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Flashcards in Ch 8 Development Part 2 Deck (33)
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What is the span of infancy to childhood?

Infancy and childhood span from birth to teenage years. During these years the individual has rapid growth physically, cognitively and socially.


A child adept at roller skating goes ice skating for the first time. She keeps trying to stand and move just as on roller skates but falls again and again. According to Piaget, what is necessary for mastery of this new skill?

Assimilation definitely helped this child to get started. However, she keeps falling, so she needs to make a change. To reach mastery of this skill, she needs to adapt her schema, or in other words, use accommodation.


An eight‐year‐old boy threatened to tell his parents when given only one of the three candy bars he and his ten‐year‐old brother were told to share. The older child then broke his brother’s bar in half and gave him two pieces. This satisfied both children because they each had two pieces. Identify the cognitive stages of these children and the disadvantage that allows the younger child to be cheated.

Even though the younger child is 8, he is still in the preoperational stage because he lacks the ability to conserve. The older child is in concrete operations. The older child understands the just having two pieces of candy does not necessarily mean that they are both getting equal amounts of candy.


Previously, whenever Johnny banged with a spoon, his mother would put it in a drawer and Johnny would quickly move on to something else. Now that he is eight months old, this isn’t working. The child continues to demand the spoon even though he can’t see it. Identify the cognitive stage of this child and the change that has taken place.

Johnny is in the sensorimotor stage and has recently developed object permanence.


A four‐year‐old insists small people must live in the TV because they are right there behind the glass. Identify the stage and the phenomenon being displayed by the child.

The child is in the preoperational stage and is showing egocentric thought.


What is Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development?

Vygotsky’s theory stressed the importance of social interactions with other people (typically having more skill) for cognitive development.

Critical to this theory are.
1. Scaffolding: the process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.

2. Zone of proximal development: the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with help of a teacher.


What is adolescence?

Adolescence spans from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood. During these years the individuals: physically matures, places high value on membership in the peer group, develops a more fully formed identity and morality structure, starts having romantic and sexual relationships, and begins making decisions regarding a career choice.


What is a personal fable?

Personal Fable - believe they are especially unique and protected from harm.


What is an imaginary audience?

Imaginary audience–convinced that everyone is paying attention to them.


What is adulthood?

Adulthood begins in the early twenties and ends with death in old age. Women experience a physical decline in the reproductive system called the climacteric, ending at about age fifty with menopause: the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability.
Men experience andropause: gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system.


What are the theories of aging?

Aging is pre‐programmed:
1. Cellular clock theory: based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can divide (telomeres). Division necessary for repair/replacement of tissue.

Aging is a result of cell damage:
2. Wear‐and‐tear theory: as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage.

3. Free radical theory: molecules with an unpaired electron, created as a by‐product of various biological processes, damage cell structures.


What is infant temperament?

Temperament refers to a person’s stable emotional reactivity and intensity.
Identical twins express similar temperaments, suggesting heredity predisposes temperament.


What are the three types of temperament?

Three types of temperament (Chess & Thomas, 1977, 1986):

1. Easy: happy and regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, and eating and are adaptable to change.

2. Difficult: Irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind.

3. Slow to warm up: less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult babies, but are slow to adapt to change.


What are the origins of attachment?

Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not nourishment.


What is the attachment theory?

Special bond formed with caregiver early in life create working models.
This is the basis for all future relationships “from the cradle to the grave." Can change based on life experiences, Unconscious expectations.


What are the attachment differences?

Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment, i.e., they explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When mother leaves they show distress. The other 40% show insecure attachment, these children cling to their mothers or caregivers, and are less likely to explore the environment.


What are the attachment styles?

1. Secure: willing to play and explore comfortably with their mother present, become visibly upset when she leaves, and are quickly calmed by her return.

2. Avoidant: somewhat willing to explore, seek little contact with their mothers, and may react little to her absence and return.

3. Ambivalent: clinging and unwilling to explore, protest mightily when mother leaves, and are hard to soothe when she returns—e.g., demand to be picked up, but at the same time push away or kick mother.

4. Disorganized‐disoriented: seem unable to decide how they should react to mother’s return.

In one study, 72% of the infants received the same secure versus insecure attachment classification 20 years later (Waters, Merrick, Treboux, Crowell, & Albersheim, 2000).


Describe the child rearing practices.

Authoritarian ( Because I said so): Parents are stern/harsh, rigid with rules, tend to be punitive (often punish misbehavior physically) and expect strict obedience.

2. Permissive: Parent make few demands and have few rules either by being neglectful (lacking warmth) or overindulgent ( supportive/warm).

3. Authoritative: Parents are more democratic, they are demanding, but responsive to their children, enforce limits, but encourage open communication.


Who was Erikson?

Erikson offered 8 major “crises” we all must pass through. How do we “discover ourselves?” What are the pivotal points is our lives that shape who we become?


What was Erik Eriksons eights stages of human development?

1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy Vs. Shame and doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry Vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Identity confusion
6. Intimacy Vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. despair


Describe Trust vs. Mistrust.

Is my world predictable and supportive? Will others fulfill my needs or am I on my own? Learn to trust or mistrust based on whether needs are met.


Describe Autonomy vs. shame and doubt?

Can I do things myself or must I rely on others? Do I have self control; am I in charge of my life? Attempts at independence fostered and; successful or blocked and; unsuccessful leading to self‐ doubt and; shame.


Describe Initiative Vs. Guilt.

Am I good or am I bad? Should I make decisions on my own, or listen to others? Challenged to control/regulate own behavior; feel capable and; develop initiative or feel irresponsible and; be anxious and; guilty.


What is Industry Vs. Inferiority?

Am I competent or am I inferior/inadequate? Do I have unique abilities and skills? Make social comparisons as faced with new social and academic learning.


What is Identity vs. Role confusion.

Who am I and where am I going? Do I have a unified sense of self? Make decisions about occupation, beliefs, attitudes, and behavior patterns, leading to strong sense of identity or confusion.


Describe intimacy vs. isolation.

Shall I share my life with another or live alone? Can I form a committed relationship with another individual? Determine who they are with another person, leading to satisfying intimate relationships or isolation and loneliness.


Describe Generativity vs. Stagnation.

Will I produce something of real value? Have I contributed to the world in some meaningful way? Challenge to transmit something positive to the next generation.


What is Integrity vs. Despair?

Have I lived a full life? Acceptance of one’s life, both successes and failures. Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past, leading to enjoyment and no fear of death or feeling empty and fearing death.


One last note about Erikson's stages?

1. While psychosocial theory is often presented as a series of neatly defined, sequential steps, it is important to remember that each stage contributes to the next.

2. For example, Erikson believed that having a fully formed sense of self (established during the identity versus role confusion stage) is essential to being able to form intimate relationships.

3. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.


What is pre conventional morality?

Preconventional morality: first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior (not intentions or wider societal code).