What is cognitive therapy?
Cognitive therapy teaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Cognitive therapy identifies and changes distorted thinking.
What are examples of cognitive distortions?
Examples of cognitive distortions include:
- Selective thinking: occrs when a person focuses selectively on one negative aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts.
- Overgeneralization:occurs when making a sweeping negative conclusion that goes far beyond the current situation.
- Arbitrary inference or “jumping to conclusions”
- Magnification and minimization
What is behavior therapy?
Behavior therapy is a form of action therapy that applies learning principles (i.e., classical & operant conditioning, and observational learning) to control, reduce, or eliminate unwanted behaviors. Abnormal and undesirable behavior is not seen as a symptom of anything else, but rather the problem itself.
What is exposure therapy?
Exposure therapy is a behavioral technique that introduces the client to situations (under carefully controlled conditions) that are related to their anxieties or fears. The patient experience new consequences and learn new behaviors. There are different techniques used for exposure therapy including systemic desensitization, hierarch, and flooding. Variations are related to specific disorders.
What is systemic desensitization?
Systematic desensitization is behavioral technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears. Is a form of counterconditioning in which the patient is replacing an old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus.
Flooding is an exposure therapy technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response.
What is Hierarchy?
Hierarch is a type of exposure therapy used for people with social anxiety. Th patients is giving different task to acomplish in order to face their fear of social interactions.
Example Hierarchy for Social Anxiety
- Make small talk with a classmate you’ve spoken to before
- Initiate a conversation with someone you don’t know
- Disagree with a friend
- Join a student organization and go to a meeting
- Go to a party
- Go on a date
What is a example of operant conditioning used in behavioral therapy?
Reinforcement (used in operant conditioning) is the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
Token economy: the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
Contingency contract: a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
Extinction: the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior.
What effect does behavioral therapy have?
Behavior therapies can be effective in treating specific problems, such as bedwetting, drug addictions, and phobias. Behavior therapies can also help improve some of the more troubling behavioral symptoms associated with more severe disorders.
What is Cognitive-Behavior Theray (CBT)?
CBT focuses on the interrelationship among thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. CBT therapies can include both cognitive and behavioral interventions. Cognitve bahaviroal therapies have three goals which include:
- Relieve the symptoms and solve the problems.
- Help develop strategies for solving future problems.
- Help change irrational, distorted thinking.
What success is attriuted to CBT?
CBT has seemed successful in treating depression, stress disorders, and anxiety. CBT has been criticized for focusing on the symptoms, not the causes, of disordered behavior.
Give a little background on psychotherapy.
- Psychotherapy is more effective than no treatment at all.
- Between 75 and 90 percent of people who receive therapy feel it has helped them.
- Psychotherapy works as well alone as with drugs.
- Some types of psychotherapy are more effective for certain types of problems, and no one psychotherapy method is effective for all problems.
- Eclectic therapies is therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques.
- Common factors approach: modern approach to eclecticism focusing on factors seen as the source of success.
what are some of the common factors approach that make psychotherapy effective?
Common factors approach
- Therapeutic alliance: the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding.
- Protected setting
- Opportunity for catharsis
- Learning and practice of new behaviors
- Positive experiences for the client
What are biomedical therapies?
Biomedical therapies are therapy techniques that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain which may include Psychopharmacology. Psychopharmacology is the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.
What are different forms of drug treatments?
SOme differnt forms of drug treatments include:
- Antipsychotic drugs: used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior.
- Antianxiety drugs: used to treat and calm anxiety reactions (also called anxiolytics) which are typically minor tranquilizers.
- Mood‐stabilizing drugs: used to treat bipolar disorder (also called antimanic drugs) which include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs.
- Antidepressant drugs: used to treat depression and anxiety.
What is electroconvulsive therapy?
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a biomedical treatment in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head and an electric current strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion is passed through the electrodes. ECT is still used to treat severe depression today.
What is psychosurgery?
Psychosurgery is surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders. There are two types of psychosurgeries: prefrontal lobotomy and bilateral anterior cingulotomy.
What is prefrontal lobotomy?
Prefrontal lobotomy is a surgery which severes the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions of the brain.
What is bilateral anterior cingulotomy?
Bilateral anterior cingulotomy is a psychosurgery technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulated gyrus area of the brain for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current. The electrode is inserted with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine.
What are some psychosurgery emergency techniques.
Psychosurgery emerging techniques include:
- Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in which magnetic pulses are applied to the cortex.
- Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) which uses scalp electrodes to pass very low amplitude direct currents to the brain.
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in which an electrode is inserted into the brain to directly stimulate parts of the prefrontal cortex.