Flashcards in Ch 6 Memory - Part 1 Deck (20)
What are the three memory processes?
The three memory processes are;
encoding or putting in information, a process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.
Storage or keeping information in, holding onto information for some period of time.
Retrieval or getting information out, getting information that is in storage out into a form that can be used.
What is the information of processing model of memory?
The information processing model details the mechanics of how different information is processed through different stages (or systems) of memory – how memory works. Three stages.
What is the parallel distributed processing model of memory.
Parallel Distributed processing model states that the connection and timing of memory processes is a simultaneous processing of information across multiple neural networks.
Wht is the level of processing model of memory?
The level-of-processing model describes the depth that information is processed and how it impacts the strength of parallel connection within memory systems. Strength and duration of memory increases as the level of processing deepens.
What s sensory memory?
The sensory memory holds information from the senses for a very brief duration. Each sense has a memory associated with it.
Visual is iconic memory (about 1 sec) and auditory is echoic memory, the brief memory o something a person just heard lasting about 4 seconds.
Describes Sperling's procedure and iconic memory?
Sperling showed people an array of letter very fast and the people were cued to remember a certain row after seeing the letters (partial report). People could remember almost the whole row. This showed that people could remember more than they could report.
What does the information processing model say about short term memory?
Short term memory is the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. Selective attention is the ability to focus on only one stimulus (or a narrowed range of stimuli) from among all sensory input present – information gets into STM through selective attention.
Working memory is an active system that processes the information present in short‐ term memory
What s the difference between short term memory and working memory?
Short term memory is the thing or place into which information is put. Short term memory last from about twelve to thirty seconds without rehearsal and is susceptible to interference. On the other hand, working memory is the active system that processes or manipulates the information in short term memory. It is compromised of three interconnected systems: the central executive, the visual sketchpad, and the auditor recorder.
What is maintenance rehearsal?
With maintenance rehearsal content can be held (or stored) in short term memory. Information loss occurs when (a). rehearsal stops of (b) amount of information to be held exceeds capacity of short term memory. Shot term memory tends to be encoded in auditory form.
What was the brown peterson task?
Brown and peterson (1958-1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. Duration of working memory is about 20 seconds.
What does the information processing theory say about long term memory?
Long term memory is the memory system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. The capacity seems to be unlimited. Duration can be relatively permanent. Long term does not mean that memories can always be retrieved or that all memories are stored forever. Elaborative Rehearsal is a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
What are the types of long term memory?
Non-declarative (implicit) memory is a type of long term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses.
Procedural memory (often called implicit memory is memory that is not easily bought to conscious awareness).
Declarative memory ( explicit) is a type of long term memory containing information that is conscious and know. It includes Semantic memory: declarative memory containing general knowledge and Episodic memory: declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others.
Describe how long term memory is organized?
LTM is organized in terms of related meanings and concepts. The semantic network model assumes information is stored in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other.
Describe recall versus recognition.
Recall is the memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be pulled rom memory with very few external cue. Recognition, on the other hand, is the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact.
What is encoding specefity?
Encoding specificity (i.e. context cues) is the tendency for memory of information to be improved if the physical surroundings at the time of encoding are also available when the memory is being retrieved.
What is state dependent learning?
State‐dependent learning states that memories that are formed during a particular physiological or psychological state
will be easier to remember while in a similar state, but some states are better than others.
What is elaborative rehearsal?
Elaborative rehearsal is a method of transferring information from short term memory into long term memory by making that information meaningful in some way. Goes beyond just repeating information and involves making connections.
What is automatic encoding?
Automatic encoding details flashbulb memories an automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it. However, this memory is not free from errors.
Describe the process of automatic processing.
1. Space: encode the place or location of things
2. Time: Note the events that take place in a day (allowing you to retrace your steps)
3. Frequency: Keep track of things that happened to you