Ch 4 Consciousness - Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Describe consciousness?

Consciousness is awareness of everything around you and inside of your own head at any given moment. Used to organize your behavior, thoughts, sensations, and feelings. Generated from a set of action potentials. There is no single stream of consciousness, multiple channels each handling its own tasks —people must organize their conscious experience.


What are the two types of consciousness?

Waking consciousness are the thoughts, feelings, and sensations that are clear and organized.
Altered states of consciousness are the shifts in the quality or pattern of mental activity including; Daydreaming, Hypnotic state, Meditative state, Increased alertness, Divided attention, and Sleep.


What are the key factors involved in sleep and the circadian rhythm?

The key players in sleep and the circadian rhythm are suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, pineal gland, and melatonin.
When it gets dark: the SCN triggers the secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland, making us feel sleepy.
When it gets light: the SCN stops the secretion of melatonin, allowing the body to waken


What are the other factors related to sleep?

Other Factors Related to Sleep are;
Serotonin aids in sleep regulation.
Body temperature- The higher the body temperature, the more alert we are; the lower the body temperature, the sleepier we are.
Adenosine - As adenosine builds up we become more sleepy.
Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist.


What happens if you don't sleep?

Micro sleeps are brief periods of sleep that last only a few seconds. Missing a single night of sleep causes problems with concentration and simple task performance.


What are the sleep deprivation symptoms?

The sleep deprivation symptoms are trembling hands, inattention, staring off to space, droopy eye lids, general discomfort and psychological symptoms (i.e., irritability, depression, mania, hallucinations).


What happens in extended sleep deprivation?

Extended sleep deprivation is missing multiple days of sleep (no sleep or reduced levels of sleep). When this happens there is a significant impairment in functioning. Long term sleep deprivation can cause obesity, Impaired immune system functioning, and increased inflammatory response. Randy Garner (1965), Fatal familial insomnia.


Why do we sleep?

There are two theories on why we sleep, Adaptive Theory of Sleep and Restorative Theory of Sleep.


What is the Adaptive Theory of Sleep?

Adaptive Theory of Sleep says sleep is a product of evolution. We want to stay safe from predators! Explains why we sleep when we sleep. Evidences found in the relationship b/w amount of time particular animals sleep and status on the food chain.


What is the Restorative Theory of Sleep?

Restorative Theory of Sleep states sleep is necessary for physical health. Explains why we sleep in general. Evidence is found in the fact that most bodily growth and cellular repair occur at night in deepest stages of sleep.


What are the two kinds of sleep?

The 2 kinds of sleep are REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, which is active sleep, you dream during this stage, and voluntary muscles are paralyzed.
Non‐REM sleep is restful sleep and voluntary muscles are not paralyzed.


What is an EEG?

EEG are used to record brain wave activity and determine what stage of sleep people are in. When people are awake and alert: beta waves (very small and fast). When people are relaxed and drowsy: alpha waves (slightly larger and slower).


Describe Non-Rem Stage 1 (N1)?

Non‐REM Stage 1 sleep (N1), are when theta waves replace alpha waves (even slower). This is light sleep – people will deny they were sleeping. Hypnic jerk is common in this stage. Some people hallucinate falling into this stage, called hypnogogic images or hallucinations


What is Non-Rem Stage 2 (N2)?

Non‐REM Stage 2 sleep (N2): Body temperature drops, heart rate slows, and breathing becomes more shallow. Characterized by sleep spindles Theta waves continue during the N2 stage. If awakened, people are aware that they were asleep.


What is Non‐REM Stages 3 and 4 (N3)?

Non‐REM Stages 3 and 4 (N3); Stage 3: delta waves start (slowest and largest)
Stage 4: deepest sleep. Body growth occurs during N3. If you wake a person up during this stage, they will be disoriented.


What happens during Rem Sleep?

During Rem Sleep, body temperature rises to almost waking temperature, eye lids move, and heart rate increases. Brain waves resemble beta waves. 90% of dreams take place in REM sleep. REM Paralysis: voluntary muscles are paralyzed


Describe the progressions of sleep?

Progression of sleep
• 45 minutes to an hour deep stages of sleep. In an hour and half, you experience first rem cycle. After first rem cycle you proceed back to deep sleep lasting about an hour, then back to REM sleep. As you get closer to 8th hour, deep sleep decreases and REM increases.


Why is rem sleep important?

You experience more REM sleep after a stressful day and more non- REM sleep after physically demanding day. If deprived of REM sleep, you experience REM rebound the following night. Infants engage in more REM sleep than adults. Period of the growth and development for infants.


Why do we dream?

According to Freud we dream for wish fulfillment People’s repressed conflicts and events cause them problems and dreams are symbolic representations of past conflicts, desires, and events stemming from childhood. Manifest content versus Latent content. Activation – Synthesis Hypothesis state Dreams are produced by the pons which inhibits movement and sends signals to the cortex. Since frontal lobes are basically shut down, dreams are sometimes bizarre.
Activation-Information- Mode model states information gathered while awake can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.


What is REM Sleep disorder?

REM sleep disorders include Narcolepsy which happens when you slip into REM sleep during the day or fall asleep due to excessive sleepiness. Also problematic with the issue of cataplexy which is the loss of muscle tone.


What is Somnambulism?

Somnambulism, AKA: Sleepwalking is a Non-REM sleep disorder that is fairly common (20%). Occurs during deep sleep. Night Terrors also persist in persons with sleepwalking when they experiences extreme fear and panic during sleep.


What is insomnia?

Insomnia is the inability to get asleep, stay asleep, or get good quality of sleep. Psychological causes (e.g. worrying) and physiological causes (e.g. Caffeine, pain). Behavioral treatments and pharmacological treatments.
To treat insomnia:
Don’t lay in bed for more than 20 minutes.
Keep a regular sleep schedule.
Use the bed only for sleep.
Avoid using alcohol to fall asleep.
Void using caffenine and nicotine around bedtime. Avoid (or limit) napping. Create a good enviroment for sleeping (dark, cool, no distracting noises).


What is Sleep Apnea?

Sleep Apnea is a disorder in which people stop breathing for nearly ½ a minute or more. Treatments include Nose device, Losing weight, CPAP device, or Surgery.


What is mediation?

Mediation is one type of deliberate effort to alter one’s state of consciousness. Studied in psychology as an intervention for those with depression, anxiety, etc.