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What is intelligence?

Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience, acquire knowledge, and use resources in adapting to new situations or solving problems.


What are conceptual difficulties?

Psychologist believe that intelligence is a concept and not a “thing.”When we think of intelligence as a trait (like height or hair color) we commit to an error called reification – viewing an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing.


What are the positive and negative correlations associated with intelligence as measured by IQ test?

Positive correlation are Academic performance, Years of education, and Occupation and occupational performance. Negative correlations associated with criminal behavior.


Despite general agreement among psychologist about the nature of intelligence, there is one large controversy. What is that controversy?

Despite general agreement among psychologist about the nature of intelligence , there is one large controversy. Spearman proposed that intelligence is best characterized as a general capacity- underlying all branches of intellectual ability is one underlying fundamental function, the amount of general mental ability ( of general intelligence). He believed intelligence test tap into general intelligence (g) and specific intelligence (s). Considerable research support for g and also Gc and Gf (Cattells’s Theory).


What is the theory of multiple intelligence?

Howard Gardener proposed the existence of different kinds of intelligence (theory of multiple intelligence). As support for his theory, Gardner notes that people with savant syndrome typically show a combination of intellectual disability and unusual talent or ability.


What did the critics of the theory of multiple intelligence say?

Does being clumsy or tone deaf mean you have a lack of intelligence? Should all our abilities be considered intelligence?


Who was Robert Sternberg?

Robert Sternberg (1985,1999,2003) agreed with gardner, but suggested 3 kinds of intelligence (Triarchic Theory) rather than 9.
Analytical intelligence: assessed by intelligence test (book smart). Ability to break problems down into components parts for problem solving.
Creative intelligence: Intelligence that generated novel ideas/ new ways of solving problems, or find creative ways to perform task (divergent thinking).
Practical intelligence: Intelligence required to use daily life.


What is emotional intelligence?

Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions (Salovey and colleagues, 2005).
1. Perceive emotion: Recognize
2. Understand emotion: predict
3. Manage emotion: express
4. Use emotion: utilize


How do you asses intelligence?

Psychologist define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitude and comparing them with others using numerical scores. Most intelligence test report a global measure of mental ability, while also assessing individuals’ unique strengths and weaknesses in task‐specific abilities and processing domains.


What are aptitude and achievement test?

Aptitude (IQ) Test are intended to predict your ability to lear a new skill and achievement test are intended to reflect what have already been learned.


Who was Alfred Binet?

Alfred Binet and his college Theodore Simon started modern intelligence testing by developing question that would predict children’s future progress in the paris school system. Work commissioned by the French Ministry of Education to identify students in need of remedial.


Who was Lewis Terman?

Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for american school children and named is the standard- Binet test. The formula of Intelligence quotient (IQ) introduced by William stern is:IQ= Mental age/chronological age x 100.


Who was David Wechsler?

Wechsler developed the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS), later the Wechsler scale for children (WISC), and the Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI). Two major innovation to testing: test was less dependent on subjects’ verbal ability and disregarded the intelligence quotient in favor of a new scoring scheme based on the normal distribution.


What three criteria must a psychological test fulfill to be acceptable?

For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill three criterial: Standardization, Reliability, Validity.


What is standardization?

Standardizing a test involve administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. If you are tested, your score says where you stand in comparison to those in the sample.


What is a normal curve?

Standardized test often establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population – a bell shaped patter called the normal curve. Wechsler’s more sophisticated scoring scheme replaced the old IQ test with the deviation IQ scored assumed to be normally distributed.


What is the lynn efect?

In the past 60 years intelligence scores have stadily risen by an average of 27 points- a phenomena known as the Flynn affect. The effect is 1/3 increase.


What is reliability?

Reliability is about consistency. A test is reliable when it yields consistent results for an individual.


What is validity?

Validity is about accuracy. Reliability does not insure validity. Validity of the test refers to the degree a test measures what its suppose to measure or predict. Content validity: Extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait that it claim to.
Predictive Validity: The function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.


What is the long term stability of IQ test?

Intelligence score become stable after about seven years of age.


How is intellectual ability defined?

Intellectual disability is generally defined as and IQ below 70, Adaptive behaviror skills below appropite age, and presentation of these limitations during development.


What determines high intelligence?

High-scoring people in intellligence test - contrary to popular beliefs tend to be healthy socially well adjusted, and have high academic and vocational success. High intelligence does not guarantee this.


What are the applications of studying cognition?

Clinical neuropsychology is a specialization within clinical psychology that focuses on brain behavior relationships. Primary training is in clinical psychology. (Psychopathology, therapy, personality, measurement and additional therapy in neurotomy, and neuroscience).
Neuropsychologist give test that assess domains such as:
Intelligence, Language, Memory, Judgement and decision making, Diagnosis, feedback, recommendations, treatments.