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Describe associative learning?

Throughout life, we learn to associate things with each other. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence (e.g gestalt continuity idea – things that occur close in time to one another are grouped together. In other words, when one event precedes another we learn to associate one event with the other.
Thunder and lighting, Lucky shirt and doing well on exam. Learning that things go together is very adaptive.


WHat us the difference between a UCS and a UCR.

A UCS is an unconditioned stimulus and is not learned;Innate. A UCN is a unconditioned response and is automatic and involuntary. • Pavlov Example: Food the UCS and drooling UCR. There was NO learning needed to occur for the dogs to drool when it sees food, thus the response is unconditioned.


What i the differenc between a CS and a CR?

A CS is a Conditioned stimulus and is learned (starts of neutral). A CN is a Conditioned response that is learned, but is not as strong as UCR.


What are the basic principles of acquisition in classical conditioning?

The basic principles of acquisition in classical conditioning are;
1. The neutral stimulus need to come before the US, although it is okay to overlap.
2. The time between the two stimuli should be close (about half a second to 5 seconds apart is ideal)
3. Pairing needs to occur several times, often many.
4. The CS usually needs to be distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli.


What is Extinction and Spontaneous recovery?

Extinction is what happens if you stop the paring. Raises the question of "Can you unlearn?" Respondent extinction is when a US does not follow a CS, a CR starts to decrease and at some point completely diminishes.
On the other hand, spontaneous recovery happens after a rest period and an extinguished CR spontaneously recovers. If CS persist alone again it becomes extinct again.


What is stimulus generalization?

Stimulus Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimulus similar to CS. What we learn in one specific situation or with one specific stimulus carries over, or transfers to a different situation. The more similar the new stimulus is to the original CS, the greater the likelihood of generalization.


What is stimulus discrimination?

Stimulus Discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.


What is a learning phobia?

Learning Phobias are conditioned emotional response is an example of classical conditioning in which the unconditioned Response is an emotional response, like fear. The CS, like a neutral bell, becomes associated with a fearful CR. Fear conditioning CERs may lead to phobias are irrational fear response.


What is vicarious conditioning?

Vicarious Conditioning describes something becoming classically conditioned by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus.


What are some examples of classical conditioning?

Applications of classical conditioning include Systematic Desensitization (remove learned response) and Aversion Therapy (add a learned response). It also includes, evaluative conditioning in which changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus, with a positive or negative stimulus.


How does classical conditioning work?

Stimulus Substitution (Pavlov) – classical conditiong occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together.
Cognitive perspective (Rescorla) – Modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy (a prediction) about the coming of an unconditioned stimulus. Tone onset and shock vs. tone ending and shock.


Classical conditioning and drug overdose?

Drug (UCS) and then users body attempts to counteract he effects of the drug (UCR). Setting (neutral) gets paired with drug (UCS) and setting becoming a CS.


What is learning?

Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.


Describe observational learning?

1. Attention: Observer must pay attention to the model’s behavior and its consequences.
2. Memory: Observer must be able to retain memory of what was done. May not have the occasion to use an observed behavior right away; therefore, must store a mental representation of it (including its steps).
3. Imitation: The learner must be capable of reproducing the model’s behavior.
4. Motivation: The learner must have the desire or motivation to perform the behavior