Ch 9 Motivation and Emotion Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9 Motivation and Emotion Part 2 Deck (17)
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What is emotion?

Emotion is the “feeling” aspect of consciousness characterized by certain physical arousal, certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and inner awareness of feelings.


What are the elements of emotion?

Facial expressions can vary across different cultures, but seems to be universal. There are display rules, labeling emotion, and interpreting the subjective feeling by giving it a label. Altough situation that may cause these emotions may differ from culture to culture there interpretation is the same.


Describe facial expressions?

Facial expressions appear to be universal. For example, these faces are consistently interpreted as showing (a) anger, (b) fear, (c) disgust, (d) happiness, (e) surprise, and (f) sadness by people of various cultures from all over the world. Although the situations that cause these emotions may differ from culture to culture, the expression of particular emotions remains strikingly the same.


Which parts of the brain are involved in various aspects of emotion?

The amygdala is a complex structure with many different nuclei and subdivisions, whose roles have been investigated primarily through studies of fear conditioning. Emotional stimuli travel to the amygdala by both a fast, crude “low road” (subcortical) and a slower but more involved cortical “high road. ”


Describe the low road and the high road?

When we are exposed to an emotion-provoking stimulus (such as a shark), the neural signals travel by two pathways to the amygdala. The “low road” is the pathway underneath the cortex and is a faster, simpler path, allowing for quick responses to the stimulus, sometimes before we are consciously aware of the nature of the stimulus. The “high road” uses cortical pathways and is slower and more complex, but it allows us to recognize the threat and, when needed, take more conscious control of our emotional responses. In this particular example, the low road shouts, “Danger!” and we react before the high road says, “It’s a shark!”


What if you don't have an Amydgala?

Patient SM had bilateral, specific, amygdala lesions. Impaired ear recognition and impaired fear coconditioning classical conditioning of fear.


What parts of the brain are involved in various aspects of emotions?

Other subcortical and cortical areas include Hemisphere, frontal lobe, Anterior cingulate cortex, and Lateral orbitofrontal cortex.


What is the common sense theory of emotion?

Common sense theory of emotion states that a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal. Ex. "I'm shaking because im afraid.


What does the James-Lange Theory of emotion say?

The James‐Lange theory of emotion says a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion. ex. "I'm afraid because i'm shaking.


Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion.

The Cannon‐Bard theory of emotion states the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time. ex. "I'm shaking and feeling afraid at the same time"


What does the cognitive arousal theory of emotion state?

The Cognitive-Arousal Theory of emotion states both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal is based on cues from the environment and must occur before the emotion is experienced. ex. “The snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid.”


What is the facial feedback hypothesis?

The Facial feedback hypothesis says facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion. Brain interprets facial response and autonomic response and determines how you are feeling. In the facial feedback theory of emotion, a stimulus such as the snarling dog causes arousal and a facial expression. The facial expression then provides feedback to the brain about the emotion. The brain then interprets the emotion and may also intensify it.


What is the cognitive mediation theory?

Cognitive Mediation Theory states a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotion reaction. “The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous”). The cognitive appraisal results in an emotional response, which is then followed by the appropriate bodily response.


Describe the botox and depression treatment.

Depression severity decreased in the botox group (verum group). Botox increases remission rates no longer depressed for a certain amount of time.


What is emotional regulations?

Emotional regulation is the modulation of one’s emotional response when it is inappropriate, unwanted or excessive, so as to ensure goal relevant behavior. We can regulate our emotional responses using cognitive effort (James Gross). Some strategies don’t work as well as others (Gross 1998). Reappraisal (or Distraction) works well! Suppressing emotions does not!


Describe emotional regulation in the brain?

Cognitive reappraisal and Distraction are both effective at suppressing emotions. Both suppress amygdala activity and recruit similar and different brain regions.


What happens when emotion regulation fails?

Deficits in behavioral and brain markers of emotion regulation in Major Depression, despite preserved cognitive control.