Flashcards in Final-Chapter 15 Part 1 Deck (16):
What is treatment in the (dark) past?
Mentally ill people began to be confined to institutions called asylums in the mid‐1500s. Treatments were harsh and often damaging. Philippe Pinel became famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness, personally unlocking the chains of inmates in France.
What is therapy?
Therapies are treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively. There are two broad categories: one based primarily in psychological theory and techniques and the other uses medical intervention to bring symptoms under control.
What is psychotherapy?
Psychotherapy is therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional There are two types:
1. insight therapies are psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings and
2. Action therapy psychotherapies in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly.
What is biomedical therapy?
Biomedical therapy is therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms.
What is the difference between science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology?
Science is the use of the scientific method to guard against personal biases, test alternative hypotheses, use standardized/reliable/valid measures and focus on findings that have been replicated.
Pseudoscience is resistance to rigorous scientific testing, overreliance on testimonial/anecdotal evidence, failure to test alternative hypotheses, and an emphasis on any positive evidence.
What are the two types of psychotherapy research?
The two types of psychotherapy research are:
1. Psychotherapy outcome research focuses on whether treatments work and
2. Psychotherapy process research focuses on how treatments work.
Why is therapy research difficult?
The difficulties in therapy research include:
1. Deciding who to include in a treatment study- Comorbidity problem.
2. Operationalizing treatment-Psychotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy. How do you figure out if each piece of a psychotherapy is “important”?
3. Eliminating the placebo/expectation effects.
4. Assessing outcomes - What kinds of outcomes? Immediate vs. follow‐up.
What is the difference between action therapies and insight therapies?
One classification of therapies is on the focus of insight vs. action as a mechanism of psychological change.
Insight therapy aims to enhance understanding of self and gain insight into ones own motives and actions and
Action therapies aims to directly change disordered or inappropriate thinking and behavior.
Describe freuds psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis use insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts. Puts an emphasis on 1. Dream interpretation and manifest content (the actual content of one’s dream) and latent content (the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams).
2. Free association is a Freudian technique in which a patient is encouraged to talk about anything that comes to mind without fear of negative evaluations.
3. Resistance occurs when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent.
4. Transference: the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist.
What is used as psychoanalysis today?
There are two types of psychoanalysis approaches today.
1. Directive which is actively giving interpretations of a client’s statements in therapy, even suggesting certain behavior or actions. Psychoanalysis today is generally directive.
2. Psychodynamic therapy a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach.
Describe humanistic therapist?
Humanistic therapists use therapy to help promote insight so clients make their own life choices and resolve their own dilemmas. They believe in helping people grow in self‐ awareness and self‐acceptance. Humanistic therapies include Fritz Perls (developer of gestalt psychology) and Carl Rogers (developer of person centered therapy).
Describe Roger's person centered therapy.
Person‐Centered Therapy aimed to increase match between real self and ideal self. It was non‐directive and insight‐oriented. Was composed of four basic elements:
1. Reflection – restating client’s words in slightly different way— key task is clarification.
2. Unconditional positive regard – nonjudgmental acceptance (i.e., warmth, respect, & affection are given without conditions).
3. Empathy – understanding the client’s point of view and feelings. and
4. Authenticity – genuine open and honest communication.
What is Gestalt therapy?
Gestalt Therapy is directive, present‐focused and insight‐oriented. The therapist helps clients become aware of and accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences. Techniques include using leading questions and using planned experiences (e.g., empty chair).
What is cognitive therapy?
Cognitive Therapy teaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Cognitive therapy identifies and changes distorted thinking.
What are some examples of cognitive distortions?
Examples of Cognitive Distortions include:
1. Selective thinking which occurs when a person focuses selectively on one negative aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts. and
2. Overgeneralization making a sweeping negative conclusion that goes far beyond the current situation -Arbitrary inference i.e. “jumping to conclusions," Magnification and minimization, and Personalization.