Ch 6 Memory - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 6 Memory - Part 2 Deck (21):

How do you use mnemonics?

You use mnemonics by MOVAing your memory

Meaningfulness (e.g., schema‐building)

Organization (e.g., chunking, hierarchy)

Visualization (e.g., imagery)

Attention (i.e., effort)


What are some examples of using meaningfulness?

While reading, asking yourself, “what do I already know about this" Make connections to your life, e.g., personal examples of flashbulb memories.


What is the difference between distributed and massed practice?

Distributed practice is spacing one’s study sessions. Produces better retrieval.

Massed practice is studying a complete body of information all at one.


Why is sleep and exercise important in memory?

Sleep is important in forming memories. Memories rehearsed during sleep as well as during waking are more likely to
be consolidated. One can’t learn something new while sleeping, but new information can be better consolidated while sleeping. Sleep deprivation severely interferes with hippocampal function and memory. Even brief exercise can be good for your memory.


What is encoding failure?

We cannot remember what we did not encode.


What is memory trace theory?

Memory trace theory is the physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed.

Decay is the loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which memory trace is not used

Disuse is another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear. Memories recalled after many years are not explained by memory trace theory.


What did Ebbinghaus find about the curve of forgetting?

Curve of forgetting is a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.


What is an example of retrieval failure?

Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomena.


What are the two types of Interference theories?

Proactive interference is a memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information. Old information interferes with new.

Retroactive interference is a memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information. New information interferes with the old.


What are the two types of amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia is loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past.

Anterograde amnesia is the loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long‐term memories.


What is consolidation?

Consolidation are changes that takes place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed.

Long term potentiation is changes in the number and sensitivity of receptor sites/synapse through repeated stimulation.

Hippocampus is the area of brain responsible for the formation of long term memory, Declarative long term memory.


Who was Henry Molaison ("H.M")?

The patient whose hippocampus was damaged and allowed researchers to determine that the hippocampus is not important for implicit memories.


What importance is there from the cerebellum.

After being processed in the motor cortex, procedural memories appear to be stored in the cerebellum.


What is Alzheimer disease?

The primary memory difficulty in Alzheimer’s is anterograde amnesia.
Retrograde amnesia can also occur as the diseases progresses. Procedural memory generally intact.


What is infantile amnesia?

Infantile amnesia is the inability to retrieve memories from much before age three. Autobiographical memory is the memory for events and fact related to one life.


Who was Elizabeth Loftus?

Elizabeth Loftus showed that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event. Demonstrated that eyewitness testimony is not always reliable. Memory is not like a tape recorder.


What is constructive processing?

Constructive processing memory is the retrieval process in which memories are “built,” or reconstructed, from information stored during encoding: with each retrieval, memories may be altered, revised, or influenced by newer information.


What is hindsight bias?

Hindsight bias is the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event.


What is the misinformation effect?

The misinformation effect is the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself. The source monitoring error – when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another – might be a contributor to misinformation effect.


What is the false memory syndrome?

False memory syndrome is the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis. Evidence suggest that false memories cannot be created for just any kind of memory.


What are mnemonics?

Mnemonics is the art or practice of improving or of aiding the memory. The characteristics are effectualness, elaboration, and provides multiple routed to retrieval.