by students for ”cognitive enhancement”.
Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine (MDMA) (Ecstasy) is a stimulatory hallucinogenic used in chronic use for memory problems.
Methamphetamine (“Crystal Meth) which gives you a euphoric rush and also insomnia, mood disturbances, delusions, and physical symptoms.


What is Cocaine?

Cocaine is a stimulant euphoria drug and is also used for increased energy. Also, increases paranoia and vascular problems (including risk of heart attack and stroke). Freud was a huge advocate of cocaine.


Describe nicotine as a drug?

Nicotine, a stimulant, is the easiest to get addicted to and very hard to quit. Treatment can help. More smoking-related deaths in the US than from car accidents, alcohol, illicit drug use, AIDS, suicide, and homicide combined.


What is caffeine?

Caffeine is a mild stimulant. 90% of americans use caffeine. If you use regularly and quit, you can get withdrawal symptoms.


What is a depressant.

Depressants are drugs that decrease activity in the central nervous system and slow down bodily functions.


What are are the major and mild tranquilizers?

The major tranquilizers are Barbiturates and minor tranquilizers are benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Valium).


Describe alcohol as a drug?

Alcohol is the most commonly used (and abused) depressant. 23% of american report binge drinkin in the past month. 42.2 % of college students report binge drinking in the past month. Nearly ¼ of all fatal car crashes for those above 21 years of age involve alcohol. Alcohol is labeled a depressant because It depresses activity in the pre frontal cortex and un-inhibits certain impulsive behavior because it inhibits area of the brain responsible for controlling ourselves.


What are some of the long term affects associated with alcohol abuse.

Long term abuse associated with alcohol- related dementia, Korsakoff’s syndrome. Physical issues of abused alcohol are liver disease, heart disease, osteoporosis. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome causes facial deformity, affects cognitives functioning, speech, movement, social skills, and causes heart problems.


What are narcotics a.k.a opioids?

Narcotics or Opioids are a class of depressant drugs derived from the opium poppy that produces pain relieving and calming effects. They mimic endorphins and include; Opium, Morphine, Heroin, Methadone, Oxycodone (OxyContin). Opiods have an immediate dream like euphoria effect and duplicate the action of endorphins. Causes long term changes in mood and sleep and the body stops producing natural endorphins which decrease the body’s ability to naturally regulate pain.


What are hallucinogens?

Hallucinogens are drugs that can alter and distort perceptions of time and space, alter mood, produce feelings of unreality, and cause hallucinations; alter perception of reality and can cause false sensory messages. The vary in how addictive they are. For some people, use can result in hallucinogen persisting perception disorder. The Creator of LSD – Albert Hofman had “An uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors” after being on LSD. “A miraculous, powerful, unfathomable reality” he said. Hullucinogens include LSD, PCP, MDMA, and Psilocybin.


Who are the two important people in the history of hypnosis ?

The Mesmerizing Franz Anton Mesmer; Laying on of hands, “Animal Magnetism, Mesmerism. Franz is where we got the term mesmerized.
The Hypnotic James Braid coined the term hypnotism. Hypnotism was not because of animal magnetism, but had to do with their ability and willingness to alter their own willingness and consciousness.