Flashcards in Ch 5 Learning - Part 2 Deck (21):
What does Thorndike's Law of Effect state in regards to operant conditioning and animal survival?
Thorndike’s law of effect states that “responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.
What is the difference between reinforcement and punishment?
Whether or not something is reinforcement or punishment is determined based on the effect it has on future behavior. E.g. time out, praise for participation. Determine it by; 1. Is something added or taken away( i.e. Positive vs. negative: By application vs. removal) 2. After reading or taking way something, does the behavior increase or decrease (Reinforcement or punishment)?
What are the types of reinforcement ?
Reinforcement is any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again. There are two types:
primary reinforcement which is any reinforcer that is naturally reinforced by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
Secondary reinforcement which is any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars. Immediate vs. delayed reinforcers
What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement is the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus. Stimulus for engaging in boring psychological testing, clickers for attendance.
Negative reinforcement is the reinforcement of a response by the removal or the escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. Example: taking aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced: removal of headache. Using drugs when experiencing withdrawal symptoms, cleaning a house to get rid of a mess.
How do you use reinforcement successfully?
Potent Reinforce (Often primary reinforcer).
Deliver it immediately after the behavior.
Deliver it continuously after the behavior. At least initially
Reinforce only the desired behavior
What is the difference between positive and negative punishment?
Punishment is any event or object that, when following a response, will reduce the probability that a response is going to happen.
Punishment by application (positive punishment) is the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus. (E.x. Spanking, tickets)
Punishment by removal is the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus. (E.x. putting a child in time out, having to pay a financial penalty for turning in a bill late)
How do you use punishment well?
Best when applied immediately so that the relationship between unwanted behavior and punishment is clear. Should be consistent (always follow through and similar intensity each time). Immediate effect of suppressing behavior (explain negative reinforcement for parent). Does not teach appropriate behavior. Excessive punishment can lead to negative emotions. Some types of punishment model aggression.
What is learned helplessness?
Learned helplessnesses is what happens when the learner has no control over when punishment is given. Learned helplessness is a breakdown in learning ability caused by repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive event. In other words, the tendency to fail to try or act in a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
Describe the schedule o reinforcement?
Continuous vs. partial Is the availability of reinforcement predictable (Fixed vs. variable)
Is the availability of reinforcement related to the number of responses or the passage of time (Ratio vs. interval)?
What is a fixed ration?
A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement states the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.
What is fixed interval?
The fixed interval schedule of reinforcement states the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.
What is a variable ratio?
The Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement states the schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
What is variable interval?
The variable interval schedule of reinforcement states the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement become possible is different for each trial or event.
What is shaping?
The reinforcement of simple steps in behavior through successive approximations that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
What is successive approximation?
Positively reinforcing numerous small steps of a more complex behavior in sequence in order to teach said complex behavior.
What is behavior modification?
Behavior modification is the apllication of operant conditioning (and sometimes classical conditioning) techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior. E.g. the token economy the desired behavior rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for something an individual wants.
What is applied behavior analysis?
Applied behavior analysis is the modern term for a from of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.
What is extinction burst?
Extinction burst is the sudden and temporary increases in behavior that was previously reinforced at the beginning of extinction.
What is spontaneous recovery?
Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
What is cognitive learning?
In the early days of learning, researchers focus was on behavior. In the 1950’s – and more intensively in 1960s – many psychologist were becoming aware that cognition, the mental events that take place inside a persons mind while behaving, could no longer be ignored. Edwards Tolmans experiment demonstrated latent learning, learning that is not immediately acted upon or expressed.