Flashcards in Ch 9 Motivaion and Emotion Part 1 Deck (15):
What is extrinsic motivation?
Extrinsic motivation: a person performs an action because it lead to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person.
What is intrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic motivation: a person performs an action because the act is fun, challenging, or satisfying in an internal manner.
What are the theories of motivation?
The theoris of motivation are Instinct theory, Drive-reduction Theory, Needs Theory, Arousal Theory, Incentive approaches, Hierarchy of needs, and Self- Determination Theory.
What is the instinct approaches to motivation theory?
Instincts is the biologically determined and innate patters of behavior that exist in both people and animals. In animals instincts include migrating, net building, mating.
Insttinct approach is the approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those in animals. Pro and cons of instinct theory is that is describes behavior, but des not explain why such behaviors exist. Forced psychologist (behaviorist) to acknowledge the importance of hereditary factors.
Describe the drive reduction theory of motivation.
Drive reduction Theory assumes behaviors arise from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal.
Need is a requirement of some material that is essential for survival.
Drive is a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivated the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.
Primary Drives involves needs of the body such as hunger and thirst.
Acquired (secondary) drives are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the first need for money or social approval.
What is leptin?
Leptin is the hormone that signals to the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food.
What is the hypothalamus role in hunger?
The hypothalamus respond to levels of glucose and insulin in the body. Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) stops eating when glucose levels are high. Without it overeating.
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) tells you starts eating when insulin levels high. Without it, no eating, starvation.
What is the orbital frontal cortex responsible for?
The Orbital Frontal Cortex controls Food, Taste, and Satiety. OFC controls activity for taste and smell of food.
More pleasant=more activity
What are the social causes of hunger?
Social cues for when a meal is to be eaten is controlled by cultural customs and food preferences. Use of food as a comfort device or escape from unpleasantness. Some people may respond to the anticipation of eating by producing an insulin response.
What is McClelland's Need story?
McClelland’s Need Theory describes three types of need:
Need for achievement: involving a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not just realistic goals.
Need for affiliation: the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with other.
Need for power: the need to have control or influence of others.
Describe the arousal approach to motivation?
Stimulus Motive is a motive that appears to be unlearned, but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity, play and exploration.
Arousal Theory is the theory of motivation in which people are said to have a optimal (best or ideal) level of tension.
Yerkes –Dodson Law law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performances than do levels of arousal that are two low or too high. This effects varies with the difficulty of the task. The optimal level of arousal or task performance depends on the difficulty of the task. We generally perform easy tasks well if we are at a high–moderate level of arousal (green) and accomplish difficult tasks well if we are at a low– moderate level (red).
A Sensation Seeker is one who needs more arousal than the average person.
What is the incentive approach to motivation?
Incentives: things that attract or lure people into action. It is the theory of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties.
Describe Maslow's hiearchy of need: a humanistic approach.
Self-Actualization is the point at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential (Seldomly reach)
Peak experiences are times in a person life which self‐ actualization is temporarily achieved. Maslow proposed that human beings must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill the higher needs of self- actualization and transcendence.There is little scientific evidence, some self-actualization may have forgone some basic needs, and is not true in all cultures.
What is the self determination theory of motivation?
Self Determination states the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing fo the action including autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Intrinsic motivation: type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying. Earl research suggested that external motivation undermined internal motivation. More recent suggest that external motivation can complement internal motivation.